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Health promotion and the newborn

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growth and development of newborn

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Health promotion and the newborn

  1. 1. Growth andDevelopment During Infancy Dr.(Mrs.) S.Valliammal Lecturer College of Nursing NIMHANS Bangalore
  2. 2.  Skin of newborn is pink and look healthy. Newborn will have fine textured hair. 80% of newborn may have physiological jaundice (yellow skin)
  3. 3. APGAR Score Permits rapid assessment of the newborn’s transition to extrauterine existence based on five signs that indicate the physiologic state of the newborn: (1) Heart Rate (2) Respiratory Rate A- Activity (3) Muscle Tone P- Pulse (4) Reflex irritability G- Grimace (5) Color A- Appearance R- Respiration
  4. 4. APGAR ScoreSign Score 0 1 2Heart Rate Absent Slow (<100) > 100Respiratory Rate Absent Slow, irregular Good cry hypoventilationMuscle Tone Flaccid Some flexion of Active motion, well extremities flexedReflex Activity No Response Crying ,Some Vigorous cry body motionColour Blue Pale Body pink, pink extremities blue
  5. 5. One Month-Follows and fixes on bright objects with eyes when itmoves within field of vision.-Turns head when prone, but unable to support.-Holds hands in fists.-Grows 1 inch monthly for 6 months.-Cries when hungry or uncomfortable.-Makes small, throaty sounds.
  6. 6. Two Months-Has closed posterior fontanel.-Listens actively to sounds.-Lifts head almost 45 degrees off table when prone.-Follows moving objects with eyes.-Recognizes family faces.
  7. 7. Piaget’s Five Stages ofInfant Development Stage 1: Birth to 1 month -Modification of reflexes Infant practices and perfects reflexes present at birth. Sucking reflex becomes more refined and voluntary.
  8. 8. Eriksons stage ofDevelopment  Trust vs Mistrust  Birth to one year  Develop a healthy personality
  9. 9. Feeding 36-48 Hr to Discharge: A breast feeding and formula feeding mom should be feeding successfully 8-10 times/day.
  10. 10. Advantages of BreastFeeding The correct balance of all essential nutrients for infants. Full of immunological agents to protect against disease. Easier to digest than formula. Contains anti-inflammatory properties. Promotes growth of Lactobacillus bifidus.
  11. 11. Skin to Skin Contact It is helpful to place the infant on the mothers abdomen soon after birth. It helps with spontaneous breastfeeding and allows for bonding.
  12. 12. Kangaroo Care The infant is placed on the mothers bare chest and is only wearing a diaper. It is used for both full term and preterm infants. Benefits……
  13. 13. Normal Sleep Patterns  2-3 Months Low: 10 hours of sleep in 24-Hour period Average: 16 ½ hours of sleep in 24-Hour period High: 23 hours of sleep in 24-Hour period (2 to 4 naps)
  14. 14. Bathing a Newborn Benefits of bathing - complete cleaning of infant. - observer infants condition. - promote comfort and bonding time
  15. 15. Bathing a newborn...  Temperatures  Gather supplies needed  Bathing  Cleansing hands and feet  Cleansing genitals
  16. 16. Umbilical Cord Care  The umbilical cord stump is an excellent medium for bacterial growth and can easily become infected.  Common methods of care include use of an antimicrobial agent such as bacitracin or triple dye. Also, use of soap and water or sterile water alone are used.  Current recommendations for cord care include cleaning the cord with sterile water or a neutral pH cleanser.  The stump and base should be assessed for edema, erythema, and drainage with each diaper change.  The stump deteriorates and average seperation time is 10 to 14 days.
  17. 17. Bowel Movements Meconium Transitional Stools Milk Stool
  18. 18. Reflexes  Good reflexes indicate a healthy nervous system.  Reflexes are developed for survival  Newborn exhibits many reflexes.
  19. 19. ROOTING
  20. 20. SUCKING
  21. 21. Palmer Reflex
  22. 22. Babinski Reflex
  23. 23. Stepping Reflex
  24. 24. MORO Reflex
  25. 25. Tonic Neck
  26. 26. Normal development ofhearing After the amniotic fluid drains from the middle ear several days after birth, the infant’s hearing becomes acute. Hearing is one of the better-developed senses in the infant; the fetus can hear in utero and responds to loud sounds. The ability to listen and discriminate among sounds is an important task during infancy. The closer the infant is to the sound, the easier the sound can be discriminated.
  27. 27. Touch  The newborn is responsive to touch on all parts of the body. The face (especially the mouth), hands, and soles of the feet seem to be most sensitive.
  28. 28. Taste  The newborn can distinguish between tastes, and various types of solution elicit different facial expressions.
  29. 29. Smell  Newborns react to strong odors such as alcohol or vinegar by turning their heads away. Breastfed infants are able to smell breast milk and can differentiate their mother from other lactating women by the smell.
  30. 30. Immunizations If the infant is born to an infected mother or to a mother who is a chronic carrier, hepatitis vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) should be given within 12 hours of birth. For infants born to a hepatitis B-negative woman, the first dose of the vaccine may be given at birth or at 1 or 2 months of age (depending on province of residence).
  31. 31. Family Assessment Process Do the parents and infant have eye to eye contact frequently? How much body contact is present? Does vocalization by the parents evoke a smile from the infant? How much does the infant cry? What is the mother’s reaction? What is the father’s reaction? How does the mother describe the infant’s feeding and sleeping patterns? Does the mother describe the infant’s tasks positively or negatively?
  32. 32. Nursing Interventions Improve family interactions and relationships. Improve family’s ability to cope with stress from the new addition to their family. Praise positive parenting behaviors. Provide adequate nutrition to malnourished infant. Allow parents to vent their feelings about the infant. Refer to appropriate agency for financial, social, or other family needs.
  34. 34. SUMMARY Appearance of Newborn Sleeping, eating, and elimination patterns Reflexes SIDS Car seats Bathing Process
  35. 35. References Edelman, C. L. and Mandle C. L. (2002). Health promotion throughout the lifespan. St. Louis: Mosby Wong, D. L., Perry, S. E., Hockenbery, M.J., Lowdermilk, D. L., & Wilson D. (2006). Maternal Child Nursing Care (3rd ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.