● Design thinking as divergent and convergent thinking.
● Design thinking : The 5 stage process.
● Common design thinking problem.
Design thinking involves two types of thinking, viz. convergent thinking and
divergent thinking. One needs to think of many solutions to a common problem
statement during divergent thinking process and then arrive at the correct and the
best solution while convergent thinking
Divergent thinking :
It is supposed to enhance creativity of thinkers.
A thinker is free to move or flow in any direction.
Other alternate solutions that may come to thinkers mind.
Convergent thinking :
Go through all the possible solutions thought during divergent thinking and come
up with best possible solution.
Like any systematic approach to problem solving, design thinking follows a
particular process. There are 5 core stages to design thinking :
1. Empathy :
“Empathy involves listening to others , understanding them and communicating
this understanding to others. “ - Egan 1994
“Human reacts to emotional probes that are often accompanied by emotional
assurances rather than logic, reason or dispassion.”
To deliver innovative customer centric solution through design thinking , we must
begin with Empathy.
Don’t Jump to Solutions. Start with Empathy.
Empathy is not sympathy , not it is feeling sorry for others. Instead it is what others
are feeling and understanding.
Empathy is a major skill which involves :
● Taking care into another point of view (Putting yourself in another shoes)
● Assume a beginner’s mindset
● Engage with extreme users
● Ask What-How-Why
● Build trust and respect
● Story share and capture
● Use reflective listening
● Use both Verbal and Non-verbal ways of communication.
● Identify and accept all feelings without being judgemental
2. Define :
Define stage is all about bringing clarity on what you have learned about your user.
Create a point of view that is based on user ‘needs’ that you have discovered and
‘few insights’ you found interesting.
Framing the right problem is the only way to find right solution.
Techniques to define the problem :
● Amplify good
● Eliminate Bad
● Explore opposite
● Question the assumptions
● Break problem into pieces
● Identify need and look for the insights
● Create a Point of View (POV)
● Use Empathization Map
A POV will allow you to ideate and solve your challenge in a goal-oriented manner
keeping the focus on your users, their needs and your insights about them.
● Keep the focus narrow.
● Frame the challenge as a problem statement.
● Use them to evaluate competing ideas.
● Make them actionable.
● Summarize who a particular user is & why the need is important to that user.
● Condense your perspective
● Need should belong to real user & should not be just made up by team.
● Need should not be framed as solution.
● Insight is result of meeting the need.
● Look beyond the obvious
● Think about user’s hope, fear and motivation.
Empathy Map Diagram :
An empathy map is a collaborative
visualization used to articulate
what we know about a particular
type of user. It externalizes
knowledge about users in order to
1) create a shared understanding
of user needs, and
2) aid in decision making.
3. Ideate :
Ideation is all about generating ideas.
Ideation is a judgemental free zone and we focus on quantity over quality.
It is the phase where we need to question the obvious , reformulate our beliefs
& to redefine existing solutions, approaches and beliefs.
Ideation is best stage for creating innovation.
Rules for Ideation :
● Bring forward multiple ideas
● There are no bad ideas
● Capture everything
● Go for hybrid brainstorming
- Individual ideation first , then go for group ideation.
● Quantity over Quality
● Create a relaxed environment
● Embrace creativity
Key Ideation Techniques :
1. Brainstorming : A group creativity technique where efforts are made to find
conclusions for a specific problem by gathering list of ideas.
2. Bodystorming : It is also a brainstorming but by imagining if product existed. It could
be made by some digital prototyping to resemble it with future product.
3. Sketches : it's the fastest and most effective way to bring the ideas your brain
generates into the physical world.
Key Ideation Techniques :
4. Mindmapping : A visual ideation that encourage you to draw connection between
different sets of ideas or information.
5. Storyboarding : Bring situation to life and outline future impact of their solutions. We
can also develop a visual story related to their problem or solutions.
6. Challenge Assumptions : Break conventional thought patterns & coming up with new
A prototype is a draft version of a product that allows you to explore your
ideas and show the intention behind a feature or the overall design concept
to users before investing time and money into development.
Aim is to have something that can be tested with real users.
It allows its user to interact
with it and explore its
Benefits of Prototype :
● Evaluation and feedback are essential.
● Stakeholder and users can see, hold and interact with product.
● Members can communicate and evaluate efficiently.
● Test out ideas for yourself.
● It encourages reflection.
● It brings the users early in the process.
● It results in higher satisfaction.
● Design errors can be corrected at early stages with less expenditure and time.
How to present prototypes:
● Digital interactive mockups
● Functional Interfaces
● Video simulating the use of system
Once we have generated tons of ideas and narrowed down to most feasible idea.
Now testing gives us a chance to see if you have framed the problem correctly by
getting user feedback.
Why Important :
Your team can generate feedback particular to the prototype and it turn deeper your
understanding of the user .
A chance to see if you have framed the problem correctly.
How to test ?
● Let the prototype speak.
● Do not defend your ideas.
● Be open minded.
● Be thankful.
● Make sure user can experience it.
● Get feedback.
Get feedback from your users :
● Revisit end users & take them through the scenario that show them how to reach
the goal with new solution.
● Listen carefully what they say.
● Synthesize all feedback.
● Remain open to negative feedbacks.
● Iterate the process again based on user feedback.
Negative feedbacks are your friends. It uncovers problem you might not
previously have identified. It offers you insights about user’s needs.
“Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works” - Steve Jobs
Common problems where we can apply design thinking :
● A business looking for its next big idea (create a new product or service).
● A government organization trying to get resolve any social problem (we want
people to save water and energy).
● A technology company that wants a user-friendly design for one of its gadgets
(meet a consumer need).
A Design Solution
Embrace Infant Warmer