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Business Ethics
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  1. 1. WHAT IS ETHICS? Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, and is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The term comes from the Greek word ethos, which means "character". In philosophy, ethics studies the moral behavior in humans and how one should act.
  2. 2. What is Ethics? Ethics: • is a branch of philosophy. • is a normative science because it is concerned with the norms of human conduct • as a science, it must follow the same path of logical reasoning as other sciences. • as a science, involves systemizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.
  4. 4. Nature of ethics  The concept of ethics deals with human beings only. Only human beings are endorsed with the freedom of choice.  The study of ethics has become a set of systematic knowledge about moral behavior and conduct; study is a science – a field of social science.  Ethics is a normative science –concerned with an judgment of ‘what ought to be’  Ethics deals with human conduct which is voluntary and not forced by persons or circumstances. Eg: a cold blooded murder.
  5. 5. Nature of ethics  Business ethics is nothing but the application of ethics in business.  Business ethics can be, and has been, ethical and can still make profits.  More interests shown today in the application of ethical practices in business dealings and the ethical implications.  Profit maximization and discharging of social responsibilities at the maximum limit cannot be done simultaneously as they are at the opposite ends.
  6. 6. Nature of ethics  By introducting advanced technology to replace occupations of age-old inhabitants is an ethical dilemma. Many managerial decisions have ethical implications and these decisions give rise to managerial dilemmas.
  7. 7. Scope of ethics  BE is simply applying the basics principle of ethics to the field of business.  short-cuts can bring benefits in the short run but only good values bring long run and sustainable results.  BE is not just the compliance to law. One firm can observe the law but can be unmindful of fair practices. Eg contract labour  The business ethics programmes and policies should be top driven.
  8. 8. Scope of ethics  BE is not just related to an individual but to the whole organization. It is concerned with a group that involves in all activities of businesses line production, purchase selling, financing and management.  BE is shifting the focus from shareholders to stakeholders. Holistic and benefits all.
  9. 9. What is Business Ethics? Business ethics is the application of general ethical ideas to business behavior. It is based on the principle of integrity and fairness and concentrates on the benefits to the stakeholders, both internal and external. Stakeholder includes those individuals and groups without which the organization does not have an existence. It includes shareholders, creditors, employees, customers, dealers, vendors, government and the society.
  10. 10. Definitions of business ethics  In the simplest term ,business ethics are moral (principles that define right and wrong behavior) in the world of business. What constitutes right and wrong behavior in business is determined by the public interest groups, and business organization, as well as an individual’s personal morals and values.
  11. 11. Characteristics of business ethics  Each and every person is individually responsible for the ethical or unethical decisions. The way in which the person is brought up, the values learnt and the working atmosphere decides the ethical standards of people. Many times uneducated people are more ethical than so called the educated class.  Ethical decisions are voluntary in nature and people have the freedom of choice and free will. The conscience of people may vary from time to time and place to place. The choice is left to the individual. It is the free will that makes the successful implementation of ethical standards and practices.
  12. 12. Characteristics of business ethics  Ethical decisions may vary from person to person time to time and place to place. Due to social economic changes the ethical decisions also change. What is considered good now will be considered bad at another point of time. Eg customer care  Ethical decisions affect a widespread way. Like the stakeholders, employees and customers. These ethical decisions spread to other firms across the region, nation and even the globe.
  13. 13. Characteristics of business ethics  Ethical decisions involves a trade off between the cost and benefits received. Some decisions may be costly in the short run but will be beneficial in the long run.  The effects of Ethical decisions cannot be predicted as it changes from time to time. As the decisions are taken by taking into consideration various factors.(population ,buss pracs).Eg disclosure norms(traditional vs modern)
  14. 14. Characteristics of business ethics  The lower level management are pressurized to compromise their ethical standards. Many young people join the business organizations with great ideas but fail in the long run.  In most organizations people experience ethical dilemmas. Happens when values conflicts.  ETHICS has to taught to the managers at corporate doors. Given opportunities to analyze various situations. Which will boost the moral climate of the organization.
  15. 15. Principles of Professional Ethics The basic principles people are expected to follow in their professional career are the following: • Impartiality: Objectivity; • Trustworthiness and honesty; • Openness: Full Disclosure; • Confidentiality: Trust; • Due Diligence (careful and persistent work or effort) : Duty of care; • Fidelity to professional responsibilities; and • Avoiding potential or apparent conflict of interest
  16. 16. Principles of Personal Ethics Personal ethics refer to the application of values in everything one does. Principles of personal ethics include: 1. Concern for the well being of others; 2. Respect for the autonomy of others; 3. Trustworthiness and honesty; 4. Willing compliance to law; 5. Basic justice: being fair; 6. Refusing to take unfair advantage; 7. Benevolence: doing good; and 8. Preventing harm to any creature.
  17. 17. What is not Business Ethics? 1. Ethics is different from religion 2. Ethics is not synonymous with law 3. Ethical standards are different from cultural traits 4. Ethics is different from feelings 5. Ethics is not a science in the strictest sense of the term 6. Ethics is not just a collection of values
  18. 18. Code of Conduct and Ethics for Managers  Managers must observe the following ethical values while performing their duties: • Impartiality • Responsiveness to public interest • Accountability • Honesty • Transparency • Integrity
  19. 19. Importance of business ethics  Social concern: any business operating in a business has a moral responsibility of giving back to society in terms of welfare schemes and projects. No society can afford to be greedy. No business can be called an island. Business is a part and parcel of any society.  Social responsibility: refers to a firms obligation to maximize its positive impact on stakeholders and to minimize its negative impact. There are four areas of social responsibility, economical, legal, ethical and philanthropic. At the basic level, business firms have an economic responsibility to be viable and profitable so that all stakeholders are rewarded. Adherence to legal practices promotes welfare to all. Ethical principles provide a foundation for the best practices of business.
  20. 20. Importance of business ethics  Avoidance of whistle blowing-  refers to the act of employee's who to the public with complaints of corruption or mismanagement in business organization. Every employee has certain expectations to be fulfilled by the organization. when an employee feels that something is unfair in the organization, he nurses grievance. Effective handling of grievance is an ethical act. The management should feel the pulse of the employees.
  21. 21. Importance of business ethics  Value in business: business ethics promotes good business by generating support both within and outside the organization. All the stakeholders develop a legitimate interest in the growth and development of business. Business ethics add value because its effects are felt by all the shareholders.  Improves organizational effectiveness: during the process of the growth, the organizations experience different challenges and problems. Every problem should not be considered as an ethical challenge and every challenge should add a learning curve to the organization. Ethical organizations promote standard training for the staff including time management and effective communication. Ethics offers holistic approach to business development.
  22. 22. Importance of business ethics  Healthy competition: business ethics offers competitive guidelines so that all the firms can follow good business practices. There is lesser room for exploitation of either the customer or the employees. In short, business is a cooperative activity and ethical behavior alone can promote an ideal co-operative behavior.  Benefit for stakeholders: originally business was meant to bring good returns only to investors. In modern times the importance of all the stakeholders has been recognized from the ethical angle. Apart from shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers and the members of the community should be benefitted. Real type situations (Tata Steel and Infosys) show that use of ethical practices in business creates high returns for companies.
  23. 23. ARGUMENTS FOR BUSINESS ETHICS It is said that good business ethics promotes good business. A highly ethical and integrated organization can get the following benefits.  CREATES RAPPORT WITH PUBLIC- highly ethical and integrated organization is honored and respected by public even if they have intimate knowledge of its actual working. Indian chambers of commerce towards the companies which reflect their sense of responsibility towards the society.
  24. 24. ARGUMENTS FOR BUSINESS ETHICS  DEVELOP MUTUAL FAITH BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYESS: in an highly ethical organization employees bring together leadership and efficiency to achieve common goals. They feel satisfied and a sense of oneness. So when the management knows how their employees think and how they react to a situation accordingly they set the framework.
  25. 25. ARGUMENTS FOR BUSINESS ETHICS  ECONOMIC SUCCESS AND DEVELOPMENT-Economic consideration are very important for an organization to service. To sustain profits in the long run, organisations must have a sound ethical base. Ethical conduct of business leads to development and success.following ethical principle may not bring good results in the short term but they will surely have positive impact in the long run. Eg: eco friendly products
  26. 26. ARGUMENTS FOR BUSINESS ETHICS  POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES- ethics in business develops trust and lays foundation for relationship development and positive future interactions. Every business depends on acceptance of rules, mutual trust and fairness, ethical business is regarded as good business. Whereas unethical business practices cause trouble to the business and the people in one way or the other. Adopting ethical behavior in an organization not only increases its goodwill but also it leads to positive consequences in the long run.
  27. 27. ARGUMENTS AGAINST BUSINESS ETHICS Following are some of the arguments against business ethics:  Perfectly competitive markets ensure social benefits: in a perfectly competitive market every business concern will produce what is required by the society and will do it with most efficient resources to stay in competion.so there is no need to forcibly ethical values in business.
  28. 28. ARGUMENTS AGAINST BUSINESS ETHICS  Manager’s obligation towards the company: it has been stated that the managers should work for the best interest of the company and not pursue any other consideration on ethical grounds. More concentration should be given towards the financial interest of the business and not to be sidelined by doing good to the society.  Ethics versus profitability: business exits to make profits and when ethics conflict with profit, business always chooses profits over ethics. Discussion about business ethics often brings forward the dilemma of ethics versus profitability. Therefore it is a war or at least a trade off in which you can only have more of one at the expense of the other.
  29. 29. ARGUMENTS AGAINST BUSINESS ETHICS  Business ethics is merely restricted to obeying the laws-another argument is that businessmen take ethics as an act to follow the law. As its know law and ethics are not identical. When business firms restricted themselves to just abiding law they can be legally right but they may not be ethically right and morally responsible.
  30. 30. Factors influencing business ethics  Leadership: business is all about the interaction of the customers,suppliers,employess,financiers and managers. Greater the effectiveness of interaction ,higher is the success. An effective leadership is very much required for the success of business. If a leader is strong and follows good skills, he will attain success in his goals. A value based leader can lead others on the basis of sound values and effective processes. For e.g. Johnson and Johnson responded to the Tylenol incident after it held a series of challenge meeting all around the
  31. 31. Factors influencing business ethics  Strategy and performance: Ethics is closely related to the strategy followed by the business organization. An ideal strategy should not be limited to generate revenue only. Corporate governance is the formal system of accountability and control of ethical decisions involving the use of resources. Business ethics and accountability are given equal importance in the board of directors meeting. Accountability of organizational decisions begin with strategic mission and vision. Many investors believe in stockholders model of corporate governance. The stockholder model follows a strategy of social investing in terms of which social and ethical criteria are integrated in investment decision.
  32. 32. Factors influencing business ethics  Environmental ethics: Business ethics is also divided by a type of environment in which a business organizations situated .There are two aspects of environment, namely external and internal. Internal environment refers to all aspects like vision, mission, power structure and other related matters, External environment refers to elements which are outside the organization like government policy, monetary policy, fiscal policy, general economical conditions and labour standards, These factors influence business ethical practices.
  33. 33. Factors influencing business ethics  Corporate culture: varies from company and time to time. It all depends on the nature of the leader, the competition should be healthy based on the fair rules. A good corporate culture should take care of its shareholders employees and customers. culture is a body of learnt beliefs, traditions and guides for behavior among the members of the organization. Corporate culture includes norms, physical setting, modes of dress, special language. Eg: Zappos, Twitter ,Google
  34. 34. Factors influencing business ethics Corporations are paying attention to ethical programmes. An ethical programme consists of the rules and policies of an organization by motivating ethical performances. Rules and policies are framed for orientation ,training, compensation, promotion and auditing.  Individual characteristics: the individual characteristics influence the ethical behavior. Many ethical issues are related to individuals. Some are extremely ethical while some are extremely unethical and most are between these two extremes.
  35. 35. Types of ethics  TRANSACTIONAL ETHICS: man is a social animal. He has to act and react with others through different transactions. The practice of ethics in all these transactions is called as transactional ethics. All involved parties should reciprocate ethical practices. The common good ethical interests are binding all the people. It is a win-win approach from all prospective. Eg doctor’s treatment.
  36. 36. Types of ethics  PARTICIPATORY ETHICS: it is an important part of business ethics. Guided by common good, all the participations follow some ethical practices .The important features of participatory ethics are: 1. All the parties like consumers producers and employees maintain some basic ethical standards. 2. The level of participation depends on the degree of motivation in a society. 3. Participation comes from external forces and inner commitment. This can take place only through the process of creating ethical awareness.
  37. 37. Contined….. 4. The level of participation has to be watched by all the groups leading to mutual checks and balances. Special attention has to be given to the least powerful and marginalized sections of societies contribution made by a corporation for city developments(like housing facilities, roads etc) 5. The growth of participation indicates the level of social development. It is the growth of solidarity in an angle of indidividualism(the belief that the needs of each person are more important than the needs of the whole society or group). Many social economical problems of developed countries are solved by the ethical practices. Example ford foundation.
  38. 38. Types of ethics Recognition ethics  As human beings people are endowed with the ability to understand the problems of others. This quality leads to recognition of individuals, institutions and societies, conflicting situations can be solved by the correct recognition of the situation. This requires the correct perspective and empathy. The strong is helping the weak. The learned is helping the lesser learned. The experienced is helping the new entrant. Compensation is given to the victims.
  39. 39. Types of ethics  Meta-ethics –seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes and judgments. Generally recognised by philosophers.  Normative Ethics- Study of ethical actions. Studies the rightness and wrongness of actions. It investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act. Perspective ethics
  40. 40. Types of ethics  Applied Ethics Concerned with what people should believe to be right and wrong. Morally correct course of action in various fields of human life.  Descriptive Ethics Study of ethical theories that prescribe how people ought to act. Study of people’s belief on morality
  41. 41. Moral and ethics  Moral deal with the right behavior of individuals ethics deals with the right character in the given situation. Both are closely related to each other, some of the basic morals like helping others treating all equally and not cheating others are converted in terms of good business practices.  Morals from the foundation of the ethics which can be applied to business. The following agreements reveal the relationship between morals and ethics  1. All moral standards aim at the development of positive standards. Ethical standards aim at the betterment at the ethical practices in the organization.
  42. 42. Moral and ethics  2. If the moral standards are not followed, there will be serious an disastrous consequences like crimes, corruption and fraud. If ethical standards are not adopted there will be fall in the values and decline in the efficiency of business enterprises  3. Both moral and ethical standards can be established only with the active and sincere participation of the people.  4. Both moral and ethics give more priority to public welfare rather than private welfare, both strongly hold the view that society should over- ride self-interest. A balance has to strike between ethical demand and strategic interests.
  43. 43. Moral and ethics  Both morale and ethical standards are based on impartial considerations bringing long term benefits. Both discourages short-term gains and partial benefits.
  44. 44. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY  According to Business for Social Responsibility (BSR), corporate social responsibility is defined as “Achieving commercial success in ways that honor ethical values and respect people, communities and the natural environment.” Corporate social responsibility (CSR) also called corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, responsible business and corporate social opportunity is a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and other stakeholders, as well as the environment.
  45. 45. Definition According to Business for Social Responsibility (BSR), corporate social responsibility is defined as “Achieving commercial success in ways that honor ethical values and respect people, communities and the natural environment.”
  46. 46. Definition  Lord Holme and Richard watts, ”CSR is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic developmet while improving the quality of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large”
  48. 48. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY INITIATIVES BY COMPANIES  ITC has been indulged in activities in rural sector by helping the tribes to use their waste land into productive land. It has also invested in projects like rain water harvesting and empowering rural women by helping them evolve into entrepreneurs.  ITC contributes Re 1 towards CSR that supports primary education and they use wood free fine papers.  Ford India partnered with Ahmadabad Ngo saath charitable trust providing safe drinking water to nearly 1500 children between the ages of 3 to 6 covering eighteen villages in sanand, Gujarat.
  49. 49. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY INITIATIVES BY COMPANIES  Tata motors have introduced scholarship program vidyadhanam which supports 211 students. Out of these students 132 students are from marginalized sections of the society. These students get books copies and other study materials. As a part of world environment day celebration, Tata motors initiated a huge tree plantation drive across India and countries in SAARC region, Africa, Middle East and Russia.  In 2012 Infosys launched project genesis where it successfully trained more than 100000 students to enhance their level of employability in the IT industry.  In 2013 coal India limited sanctioned 16.5 crore to government of Jammu and Kashmir for construction of trauma centre.
  50. 50.  HSBC, Max New York life and standard chartered bank encouraged their customers to use e-statements and receipts.  IBM has joined hands with tribal development of Gujarat for a development project aimed at upliftment of tribal in the sasan area gir forest. The government is planning to set up a theme resort and provide employment to sasan tribes.
  51. 51. Need for CSR  Societal approach is very important to business organizations, which demand that they should be responsive to the social problem of the society.  To establish a good corporate image, business org include CSR as corporate objective.  Collaborative agreement.(sathyam)  Legal provisions (environmental and environmental laws)
  52. 52. Need for CSR  Tax exemptions (NGO’S)  Enhancing business image  To position their products better and increase their market share.  Natural calamities and natural disasters.(compensations and donations) Eg. bhopal gas tragedy US$470 million  Organization culture eg: Tata
  53. 53. AUGUMENTS IN FAVOR OF CSR  Business is a creation of the society and therefore it should respond to the demands.  The self interest of business id best served by meeting the aspirations of the society. long term interest is best served with CSR. People who have good environment, education and opportunity make better employees and customers.  To improve the public image of the company.  It is a moral thing to do- if social responsibility is not assumed it will be take away by the society through the government.
  54. 54. AUGUMENTS AGAINST CSR  Responsibility of the government  Conflicting consideration of private market mechanism and social responsibility  Disregard of market mechanism-less attention is paid in the allocation of the resources  Arbitrary power to businessmen- power in terms of allocation of resources in the welfare of the society. And it’s a government responsibility where the businessmen need not interfere.
  55. 55. CSR issue of management  Improved customer attention- Ethical conduct of the buss exerts a growing influence on the purchasing decisions of the customers.  Rising investor stress- Most of the organizations look into the ethical aspects of the organization before making an investment.  The decreasing responsibility of the government
  56. 56. CSR issue of management  Demand for greater -disclosure-from the stakeholders.(suppliers,customeers, government etc)  Aggressive labour market-employees look beyond paychesks.Hence organizations should are forced to improve their working conditions.
  57. 57. UNDER SEC 135 OF THE COMPANIES ACT 2013  Net worth of five hundred crores or turnover of one thousand crores or net profit of rupees five crores in any financial year should have CSR committee.  Consisting of three directors one being a independent director.  It is compulsory is spend 2% every financial year of the average net profit of the company made during the 3 immediately preceding financial years.
  58. 58. UNDER SEC 135 OF THE COMPANIES ACT 2013  Preference to the local area and the areas around which the company operates.  If the company fails to spend on CSR activities it(board) should specify the reasons for not spending.
  59. 59. Crisis management  Crisis management is a systematic approach that engages the whole organization in efforts to avert crisis that may affect the organization. (OR)  CM also refers to the application of strategies considered to help an organization agreement with a sudden and significant event.
  60. 60. Crisis management  The objective being to take timely decisions under extraordinary conditions.  And limit damage to the company in all aspects possible.  Crisis management is both proactive(more ethical) and reactive (not much ethical will try to avoid the responsibility as much as possible).  Proactive behavior aims at identification and exploitation of opportunities and in taking action against potential problems and threats, whereas reactive behavior focuses on fighting a fire or solving a problem after it occurs.  Crisis is more devastating than natural disaster or technological disruption.
  61. 61. Crisis management Companies develop crisis management plans:-  To respond to and recover from natural disorders.  Prepare for ethical disaster  Result not only in substantial legal and financial costs.  Disrupt routine operations.  Paralyze employees and reduce production.  Destroy organization reputation.  Erode stakeholder confidence.
  62. 62. Crisis management Areas of concern that some companies identify potential risks and liability in contingency planning for crisis management:  Ethic/sexual harassment -35%  Regulatory violation-39%  Criminal conduct-36%  Fraud -37%  Unethical behavior -36%  Unlawful discrimination-
  63. 63. Crisis management  Falsifying records 39%  Criminal charges -41%  Deceiving charges -42%  Public relation disaster-44%  Bribery-45%
  64. 64. Crisis management Crisis management best practices include:-  Planning in detail for response to as many potential crisis as possible.  Establishing monitoring systems and practices to detect early warning signals of any foreseeable crisis.  Establishing and training a crisis management team or selecting an external crisis management firm with a proven track record in your business area.
  65. 65. Crisis management  Involving as many stakeholders as possible in all planning and action stage.
  66. 66. Steps to prepare for crisis management  Clustering the type of crisis- foreseeable and unforeseeable types of crisis. Three types Those that the organization is ready to handle Those which need a preparation to manage Those which do not need preparation to manage.  Proactive decisions and actions- can help organizations avoid the types of crisis that pose the most devastating threats. Well prepared organizations formulate strategies for preparing, enhancing and even developing new innovative options for dealing with the unexpected.
  67. 67. Steps to prepare for crisis management  Identify organizations strengths and weakness Once the organization decides on the area of crisis to prepare for, it should assess how well it is positioned to deal with them.  Availability of resources Human skills, capital, competencies, technologies, capital resources to manage different kinds of incidents.
  68. 68. Steps to prepare for crisis management  Evaluating existing policies and system Org must consider if the existing strategies ,structures and policies would facilitate their response to crisis. lookout for gaps and misalignments that might be hazardous.  To assess organization culture Conflict between the organization’s culture and the value in practice.
  69. 69. Steps to prepare for crisis management  To detect early The earlier the crisis is detected the easier it is manage. The challenges for the leaders are: To create the means that will allow them to quickly see the first signals of crisis and their source. To separate valid warnings from others harmless warnings.
  70. 70. Crisis management A systematic crisis management approach can expand the competence through the practice of clear thinking, the smooth channeling of resources and information access.
  71. 71. Examples of crisis management  The Pepsi Corporation faced a crisis in 1993, which was successfully managed by the company.  n 1993, claims of syringes being found in cans of diet Pepsi were made.  Company urged stores not to remove the product from shelves while it had the cans and the situation investigated.  Pepsi released videos and made public, showing the production process to demonstrate that such tampering was impossible within their factories.  Crisis was managed through effective communication.
  72. 72. Examples of crisis management  Bhopal gas tragedy  Sathyam scam  Tsunami  Kingfisher  EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL
  73. 73. Issues in management Root causes of unethical behavior  Maximization of profit  Ethics considered only a voluntary responsibility  Deliberate mishandling  Less opportunity of whistle blower  Pressure from stakeholder  Corruption  Lack of social responsibility and integrity
  74. 74. Emerging ethical issues in business Ethics in accounting information  Creative accounting –misleading financial statements  Insider trading(Martha steward) and security fraud Executive  BRIBERY,KICKBACKS
  75. 75. Emerging ethical issues in business ETHICS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMEN  Discrimination  Privacy of employe  Whistle blowing eg. Dinesh thakur from ranbaxy  Occupation safety and health
  76. 76. Emerging ethical issues in business Ethics in sales and marketing  Pricing: price discriminatiom, price skimmimg  Anti competitive practice- dumping  Contents of advertisement  Children and marketing  Black markets and grey markets iphone 6  Surrogate advertisements eg bacardy soda
  77. 77. Emerging ethical issues in business Ethics on production  Dangerous products (tobacco and alcohol)  Pollutions  Genetically modified food and radiations from mobile phones  Animal rights and animals testing
  78. 78. Emerging ethical issues in business Ethics in intellectual property rights  Patent copyright and trademark infringement  Employee raiding  Business intelligence – converting raw data to new data  Industrial espionage –spying on competitors P&G and Unilever
  79. 79. Emerging ethical issues in business International business ethics  Biopiracy eg neem and turmeric  Transfer pricing  Use of child labour- fifa football  Outsourcing back end or desk jobs to low wage countries
  80. 80. Emerging ethical issues in business Influencing government tender processes so that your family members and friends are awarded state contracts; Abusing your position within a government department to ensure your friends and family members are hired into the same department; Accepting bribes in order to disclose confidential information about the government department that you work for;