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RADIATION UNITS
MODERATOR :- Mr. TEERTHRAJ SIR
PRESENTER :- DR.VIJAY.P.RATURI
KGMU , RADIATION ONCOLOGY DEPTT.
RADIOACTIVITY & DISINTEGRATION
EXCESS ENERGY IN FORM OF E.M RADIATION
ANOTHER NUCLEUS + CHARGED PARTICLE
DAUGHTER
ONE NUCL...
Co Ni + e
60
27
60
28
0
-1
GAMMA RAY EMISSION
PHOTON
NEED OF MEASURING SYSTEM
• MAGNITUDE OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECT
IN RADIOTHERAPY & RADIODIAGNOSIS.
• DIRECT MEASUREMENT IMPRACTIC...
CRITERIA FOR MEASURING SYSTEM
• REPRODUCIBLE
• REPEATABLE
• SENSITIVE
• OBJECTIVE
• LINEAR
• IONIZATION OF AIR, IS NOW
INTERNATIONALLY ACCEPTED BASIS OF
STANDARD X-RAY DOSIMETRY
• IONIZATION IS MAJOR PRODUCT OF EN...
UNITS OF RADIOACTIVITY
Curie
Becquerel
UNITS OF RADIATION DOSES
1) Units of Exposure
Roentgen
2) Units of Absorption
Physi...
DECAY CONSTANT
• No of atom disintegrating / time ( dN/dt)
is proportional to No of radioactive atoms
(N)
dN
dt
N - N
• Ra...
• Unit of activity is curie (Ci)
• 1 Curie = 3.7 x 10 disintegration/sec ( or Bq)
• SI unit is Becquerel
• 1 Bq = 1 radioa...
THE ROENTGEN
• AMOUNT OF X, OR GAMMA RADIATION
SUCH THAT ASSOCIATED CORPUSCULAR
EMISSION PER 0.001293 GM( 1CC) OF AIR
PROD...
• Roentgen is unit of X or GAMMA ray & can’t
be used for other ionizing radiation like BETA
ray or NEUTRON.
• For these, a...
THE RAD
• Absorbed dose is what we want to measure
Defined by I.C.R.U, D= Ed
m
Ed ( energy imparted by ionizing radiation
...
THE GRAY
• In JUNE 1975 , International committee on
weights & measures adopted the gray (sym
G) as S.I unit of absorbed d...
CONVERSION FACTORS FOR ROENTGEN TO RAD
Absorbed energy/gram = energy in the beam*
mass absorption coefficient
= E ( mass a...
•0.87
•0.94
•0.96
•0.96
WATER
•0.91
•0.94
•0.95
•0.955
MUSCLE
•4.23
•1.46
•0.91
•0.92
BONE
ROENTGEN TO RAD CONVERSION FACT...
RADS ( PER ROENTGEN)
MUSCLE
92
94
95.6
95.7
BONE
414
191
92.1
92
VOLTAGE OF RADIO-
ACTIVE SOURCE
100KV
200KV
4 MV
C0 60
AB...
Radiation increases the risk of cancer
and other stochastic effects at any
dose.
The ICRP maintains a model of these
risks...
THE REM
• Dose of any ionizing radiation which will produce
the same biological effect as 1 rad of Co 60
gamma ray ( for w...
ICRP officially adopted the rem as the unit
of equivalent dose in 1962 to measure the
way different types of radiation dis...
QUALITY FACTOR
X RAY , GAMMA RAY
ELECTRON
THERMAL SLOW
NEUTRON
FAST NEUTRON ,
PROTONS
1
3
10
L.E.T
• The S.I unit of dose equivalent is
Sievert (Sv)
1 Sv = 1 joule /kg
• It is a measure of the health effect of
low levels ...
Quantities that are measured in
sieverts are intended to represent the
stochastic health risk, which for
radiation dose as...
The ICRP calculation provides two weighting factors
to enable the calculation of protection quantities.
1. The radiation f...
When a whole body is irradiated uniformly
only the radiation weighting factor WR is
used, and the effective dose equals th...
RADIATION WEIGHtING FACTOR (WR)
"The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection". Ann...
TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTOR (WT)
"1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection". Annals of ...
• Acronym for Kinetic Energy released per unit
mass
• K = sum of kinetic energy all charged particle
liberated by ionizing...
THANK YOU…
Radiation units
Radiation units
Radiation units
Radiation units
Radiation units
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Radiation units

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radiation units

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Radiation units

  1. 1. RADIATION UNITS MODERATOR :- Mr. TEERTHRAJ SIR PRESENTER :- DR.VIJAY.P.RATURI KGMU , RADIATION ONCOLOGY DEPTT.
  2. 2. RADIOACTIVITY & DISINTEGRATION EXCESS ENERGY IN FORM OF E.M RADIATION ANOTHER NUCLEUS + CHARGED PARTICLE DAUGHTER ONE NUCLEUS PARENT DISINTEGRATION
  3. 3. Co Ni + e 60 27 60 28 0 -1 GAMMA RAY EMISSION PHOTON
  4. 4. NEED OF MEASURING SYSTEM • MAGNITUDE OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECT IN RADIOTHERAPY & RADIODIAGNOSIS. • DIRECT MEASUREMENT IMPRACTICABLE
  5. 5. CRITERIA FOR MEASURING SYSTEM • REPRODUCIBLE • REPEATABLE • SENSITIVE • OBJECTIVE • LINEAR
  6. 6. • IONIZATION OF AIR, IS NOW INTERNATIONALLY ACCEPTED BASIS OF STANDARD X-RAY DOSIMETRY • IONIZATION IS MAJOR PRODUCT OF ENERGY ABSORPTION PROCESS • DEPENDS UPON ENERGY OF RADIATION & ON ATOMIC NUMBER OF MATERIAL
  7. 7. UNITS OF RADIOACTIVITY Curie Becquerel UNITS OF RADIATION DOSES 1) Units of Exposure Roentgen 2) Units of Absorption Physical dose – Rad/ Gray Biological dose – rem/seivert RADIATION UNITS
  8. 8. DECAY CONSTANT • No of atom disintegrating / time ( dN/dt) is proportional to No of radioactive atoms (N) dN dt N - N • Rate of disintegration dN/dt is called activity
  9. 9. • Unit of activity is curie (Ci) • 1 Curie = 3.7 x 10 disintegration/sec ( or Bq) • SI unit is Becquerel • 1 Bq = 1 radioactive decay per second = 2.703 x 10 Ci UNITS OF RADIOACTIVITY -11 10
  10. 10. THE ROENTGEN • AMOUNT OF X, OR GAMMA RADIATION SUCH THAT ASSOCIATED CORPUSCULAR EMISSION PER 0.001293 GM( 1CC) OF AIR PRODUCES IN AIR IONS CARRYING 1 ELECTRO STATIC UNIT OF CHARGE OF EITHER SIGN.
  11. 11. • Roentgen is unit of X or GAMMA ray & can’t be used for other ionizing radiation like BETA ray or NEUTRON. • For these, an additional unit the RAD was introduced in 1956 • In 1962 , it was decide roentgen -- unit of exposure. rad unit -- unit of absorbed dose. • 1 R = 2.58 * 10 c/kg of air -4
  12. 12. THE RAD • Absorbed dose is what we want to measure Defined by I.C.R.U, D= Ed m Ed ( energy imparted by ionizing radiation to the matter ) m ( mass of matter) • 1 rad = 100 erg per gram
  13. 13. THE GRAY • In JUNE 1975 , International committee on weights & measures adopted the gray (sym G) as S.I unit of absorbed dose ( named after Dr.L.H.Gray) 1 gray = 1 joule /kg = 100 rad
  14. 14. CONVERSION FACTORS FOR ROENTGEN TO RAD Absorbed energy/gram = energy in the beam* mass absorption coefficient = E ( mass abs coefficient) After some calculation we get Absorbed energy /gram = f R rads factor f , for converting roentgen into rads. factors varies with the material & with radiation energy .
  15. 15. •0.87 •0.94 •0.96 •0.96 WATER •0.91 •0.94 •0.95 •0.955 MUSCLE •4.23 •1.46 •0.91 •0.92 BONE ROENTGEN TO RAD CONVERSION FACTOR ( f ) FOR WATER ,MUSCLE & BONE 100KV 200KV 1 MEV 4 MEV ENERGY
  16. 16. RADS ( PER ROENTGEN) MUSCLE 92 94 95.6 95.7 BONE 414 191 92.1 92 VOLTAGE OF RADIO- ACTIVE SOURCE 100KV 200KV 4 MV C0 60 ABSORBED DOSES IN MUSCLE & BONE
  17. 17. Radiation increases the risk of cancer and other stochastic effects at any dose. The ICRP maintains a model of these risks as a function of absorbed dose and other factors. That model calculates an effective radiation dose, measured units of rem, which is more representative of the stochastic risk.
  18. 18. THE REM • Dose of any ionizing radiation which will produce the same biological effect as 1 rad of Co 60 gamma ray ( for which the Q.F is 1) • Dosimetric quantity relevant to radiation protection is dose equivalent (H) • Rem is designed to represent stochastic biological effect of ionizing radition H = D * Q ( D – Absorbed dose Q – Quality factor )
  19. 19. ICRP officially adopted the rem as the unit of equivalent dose in 1962 to measure the way different types of radiation distribute energy in tissue Dose equivalent in rem = (dose in rad * QF) + ( dose in rad * QF) + … QUALITY FACTOR(QF) :- value based on range of RBE related to LET of radiation . Radiation 2 Radiation 1
  20. 20. QUALITY FACTOR X RAY , GAMMA RAY ELECTRON THERMAL SLOW NEUTRON FAST NEUTRON , PROTONS 1 3 10 L.E.T
  21. 21. • The S.I unit of dose equivalent is Sievert (Sv) 1 Sv = 1 joule /kg • It is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
  22. 22. Quantities that are measured in sieverts are intended to represent the stochastic health risk, which for radiation dose assessment is defined as the probability of cancer induction and genetic damage.
  23. 23. The ICRP calculation provides two weighting factors to enable the calculation of protection quantities. 1. The radiation factor WR, which is specific for radiation type R - This is used in calculating the equivalent dose HT which can be for the whole body or for individual organs. 2. The tissue weighting factor WT, which is specific for tissue type T being irradiated. This is used with WR to calculate the contributory organ doses to arrive at an effective dose E. .
  24. 24. When a whole body is irradiated uniformly only the radiation weighting factor WR is used, and the effective dose equals the whole body equivalent dose. If the irradiation of a body is partial or non- uniform the tissue factor WT is used to calculate dose to each organ or tissue.
  25. 25. RADIATION WEIGHtING FACTOR (WR) "The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection". Annals of the ICRP. ICRP publication 103 37 (2–4). 2007. ISBN 978-0-7020-3048-2. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  26. 26. TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTOR (WT) "1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection". Annals of the ICRP. ICRP publication 60 21 (1-3). 1991. ISBN 978-0-08-041144-6. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  27. 27. • Acronym for Kinetic Energy released per unit mass • K = sum of kinetic energy all charged particle liberated by ionizing radiation per unit weight of matter dE dm • It is different from absorbed dose as some of the kinetic energy escapes from the absorbing volume KERMA K = Unit – j/kg (gray)
  28. 28. THANK YOU…

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