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Designing for usability: key principles and what designers think

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Slides from Papers We Love Seoul February2016 meetup on Designing for Usability.
"Designing for Usability: Key Principles and What Designers Think"
by JOHN D. GLOUD and CLAYTON LEWIS

Veröffentlicht in: Technologie
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Designing for usability: key principles and what designers think

  1. 1. Designing for Usability: Key Principles and What Designers Think John D. Gloud And Clayton Lewis PAPERS WE LOVE Seoul Chapter Victoria Bondarchuk @seoul_victoria
  2. 2. ACM: Communications Magazine Volume 28 Issue 3, March 1985 Pages 300-311
  3. 3. Authors John D. Gould © Photo by IBM Research www.ibm.com IBM RESEARCH, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society President John Gould had engaged in human factors research since the late 1960s. He initiated empirical studies of programming and software design and use.
  4. 4. Authors IBM RESEARCH, Ph.D., Professor of Computer Science, Scientist in Residence, Coleman Institute for Cognitive Disabilities, University of Colorado Clayton Lewis © Photo by University of Colorado https://connections.cu.edu/stories/five-questions-clayton-lewis
  5. 5. “Any system designed for people to use should be EASY TO LEARN, USEFUL, that is, contain functions people really need in their work, and be EASY AND PLEASANT TO USE” Preface
  6. 6. THREE PRINCIPLES FOR SYSTEM DESIGN CONTRAST BETWEEN RECOMMENDED PRINCIPLES AND WHAT DESIGNERS SUGGEST WHY THE PRINCIPLES ARE UNDERVALUED ELABORATION OF THE PRINCIPLES CASE STUDY - IBM’S AUDIO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Chapters
  7. 7. 1. EARLY FOCUS ON USERS & TASKS 2. EMPIRICAL MEASUREMENTS 3. ITERATIVE DESIGN
  8. 8. Designers must understand who the users will be. By directly studying their cognitive and behavioral characteristics, and the nature of the work expected to be accomplished. 1. EARLY FOCUS ON USERS & TASKS 2. EMPIRICAL MEASUREMENTS 3. ITERATIVE DESIGN
  9. 9. Early in the development process, intended users should use simulations and prototypes to carry out real work, and their performance and reactions should be observed, recorded, and analyzed. 1. EARLY FOCUS ON USERS & TASKS 2. EMPIRICAL MEASUREMENTS 3. ITERATIVE DESIGN
  10. 10. Design must be iterative: There must be a cycle of design, test and measure, and redesign, repeated as often as necessary. 1. EARLY FOCUS ON USERS & TASKS 2. EMPIRICAL MEASUREMENTS 3. ITERATIVE DESIGN
  11. 11. 1. EARLY FOCUS ON USERS & TASKS 2. EMPIRICAL MEASUREMENTS 3. ITERATIVE DESIGN
  12. 12. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems December 12-15, 1983, Boston © Photo by Ben Shneiderman http://www.computerhistory.org/atchm/computer-pioneers-photos-from-the-field/
  13. 13. 26% “0” © Photo by Ben Shneiderman http://www.computerhistory.org/atchm/computer-pioneers-photos-from-the-field/
  14. 14. © Photo by Ben Shneiderman http://www.computerhistory.org/atchm/computer-pioneers-photos-from-the-field/ 26% “0” 35% “1”
  15. 15. © Photo by Ben Shneiderman http://www.computerhistory.org/atchm/computer-pioneers-photos-from-the-field/ 26% “0” 35% “1” 24% “2”
  16. 16. 26% “0” © Photo by Ben Shneiderman http://www.computerhistory.org/atchm/computer-pioneers-photos-from-the-field/ 35% “1” 24% “2” 16% “3”
  17. 17. © Photo by IBM 1620 at Rutgers University Via Bill Wetzel, https://theinvisibleagent.wordpress.com/ “Do you follow the principles?”
  18. 18. THREE PRINCIPLES FOR SYSTEM DESIGN CONTRAST BETWEEN RECOMMENDED PRINCIPLES AND WHAT DESIGNERS SUGGEST WHY THE PRINCIPLES ARE UNDERVALUED ELABORATION OF THE PRINCIPLES CASE STUDY - IBM’S AUDIO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Chapters
  19. 19. “Understanding potential users” “Identifying” “Describing” “Stereotyping” VS Comparing Understanding of the Principles AUTHORS SURVEY RESPONSE 1. EARLY FOCUS ON USERS & TASKS
  20. 20. VS. Picture credit:I Dr. Morgan gives a pretest to children from the Philippines, http://www.uxbooth.com/ Comparing Understanding of the Principles “Bringing the design team into direct contact with potential users” “Hearing or reading about users”VS “Examination of user profiles” AUTHORS SURVEY RESPONSE 1. EARLY FOCUS ON USERS & TASKS “Average users” “Group of a variety of experts”
  21. 21. Comparing Understanding of the Principles VS. “Conducting behavioral measurements with real users” VS “A system test” “Testing the completed system- use it by ourselves” AUTHORS SURVEY RESPONSE 2. EMPIRICAL MEASUREMENTS
  22. 22. Comparing Understanding of the Principles VS. “Conduct iterative user testing early in the development process” VS “First designing the system and then and verifying the design with users” AUTHORS SURVEY RESPONSE 2. EMPIRICAL MEASUREMENTS
  23. 23. Comparing Understanding of the Principles VS. “Design, build, measure and iterate as many times as needed” “If time permits iterate the design”VS “Build prototype, code software, review” 3. ITERATIVE DESIGN AUTHORS SURVEY RESPONSE
  24. 24. THREE PRINCIPLES FOR SYSTEM DESIGN CONTRAST BETWEEN RECOMMENDED PRINCIPLES ANS WHAT DESIGNERS SUGGEST WHY THE PRINCIPLES ARE UNDERVALUED ELABORATION OF THE PRINCIPLES CASE STUDY - IBM’S AUDIO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Chapters
  25. 25. DESIGNERS UNDERESTIMATE USER DIVERSITY Why the principals are undervalued POSSIBLE EXPLANATION ANSWER NOVICE USERS ALWAYS HAVE TROUBLE WITH THE PRODUCT THAT DESIGNERS NEVER ENCOUNTER
  26. 26. Learning to use word processors: problems and prospects Mack. R.. Lewis, C.H.. and Carroll, J (1983) Case Study “When you delete you take out. Do you add when you put in?” © Photo by IBM: A 4-user Astrotype system using a DEC PDP minicomputer and IBM Electric terminals. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Word_processor
  27. 27. Why the principals are undervalued DESIGNERS OVERESTIMATED USER DIVERSITY IT IS MUCH BETTER TO IDENTIFY SOME PROBLEMS THAT SOME USERS WILL HAVE THAN NOT TO IDENTIFY ANY POSSIBLE EXPLANATION ANSWER
  28. 28. Why the principals are undervalued DESIGNERS THINK USERS DON’T KNOW WHAT THEY NEED PRESENT NEW IDEAS IN A WAY THAT MAKES IT EASIER FOR USER TO RELATE THEM TO THEIR CONCERNS POSSIBLE EXPLANATION ANSWER
  29. 29. Case Study Lisa Computer System (Apple) testing © Photo by Byte-magazine-1983, https://archive.org/
  30. 30. Case Study © Photo by Byte-magazine-1983, https://archive.org/
  31. 31. Why the principals are undervalued DESIGNERS THINK THEIR JOB DOESN’T REQUIRE IT OR PERMIT IT COMPETITIVE NECESSITY WILL EVENTUALLY BREAK DOWN THESE OBSTACLES AND TRADITIONS POSSIBLE EXPLANATION ANSWER
  32. 32. Why the principals are undervalued DESIGNERS BELIEF IN THE POWER OF REASON ANALYTIC APPROACHES CANNOT SUBSTITUTE EMPIRICAL METHODS POSSIBLE EXPLANATION ANSWER
  33. 33. Case Study
  34. 34. Case Study For very short documents Filling in forms
  35. 35. Why the principals are undervalued GOOD DESIGN MEANS GETTING IT RIGHT FIRST TIME IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO FORECAST THE BEST USER INTERFACE - IT CAN BE ONLY DETERMINED EMPIRICALLY POSSIBLE EXPLANATION ANSWER
  36. 36. Why the principals are undervalued TIME CONSUMING AND EXPENSIVE USER TESTING WILL HAPPEN ANYWAY, CHANGES THAT MADE AFTER THE PRODUCT IS FINISHED MORE EXPENSIVE THAN THOSE MADE IN DEVELOPMENT POSSIBLE EXPLANATION ANSWER
  37. 37. Why the principals are undervalued DESIGNERS BELIEVE IN POWER OF TECHNOLOGY WILL SUCCEED AND PEOPLE WILL BUY IN SPITE OF INTERFACE USER INTERFACE IS THE PRODUCT QUALITY WILL BE INCREASING WHICH WILL EXERT POWERFUL EFFECTS IN THE MARKET PLACE POSSIBLE EXPLANATION ANSWER
  38. 38. THREE PRINCIPLES FOR SYSTEM DESIGN CONTRAST BETWEEN RECOMMENDED PRINCIPLES ANS WHAT DESIGNERS SUGGEST WHY THE PRINCIPLES ARE UNDERVALUED ELABORATION OF THE PRINCIPLES CASE STUDY - IBM’S AUDIO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Chapters
  39. 39. Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION
  40. 40. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  41. 41. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  42. 42. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT CANNOT BE LOOKED UP IN A BOOK
  43. 43. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS CANNOT BE LOOKED UP IN A BOOK DIRECT CONTACT Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  44. 44. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  45. 45. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION DESCRIPTION OF THE INTENDED USER Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  46. 46. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION TEST SCENARIO Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT DESCRIPTION OF THE INTENDED USER
  47. 47. TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION MEASUREMENT CRITERIA Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT TEST SCENARIO DESCRIPTION OF THE INTENDED USER
  48. 48. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  49. 49. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION ENTIRE UI DESIGNED BY A SINGLE GROUP! Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  50. 50. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  51. 51. FLEXIBLE PROTOTYPING BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  52. 52. MODULAR IMPLEMENTATION BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT FLEXIBLE PROTOTYPING
  53. 53. THREE PRINCIPLES FOR SYSTEM DESIGN CONTRAST BETWEEN RECOMMENDED PRINCIPLES ANS WHAT DESIGNERS SUGGEST WHY THE PRINCIPLES ARE UNDERVALUED ELABORATION OF THE PRINCIPLES CASE STUDY - IBM’S AUDIO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Chapters
  54. 54. Enhanced dictation system, in which dictated memos could be filed and retrieved, and routed to a transcription center. © Photo by IBM 224 Dictating Unit Ad: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hCuAYwVVVMc IBM 224 Dictating Unit (1960s) Preliminary Specification of the User Interface INITIAL IDEA SURVEY RES
  55. 55. Dr. Stephen Boies Manager of IBM’s Office of Application Research and developer of IBM’s ADS © Photo by IBM Research www.ibm.com
  56. 56. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  57. 57. • Managers and professional people. Critical Information About the Users • Do not have computer terminals • They travel frequently • Access to the system away from the office is important TARGET USER CHARACTERISTIC © Photo by IBM 224 Dictating Unit Ad: https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=hCuAYwVVVMc
  58. 58. Fist Insight © Photo by bt.com
  59. 59. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  60. 60. • MATCHING THE FUNCTIONS AS CLOSELY AS POSSIBLE TO USER NEEDS • MAKING THE USER INTERFACE AS SELF- EXPLANATORY AS POSSIBLE Develop Behavioral Goals
  61. 61. More User Research Insights • From Enhanced Dictation System to Audio Distribution System (Voice Messaging) • Pushing a lot of keys • Remember the digits for specific commands • The necessity to read documentation or spend time for training • Pending Message Box MAIN FEATURE USERS SUGGESTED USERS DIDN’T LIKE
  62. 62. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  63. 63. The architecture and the designers’ motivation, was flexible enough to allow iterative design. Organize the Work FLEXIBILITY TOWARDS DESIGN CHANGE ENTIRE SYSTEM DESIGNED BY A SIGLE GROUP
  64. 64. BUILD TEST BEHAVIORAL GOALS IMPROVE COLLECT CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE USERS DEVELOP BEHAVIORAL GOALS ORGANIZE THE WORK PRELIMINARY UI SPECIFICATION Principles Applied to Development INITIAL DESIGN ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT
  65. 65. • Simple but flexible simulation tool • Easily changed without programing Iterative Development PROTOTYPE © Photo IBM Archives: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/ system7/system7_PH03.html
  66. 66. Iterative Development
  67. 67. • Simulator incorporated as the actual user interface of the system • Final IBM ADS was controlled by tables identical to those used in “programming” the simulator • Changes to the user interface of the actual system could be made with no reprogramming whatsoever Iterative Development MODULAR DEVELOPMENT
  68. 68. Case Study RECORDR- TRANSMITT- R T
  69. 69. Case Study S- T-SEND TALK S T
  70. 70. Case Study S- T-SEND TALK S T “I want to SEND a message to Smith”
  71. 71. Case Study “ADD A COMMENT”
  72. 72. Case Study ADS asked users: “Do you want to add a comment at the beginning of the message, add a comment where you stopped listening, or erase the message and start over.”
  73. 73. Case Study “INSERT A COMMENT”“ADD A COMMENT” VS
  74. 74. Majority of new users learn ADS with no training, which is radically different from what was found for the earliest ADS prototype and for new users of most computer systems today. Result BEHAVIORAL GOALS ARCHIVED
  75. 75. ● The 1984 Atlanta Olympic Games with 7 systems serving 7800 athletes and 6000 staff — and computer voice prompts in 12 languages for 55,000 messages ● General Motors, USA with 8 ADS systems saving 30% of the costs of its long-distance calls ● Insurance companies across America and Europe Use of the System © Photo from paper “The 1984 Olympic Message System: A Test Of Behavioral Principles Of System Design”
  76. 76. © Photo by IBM Research www.ibm.com
  77. 77. GOOD DESIGN IS UNPREDICTABLE LESSON LEARNED
  78. 78. Paper Conclusions Suggested principles can improve usability Survey data shows that these principle are not intuitive There is one case history, which indicate that the principles lead to usable systems.
  79. 79. Critics • Designers should not assume that these principles are the only ones to apply. • Systems need to possess other attributes to ensure they are feasible and maintainable, and the final design may have to be a compromise as a result. F. Terry Baker, Computing Reviews
  80. 80. Reading List 1.The 1984 Olympic Message System: A Test Of Behavioral Principles Of System Design Gould, Stephen J. Boies, Stephen Levy, John T. Richards, And Jim Schoonard 2.Learning To Use Word Processors: Problems And Prospects Mack.R., Lewis, C.H., And Carroll J. 3.The Lisa Computer System Williams, G. Byte (1983), 33-50.

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