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Port operations & management slideshow

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Port Operations & Management

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Port operations & management slideshow

  1. 1. Vijay Hiranandani
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONSea ports are historic, commercial andinfrastructural assets that form the backbone ofnational and regional economies.OUTLINE:Main features and operations of portsImportance of portsEvolution of portsTypes of portsPort management
  3. 3. Grain Terminal, Tilbury docks, UK.http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/conMediaFile.1821/Three-OCLcontainer-ships-at-Tilbury-during-the-August-1970-docks-strike.html
  4. 4. MAIN FEATURES & OPERATIONS OF PORTS:Ports reflect national heritage, local commercialattitudes, practices, and laws that differ widely betweennations.Ports require long-term, expensive, and specializedinvestments and resources that represent a substantialchunk of national economy.Ports are large civil engineering undertakings and acollection of activities entailing huge sunk costs.Ports provide ship/shore intermodal interface.
  5. 5. The advent of intermodalism has caused ports to competefor cargoes. This has jolted businesses to increase portefficiency and value-added activities in recent years.Value-added activities range from cargo loading and discharging, industrial services in ports, combining and separating cargoes, up-to-date information on inventory and cargo movements, stuffing/de-stuffing containers, loading cargo in crates and crates on pallets, shrink-wrapping, labeling, weighing, repackaging.
  6. 6. Civil engineering features: Sea and land access Infrastructures for ships berthing & unberthing Road and rail networks Industrial area managementAdministrative functions: Control of all modes of vehicles entering and leaving the port Environmental control Dangerous and hazardous cargo control Safety and security within the port area Immigration, health, customs, and commercial documentary control
  7. 7. Hong Kong Port Container Terminalhttp://my.hktdc.com/photolib/showhk.asp?id=0700036
  8. 8. Operational functions: Facilitating arrival and departure of ships Providing navigational aids and Vessel Traffic Separation (VTS) facilities Pilotage, tugging and mooring activities Use of berths, sheds, etc Loading, discharging, storage and distribution of cargo Facilitating supply chain logistics and management
  9. 9. WHY ARE SEAPORTS IMPORTANT?Seaports are a haven with facilities for berthing andanchoring ships and providing equipment for transfer ofgoods from ship-shore, shore-ship & ship-ship.Ports function as  distribution centers; industrial zones; energy supply bases; mercantile trading centers with banks, brokers, and traders; urbanization and city redevelopment centers; life activity bases in rural ports; maritime leisure bases in cruise passenger ship terminals; private yacht marinas;
  10. 10. Genoa, Italy.http://www.travel-mall.net/dbimg/location6.jpg
  11. 11. Ports form a vital aspect of the national transportinfrastructure.Ports form the main transport link with theirinternational trading partners and are a focal point fornational and regional motorways and railways.Ports are a blessing for national prosperity – theyprovide a gateway for trade and attract commercialinfrastructure such as banks, shipping agencies, freightforwarders, stevedores, etc.Ports create a hustle and bustle of industrial activity.Ports are places where foreign cultures and ideasinfluence a nation.
  12. 12. Ports are a focal point with shallow waters whereships converge thereby making them vulnerable tomaritime accidents.Ports are places where valuables are concentrated andwhere cargo can be damaged or stolen during handling.Ports are places where repairs and/or plannedmaintenance is carried out on ships. Ports are places where costly delays can occur, ships are surveyed, most shipping services – agents, brokers, etc are located, cargoes come from, and customs and government policies are implemented.
  13. 13. Hamburg Port, Germanyhttp://www.maritimemarket.ru/images/hamburg.jpg
  14. 14. EVOLUTION OF PORTSPorts have evolved over timeTheir development phases can be classified as follows: First Generation Port: Existed before and until 1960s Comprised of a basic cargo interface between land and sea transport Isolated from transport and trade activities Resembled an independent kingdom Isolation between different port activities Usually a bulk cargo port
  15. 15. Second Generation Port: During 1960s – 1980s They were developed transport, industrial and commercial service centres Offered various types of industrial and commercial activities They reflected sophisticated port policies and development strategies Provided industrial facilities within the port area Well developed network of transport infrastructure They integrated different activities and zonal relationships
  16. 16. Third Generation Port: From 1980 onwards Arose from global containerization, inter- modalism, and booming trade requirements They are hubs of international production and distribution Combine traditional, specialized and integrated activities Well-planned infrastructure and information processing facilities Offer value-added services User friendly Offer simplified customs procedures More environmentally conscious
  17. 17. Nagoya Port, Japanhttp://www.iaphworldports.org/gallery/img/Nagoya2_jpg.jpg
  18. 18. DIFFERENT TYPES OF PORTSHub, center or mega port – a major port dealing withinternational trade. Example: Rotterdam in TheNetherlands.Feeder port – to feed and distribute cargo from majorports. Example: Port Riga in Latvia provides feederservice to Hamburg in Germany.Entrepot or transit port – serves as a transit port.Example: Batumi seaport in Georgia is a transit port forKazakh and Azerbaijan.Domestic port – provides a natural outlet forsurrounding hinterland. Example: Jafarabad port inIndia.
  19. 19. An aerial view of Rotterdam Port in The Netherlandshttp://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=164137&page=4Rotterdam
  20. 20. PORT MANAGEMENT – A BRIEFPorts last longer than ships and this requires the portmanagement to avoid any costly blunders.Ports are classified according to their ownership oradministration. Basic types are: State owned ports Autonomous ports Municipal owned ports Private owned portsThere is an impetus to increase private ownership ofports.
  21. 21. Ports are governed by various types of boards such as Representative Board – consisting of persons representing interests concerned with port operation Board of Experts – consisting of members with proven expertise Two Tier Boards – consisting of one tier to run the port on day-to-day basis and other tier to plan and implement major policies
  22. 22. Port management aims to: Operate with overall cost-leadership Minimize user payment by ensuring quick ship turnover in port Minimize through-transport costs Minimize port costs Maximize benefits To port owners To the town, region or nation Generate employment
  23. 23. Hamburg Port, Germanyhttp://www.iaphworldports.org/gallery/img/mainporthamburg.jpg
  24. 24. CONCLUSIONPorts have historical, commercial andinfrastructural significance.They form the backbone of national andregional economies.Supporting efficient port operations andmanagement is vital for national prosperity.
  25. 25. ReferencesAlderton P.M. (1999). Port Management & Operations.London: LLPGrammenos Costas Th. (2002). The Handbook ofMaritime Economics and Business. London: InformaProfessional.