Event development phase
The event manager facilitates the
development of event structures for
governance(tadbir urus), event
networks, policies, volunteer
practice, and participation in a
corporate social responsibility
Event operational planning phase
The event manager creates and facilitates
the development of written operational plans
that are logical, sequential, detailed and
integrated, along with contingency plans
and the activations of a plan refining process
The event manager facilitates the
implementation of the written
operational plans, monitors
activities looking for deviations and
manage all deviations from the plans
Event evaluation and
The event manager facilitates the
selection of event components to be
evaluated, the completions of the
evaluations tasks and the
implementation of the evaluation
An event planning model
The event need a facilitator to guide the knowledge sharing process between
Bens (2000) facilitation as a way of providing leadership without taking the
Facilitation Theory assumes that learning will occur with the aid of one facilitates
the process of learning as opposed to one who simply provides knowledge to group
Style of leadership encourage the development of empowered learners and
contributors to group processes, where the creation and dissemination
(penyebaran) of knowledge are dependent on all members of the group.
Effective facilitator and supporter of the theory one must subscribe to certain
People are intelligent, capable and want to do the right thing
Groups can make better decisions than any one person can make alone
Everyone’s opinion is of equal value, regardless of rank or position
People are committed to the ideas and plans that they have helped to create
Participants can and will act responsibility in assuming true accountability for their
Groups can manage their own conflicts, behaviours and relationships if they are given
the right tools and training
There are many specific skill, experience, and knowledge – event manager must posses
to facilitated an event – advanced knowledge involves intuition about the processes
which there are guiding.
A good facilitator empowers the group and individual potential
Facilitating the communication requirements – difficult to facilitate – various
members of team – make sure communication lines are open – depending on the
design of the organisation
Facilitating group communication requirements: the case of group rhythm and
Facilitating knowledge transfer
Facilitating event structure for governance (tadbir urus)
Facilitating event management using the network perspective
Facilitating volunteer management practices
Two types of volunteers - different roles within the even organisation
Upper planning tier – executive and managerial volunteers
Tier one executive volunteer – develop a mission and vision for the host – serve on
the Board of Directors – involved from the time bid to host the event is awarded.
Tier two managerial volunteers – serve on the executive committee and usually
plan and manage the major the major component within the host society – ex vice
president and associate vice-president for each functional area such a Vice-
Presidents of Athlete service or venue – usually join the organisation between 5
and 2 years prior to the start of major event – actively involved in development
phase and beyond.
Tier tree staging volunteer – involved in the operational functions and primarily
stage the events and fulfil short-term pre-event preparation or during-event
servicing ex venue team to organize sport-specific competition (multi sport event)
Tier four game-time volunteers – start duties when the event begins.
Executive volunteers –
leadership and vision
Managerial volunteers –
Staging volunteers –
organizing and staging
Games – time volunteers
Volunteer tiers within a sport event organization
• Are the responsibilities of the volunteer (job description)?
• Type of work is needed (short or long time)
• Will we need the volunteers (long-term commitment, one-time
commitment, day, evening)?
• Wil the organisation benefit from using the volunteer?
• Is the volunteer needed?
Act as a recruitment agency for volunteer positions
Find suitable candidates for the job roles including the process of creating job
Set up interview areas within the Volunteer Centre and manage all
administration surrounding the interview (including the database placement,
paper work, and so forth (sebagainya)
Select volunteer leaders best placed to conduct volunteer interviews on behalf of
Create database profile against job description
Develop a system for interviewing – questions, forms, exceptional issue resolution
Provide training on interview process for all interviews
Continually recruit volunteers with targeted skills for shortfails
Assist with reassigning any candidates unsuitable for their proposed role and
managing problematic issues
Four function of policy
1. Policy as a statement of belief, position or value
2. Policy as a method of risk management
3. Policy as a rule
4. Policy as an aid to program effectiveness
Have you identified and analyzed the issues your policy need to
Are your policy goals resonable and your policy objectives
Does your policy goals resonable, and your policy objectives
Have you identified the barriers to implementation you are likely to
Do you have a plan for dealing with barriers?
“being a responsible corporate citizen in today’s sport marketplace mean being a
vigilant steward of the emotional and financial investment made by individuals,
companies, and community groups into your sports organization. It is recognizing,
valuing and nurturing the partnership that is fundamental to that investment”
(Sport Executive, Maple Leaf Sports and Entertainment, 2005)
CSR is re-emergent and important strategic concept for modern managers and
professionals – “giving back” through their respective organizations and event.
Charitable links, employee wellness program, or even international outreach
Involves the creation of written operational plans
Each component establish in the event structure – ex
accommodation, accreditation, ceremonies,
communication, drug testing or doping control, food and
beverage service, hospitality service, media management
Assignment off the staff (volunteers or paid employees)
Cultivation of the operational planning network
The creation of logical, sequential, detailed and integrated
The inclusion of contingency plans
The activation of the refining process
Assignment of the best possible number and combination
of individuals with planning expertise to meet the event
operational planning requirements.
Each component requires and intricate combination of
The written event operational plan: establishing a design format – guide laid out –
all requirements of the plan can be expressed.
Logical operational planning – individual activities or task necessary to complete
their particular component.
Sequential operational planning – itemize the event task in an ordered and
reasoned sequence – concept of time
Detailed operational planning –
Level 1 – minimal level detail to explain – not provide step by step list of direction
Level 2 – medium amount of planning detail – more detail step by step directions to
enact (sahkan) the plan
level 3 – highest level of detail – clear instructions and includes intimate requirements
to complete the task
Integrated operational planing
Operational plan must be refined for use
Review the integrated plans and refine the detail into a coordinated and efficient
Intended to add detail to the plan and eliminate any questions that may arise if
the plan is implemented
Last step in the operational planning phase
An environment of cooperation for coordinating operational plans
Cooperation – variety of personalities involved
Coordination – skills, abilities and knowledge of network members
practicing planning – individual planning, a small team planning
exercise and changing team format scenario.
Execution of the plan by moving the planned operational concepts and processes
from members who completed the planning to a myriad (pelbagai) of event staff
and volunteers who tasked with executing the plan (Bowen, 2006)
The first step entails coordinating and getting all the people implementing the
plan on the same page.
Group or team opportunity (production meeting) to hear, understand and
assimilate the plan in their unique area of responsibility and the large context of
the overall plan.
several key element required when host the production meeting
Ensuring understanding of goal, objective, roles and responsibility
Even manager – responsibility to facilitate the management of deviations
(sisihan) from the operational plan that may happen for any reason.
Tips aid to keep implementation on track;
Determine deviation from the operational plans through a variety of mechanism such a
periodic progress review, anecdotal reports and direct observation.
Create a climate in which people are not afraid to report implementations in a timely
way, including arising problems and issues.
Do not wait for progress report, be out on the front lines of implementation, observing
and asking questions.
Every implementation plan contains risk, some unforeseeable. Create a contingency plan
for all foreseeable issues and be prepared with a strategy to asses and manage
Overcome foreseeable failure when managing deviations from plan
Predetermine the decision-making team and process
Preprogrammed and not preprogrammed decisions