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Introduction of CVS

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hello friends ..u can use these notes for your convenience as they are taken from many standard books ..thank u..

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Introduction of CVS

  1. 1. Cardiovascular System Dr Vibhash Kumar Vaidya Department of Anatomy
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  The cardiovascular system is transport system of body  It comprises blood, heart and blood vessels.  The system supplies nutrients to and remove waste products from various tissue of body.  The conveying media is liquid in form of blood which flows in close tubular system. Figure 1-2(f)
  3. 3. FUNCTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM  Transport nutrients, hormones  Remove waste products  Gaseous exchange  Immunity  Blood vessels transport blood ◦ Carries oxygen and carbon dioxide ◦ Also carries nutrients and wastes  Heart pumps blood through blood vessels
  4. 4. COMPONENTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM –BLOOD –HEART –BLOOD VESSELS Arteries Veins Capillaries
  5. 5. BLOOD –The Blood: Blood cells & Plasma –Blood cells 1- Erythrocytes - Red Blood Cells 2- Leucocytes 3- Thrombocytes –Plasma is fluid portion
  6. 6. HEART –Heart is a four chambered, hollow muscular organ. Location: –Superior surface of diaphragm –Left of the midline –Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum 6
  7. 7. HEART Chapter 18, Cardiovascular System 7 Figure 18.1
  8. 8. FUNCTIONS OF THE HEART – Generating blood pressure – Routing blood Heart separates pulmonary and systemic circulations – Ensuring one-way blood flow Heart valves ensure one-way flow – Regulating blood supply Changes in contraction rate and force match blood delivery to changing metabolic needs
  9. 9. BLOOD VESSELS •Blood Vessels -A closed network of tubes •These includes:  Arteries  Capillaries  Veins
  10. 10. BLOOD VESSELS -Arteries(Distributing channel) – Thick walled tubes – Elastic Fibers – Circular Smooth Muscle –Capillaries (microscopic vessels) – One cell thick – Serves the Respiratory System –Veins (draining channel)
  11. 11. BLOOD VESSELS • General structure 1.Tunica intima 2.Tunica media 3.Tunica adventitia
  12. 12. CLASSIFICATION OF BLOOD VESSELS –Conducting Vessels –Distributing Vessels –Resistance Vessels –Exchange Vessels –Capacitance / Reservoir Vessels
  13. 13. ARTERIES Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries. They are the thickest blood vessels and they carry blood high in oxygen known as oxygenated blood (oxygen rich blood).
  14. 14. ARTERIES – Accompanied by vein and nerves – Lumen is small – No valves – Repeated branching
  15. 15. CLASSIFICATION OF ARTEIES – Elastic- e.g. (Aorta & its Major branches) – Muscular -e.g.(Renal, Testicular, Radial, Tibial etc.) – Arterioles (<0.1 mm)- Terminal arterioles Meta-arterioles Thoroughfare channel/ preferred
  16. 16. CAPILLARIES (5-8 micron) – The smallest blood vessels are capillaries and they connect the arteries and veins. – This is where the exchange of nutrients and gases occurs.
  17. 17. TYPES OF CAPILLARIES CONTINUOUS- SKIN, LUNG, SMMOTH MUSCLE, CONNECTIVE TISSUES FENESTRATED- PANCREAS,ENDOCRINE GLANDS, SMALL INTESTINE,CHOROID PLEXUS,CILLIARY PROCESS etc.
  18. 18. SINUSOIDS –Large irregular vascular space (30-40 micron) . –Eg.Liver, Spleen, Bone marrow, suprarenal, Parathyroid etc.
  19. 19. VEINS – Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart are called veins. – They have one-way valves which prevent blood from flowing backwards. – They carry blood that is high in carbon dioxide known as deoxygenated blood (oxygen poor blood).
  20. 20. VEINS – Thin Walled – Large irregular lumen – Have valves – Dead space around – Types: Large Medium Small
  21. 21. VEINS –Veins without valves:  SVC & IVC  Hepatic, Renal  Uterine, Ovarian not Testicular  Facial  Pulmonary  Umbilical  Emissary  Portal Veins <2mm
  22. 22. VEINS – Veins without Muscular tissue:  Dural venous sinuses  Pial Veins  Retinal  Veins of erectile tissue of sex organs  Veins of spongy bones
  23. 23. VEINS – Factors responsible for venous return: 1. Muscle contraction 2. Negative intrathoracic pressure 3. Pulsation of arteries 4. Gravity 5. Valves
  24. 24. ANASTOMOSIS • Communication between vessels • ARTERIAL: Actual( end to end & convergent)- Palmar, plantar, Circle of Willis, Labial Intestinal arcade, etc. Potential-Coronary, around joints etc.
  25. 25. ANASTOMOSIS…. • ARTERIOVENOUS ANASTOMOSIS: 1. Skin of nose 2. Lips 3. External Ear 4. Mucus membrane of GI & nose 5. Erectile tissue of sex organ 6. Thyroid 7. Tongue
  26. 26. ANASTOMOSIS…. • VENOUS ANASTOMOSES: Communication between the veins or tributaries of veins. • Example : The dorsal venous arches of foot and hand.
  27. 27. END ARTERIES • END ARTERIES: Which do not anastomose with their neighbours 1. Central artery of retina 2. Arteries of spleen, liver, kidneys, metaphyses of long bones 3. Central branches of cerebral cortex
  28. 28. CIRCULATION –Coronary circulation – the circulation of blood within the heart. –Pulmonary circulation – the flow of blood between the heart and lungs. –Systemic circulation – the flow of blood between the heart and the cells of the body. –Fetal Circulation
  29. 29. SYSTEMIC AND PULMONARY CIRCULATION Pulmonary circulation The flow of blood between the heart and lungs. Systemic circulation The flow of blood from the left ventrical, through various parts of the body. 30 Figure 18.5
  30. 30. Chapter 18, Cardiovascular System 31 CORONARY CIRCULATION: ARTERIAL SUPPLY Figure 18.7a
  31. 31. PORTAL CIRCULATION Portal circulation - the flow of blood between tow set of capillaries before draining in systemic veins.
  32. 32. FETAL CIRCULATION
  33. 33. UMBILICAL ARTERY DESCENDING AORTA (Through Ductus Arteriosus) PULMONARY TRUNK RIGHT VENTRICLE ASCENDING AORTA UMBILICAL VEIN PORTAL VEIN (Through Ductus Venosus) INFERIOR VENA CAVA RIFHT ATRIUM (Through Foramen Ovale) LEFT ATRIUM PLACENTA
  34. 34. APPLIED Diseases and Disorders BLOOD PRESSURE HAEMORRHAGE/STROKE ARTERIOSCLEROSIS ANEURYSM CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD) HEART ATTACK CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE (CHF) ANEMIA, HEMOPHILIA, AND LEUKEMIA
  35. 35. APPLIED – Problems with the cardiovascular system are common, but they don’t just affect older people. – Many heart problems affect children and teenagers.
  36. 36. QUESTIONS 1-All of the following are the example of elastic arteries except: a)Aorta b)Common carotid artery c)Subclavian artery d)Radial artery
  37. 37. QUESTIONS 2-All of the following are the example of end arteries except: a)Central branches of cerebral arteries b)Central artery of retina c)Facial artery d)Splenic artery
  38. 38. QUESTIONS 3-Arteriovenous anastomosis are found at all of the following sites except: a)Skin of lips b)Erectile tissue of penis c)Thyroid gland d)Liver
  39. 39. QUESTIONS 4-All of the following are the example of portal circulation except: a)Hepatic circulation b)Renal circulation c)Circulation of hypophysis cerebri d)Pulmonary circulation
  40. 40. QUESTIONS 5-All of the following are features of veins except: a)Thin walls b)Thin tunica media c)Thin tunica adventia d)Wide lumen
  41. 41. REFERENCES 1- General Anatomy by Vishram Singh 2- Clinical Anatomy by R. Snell 3-Gray’s Anatomy

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