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High Pressure Processing of Food (HPP).pptx

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High Pressure Processing of Food (HPP).pptx

Hyperbaric pressure
Ultra high pressure
High hydrostatic pressure
Pascalization

Conclusion

The food industry nowadays has a large choice of production capacity for industrial machines: from 200kg/h up to more than 2000kg/h for single vessel equipment working at 6000 bar. This can satisfy the needs of niche markets as well as those of large volume productions. HPP is an emerging non-thermal technology that is being successfully implemented in food industries that look for innovation, safety, export development and higher quality as key tools for the improvement of competitiveness and profitability in global markets. It is an especially powerful tool for new product development, principally for the safe commercialization of natural, organic, preservative-free readyto- eat products; for maintaining freshness of fruit and vegetable products; and for the automation of some processes in the seafood industry.

Thanks for reading.

Hyperbaric pressure
Ultra high pressure
High hydrostatic pressure
Pascalization

Conclusion

The food industry nowadays has a large choice of production capacity for industrial machines: from 200kg/h up to more than 2000kg/h for single vessel equipment working at 6000 bar. This can satisfy the needs of niche markets as well as those of large volume productions. HPP is an emerging non-thermal technology that is being successfully implemented in food industries that look for innovation, safety, export development and higher quality as key tools for the improvement of competitiveness and profitability in global markets. It is an especially powerful tool for new product development, principally for the safe commercialization of natural, organic, preservative-free readyto- eat products; for maintaining freshness of fruit and vegetable products; and for the automation of some processes in the seafood industry.

Thanks for reading.

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High Pressure Processing of Food (HPP).pptx

  1. 1. College Of Food Technology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani Course Title – Emerging Technologies in Food Processing Course No – FPT-501 Topic – High-Pressure Processing (HPP) Of Food. Course Teacher: Dr. R. B. Kshirsagar (A.D.P.), Head Food Engineering Presented by – Jadhav Vaibhav Prakash (2022T08M)
  2. 2. Content  Introduction  History  Process Principles  Pressure generation system  Packaging Requirements for HPP  HPP product process and parameters  Pressure-temperature effects  Mechanism of microbial inactivation during HPP  Factors affecting the sensitivity of microorganisms in HPP  Enzyme inactivation during HPP  Effect of HPP on food quality and constituents  Possible application areas of HPP  Pressure shift freezing (PSF)  Issues & challenges in HPP of food.  Conclusion.
  3. 3. High pressure processing (HPP)  HPP is a noval method for non thermal processing of food.  It is a relatively new concept compared to conventional thermal processing, is receiving wide attention.  HPP is also term as: ⁕ Hyperbaric pressure ⁕ Ultra high pressure ⁕ High hydrostatic pressure ⁕ Pascalization  In HPP, the food is subjected to elevated pressures (upto 900 Mpa or 9000 atm) with or without the action of heat to achieve microbial inactivation or to alter the food attribution in order to achieve desired qualities.
  4. 4. History  The effects of pressure on food flora have been well-known for over a century because of the technical requirements needed to apply this in the food industry.  The world's first high-pressure processed foods to wait until 1990 for commercialization.  These were strawberry, apple and kiwi jams launched on the Japanese market by a company named “Meidi-Ya” that year.  The first industrial application in Europ and America were citrus juices first processes in 1995 by Ulti in France, and avocado products commercialized by Fresherized Foods (formely Avomex) from 1997 in USA.
  5. 5. Process principles ▪ Iso-static principle Application of pressure is instantaneous and uniform through out the sample. ▪ Le Chatelier’s principles Reaction volume change is influenced by high pressure applications. Reactions resulting in a volume decrease are accelerated with the application of HP and vice-versa Fig:- Iso-static principles ▪ Principle of microscopic reordering At constant temperature increase in pressure increases the degree of ordering of molecules. Therefore, pressure and temperature exert antagonistic forces on molecular structure and chemical reaction
  6. 6. HPP Technology Fig:- Typical HPP system Package food in a sterilized container ↓ Load packed food in a pressure dumber ↓ Fill the pressure with water ↓ Pressurize the chamber ↓ Hold under pressure ↓ De-pressurized chamber ↓ Remove process food
  7. 7. Pressure generaration system Fig:-Direct compression Fig:-Indirect compression
  8. 8. Components of HPP System
  9. 9.  A pressure vessel  Closure(s) for sealing the vessel  A device for holding the Closure(s) in place while the vessel is under pressure (e.g., yoke)  High-pressure intensifier pump  Pressure and temperature (optional) controlling and monitoring system  A product-handling system
  10. 10. Working process of HPP (Video)
  11. 11. Packaging Requirements for HPP  In HPP, the product is generally treated in its final primary package form resulting a ‘secure unit’ until the consumer open it.  Food decrease in volume as a function of pressure during compression; almost an equal expansion occurs upon decompression.  Airtight flexible packages, that can withatand a change in volume corresponding to the compressibility of the product, are needed.  The packaging must be able to accommodate up to a 15% reduction in volume and return to its original volume without loss of barrier properties.  Packaging materials that are impermeable to oxygen and opaque to light should be used for retaining fresh colour and flavaur of HP treated foods.
  12. 12.  Plastic films [Ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and polyvinyle alcohol (PVOH) copolymer films] are generally used.  The use of semi-rigid trays is also possible.  Voccume-packed products are ideally suited for HP treatment.  Metal cans and glass containers are generally not suitable for HPP.
  13. 13. HPP product process and parameters HPP products are commercially available in the international market  Jams, Jellies, Salad dressings  Fish, Meat products, Sliced ham  Rice cake, and  Yogurt
  14. 14. Pressure-temperature effects  The temperature increase of food material under pressure is dependent on factors such as ⁕ Final pressure, ⁕ Product composition, and ⁕ Initial temperature  The temperature of water increase about 3℃ for every 100 Mpa increase in pressureAt room temperature (25℃).  Both pure water and most moist foods subjected to a 600 Mpa treatment ambient temperature will experience about a 15% reduction in volume.
  15. 15. Compression phase (t1~ t2)- decrease in Volume and the temperature of food Increases (T1~𝑇2) as a result of physical Compression (P1~P2) Holding Phase (T2~T3) at process pressure (P2~P3) is independent of Compression rate Decompression (t3~t4)- the product will return to a temperature (T4) slightly lower than its initial temperature (T1) as a result of heat losses during the compression.
  16. 16. Mechanism of microbial inactivation during HPP  Mechanism  Involve shear force generated membrane disruption  Interruption of cellular function  Localized thermal damage  Protein deformation  Resistance Spores > Gram +ve > Gram –ve pH and aw of food affect the lethal effect of pressure
  17. 17. Effect of HPP on bacteria  Treating food samples using HP can destroy both pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms.  There is, however, a large variation in the pressure resistance of different bacterial strains.  Nature of the medium can affect the response of microorganism of pressure  The cell walls of Gram negative bacteria are significantly weaker and, therefore, Gram negative bacteria are more pressure-sensitive than gram positive bacteria.
  18. 18. Effect of HPP on bacterial spores  Spores are the most pressure-resistant.  Very high pressure (>800 Mpa) are needed to kill bacterial spores at ambient temperatures.  Spores of certain bacterial species might need as high as 1400 Mpa for killing/inactivation in low acid foods at ambient temperature.  Pressure induced inactivation of bacterial spores is markedly enhanced at temperature of 50-70℃ and perhaps also at/or below 0℃.  Bacterial spores can be stimulated to germinate by treatment at relatively low pressures, e.g., 50-300 Mpa; germinated spores can then be killed by relatively mild heat treatment or higher pressure treatment.
  19. 19. Effect of HPP on fungi  Treatment at pressures less than 400 Mpa for a few min is sufficient to inactivate most yeast.  At about 100 Mpa, the nuclear membrane of yeasts is affected.  At more than 400-600 Mpa alterations occur in the mitochondria and the cytoplasm.  Pressure between 300-600 Mpa can inactive most molds.
  20. 20. Factors affecting sensitivity of microorganisms in HPP  Factors that can affect the response of microorganisms, including pathogens, to pressure must be considered so that treatments can be optimized and microbiological safety can be assured.  Major factors affecting sensitivity of microorganisms to HP are  pH  Water activity (aw)  Temperature  Pressure, and  Holding or Dwell time.
  21. 21. Enzyme inactivation during HPP  Covalent bonds (primary structure) are generally not affected.  Tertiary structure are modified followed by a large hydration change.  Disruption of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions leads to changes I quaternary structure.  Dense hydrophobic hydration layer is formed leading to volume change.
  22. 22. Enzyme inactivation by HPP Enzyme Observations Pectin methyl esterase (PME)  At 600 Mpa (upto 90%) and irreversibly inactivate (which does note reactivate during storage and transportation) in orange.  Tomato PME are more pressure resistant ; inactivation seems to follow first order kinetics. Peroxidase (POD)  A treatment of 900 Mpa for 10 mi at room temperature was needed to cause an 88% reduction of POD activity I green bean.  A combination with temperature treatments enhanced the inactivating effect at 600 Mpa, but no significant differences were detected at 700 Mpa. 𝛼-amylase  Pressure and temperature (upto 400 Mpa, 60℃) showed both synergistic and antagonistic effect on the inactivation. Lipoxygenase (LOX)  Pressure inactivation of soyabean LOX could be accurately described by a first-order kinetic model.  Is most pressure stable at room temperature. Polyphenole oxidase (PPO)  Are very pressure stable, treatment at 800-900 Mpa are required for activity reduction.
  23. 23. Effect of HPP on food quality and constituents HPP can cause  Inactivation of parasites, plant cells, vegetative microorganism, some bacteria/fungal spores.  Enzymes are selectively inactivated.  Conformation of micromolecules may change.  Small molecules (e.g., color flavors) generally not affected.
  24. 24. Effect on Pigment and Colour Pigment (Source) Treatment conditions Effects References Chlorophyll (Broccoli juice) 600Mpa/75℃ • Chlorophyll a and b have different stabilities towards pressure and temperature. • Significant reduction in the chlorophyll content of HP treatment broccoli juice. Butz et al., (2002); Van Loey et al., (1998) Chlorophyll (Green beans) 700 𝑀𝑝𝑎/90℃ /1𝑚𝑖𝑛 • Minimum chlorophyll degradation by HPP. Krebbers et al., (2002) Carotenoid (Tomato puree) Up to 700 Mpa/65℃ • Color of tomato puree remained unchanged after HP treatment. • Carotenoids are found out to be pressure stable. Rodrigo et al., (2007) Lycopene (Tomato) 500-600 Mpa/20℃/12 min • Pressure-induced isomerisation was observed. Qiu et al., (2006) Anthocyanins (Raspberry) 200-800 Mpa/20℃/15 min • At the storage temperature of of 4℃, anthocyanins were found to be stable. • Losses of anthicyanina were greater at higher storage temperatures. Suthanthangjai et al., (2005)
  25. 25. Salami, before & after ↑ Salmon, before & after ↑ Milk & strawberry befor & after Chicken, beef & pork before & after Cheese before & after Milk Before & after
  26. 26. Effect on texture  The physical structure of most high-moisture products remains unchanged as very nil or no shear forces are generated by pressure in such foods.  Texture of gas-containing products may be changed during HPP due, mainly , to the gas displacement and liquid infiltration.  Physical shrinkage can occur due to mechanical collapse of air pockets; shape distortion may be related to anisotropic behaviour.  There are minimal or no permanent change in textural characteristics in food not containing air-voids.
  27. 27. Effect on sensory attributes  HP- treated sausages were considered more cohesive and less firm than heat- treatment sausages.  HP treatment could preserve delicate sensory attributes of avocado (used in the preparation of guacamole) and assure a reasonable safe and stable shelf life.  HP treatment of meat and fish, however, resulted in increased oxidation,probably due to free metal ions.  Oxidation, if not controlled, can negatively affect the color and flavor of products. Table 1.5 Self life comparison of orange juice based on sensory evaluation (Polydera et al., 2003) Storage temperature (℃) Shelf-life (days) High pressure treated (500 Mpa/5 min/35℃) Thermally pasteurized 0 >90 60 5 >90 47 10 47 25 15 32 16 Table 1.4 Result from a comparative sensory study of heat-treated (80-85℃ for 40 min) and high pressure treated (500 Mpa at 65℃) sausages (Mor-Mor and Yuste, 2003) Triangle test Correct judgemen ts Subject preferences Heat-treated versus pressurized for 5 min 16 Pressurized = 8 No Preference = 5 Heat-treated = 3 Heat-treated versus pressurized for 15 min 22 Pressurized = 11 No Preference = 5 Heat-treated = 6
  28. 28. Effect on protein  Pressure denaturation of proteins is a complex phenomenon depending on;  Protein structure  Pressure range  Temperature  pH  Oligomeric proteins are dissociated by relatively low pressure (200 Mpa), whereas single-chain protein denaturation occurs at pressures greater than 300 Mpa. Pressure- induced denaturation is sometimes reversible, but renaturation after pressure release may take a long time.
  29. 29. Effect on protein functionality Protein (Source) Treatment condition/ observation Reference Casein micelle (milk) • Destabilize casein micelle at 400 Mpa. Shrbauchi et al., (1992) 𝛽-lactoglobulin (Milk) • Pressurizing at 450 Mpa for 15 min reduced solubility compared to that of unpressurized control solution. Desobry-Banon et al., (1995) Metmyoglobin (Meat) • Dimerization occurred when metmyoglobin was treated at 750 Mpa for 20 min in the pH range of 6-10, with a maximum near the isoelectric point (pH 6.9). Defave et al., (1992) Ovalbumin (Egg) • Remains fairly stable when pressurized at 400 Mpa. Hayakawa et al., (1992) Soy protein • Minimum pressure of 300 Mpa for 10-30 min was necessary to induce gelation. High pressure produced softer gels with a significantly lower elastic modulus. • Soy milk changed from liquid state to a solid state after treatment at 500 Mpa for 30 min. Matsumoto et al., (1990)
  30. 30. Effect on gelation  The process of gel formation if the macroscopic consequence of the denaturation, on a molecular level, of proteins and other bio-macromolecules such as polysaccharides.  Gelation by high pressure treatment is attributed to a decrease in the volume of the protein solution.  Egg yolk subjected to a pressure of 400 Mpa for 30 min at 25℃ forms a gel,  500 Mpa renders egg white partially coagulated and opaque,  600 Mpa causes complete gelation.  Pressure-induced gels of egg white possess a natural flavor, displaying no destruction of amino acids, and are more easily digested when compared with heat-induced gels.  The hardest gel form by high-pressure (500 Mpa) treatment exhibits one-sixth the strength of heat-induced gels.
  31. 31. Effect on starch gelatinization  Gelatinization is the transition of starch granules from the birefringent crystalline state to a non-birefringent, swollen state.  The pressure at which starch gelatinizes depends on the source of starch.  Gelatinization may be stimulated by the increased temperature and pressurization.  High pressure may also produce an upward shift of gelatinization temperature by about 3-5℃ per 100 Mpa.  Pressure higher than 150Mpa do not further enhanced the gelatinization temperature.  Pressure-treated starches keep the granular structure intact.
  32. 32. Effects on lipids  Peroxide value of the oils in HP treated cod muscle (200-600 Mpa for 15 & 30 min) increased with increasing pressure ad hold time.  The presence of fish muscle accelerates lipid oxidation after high-pressure treatment, while the extracted oil was relatively stable against oxidation in pressure treatments up to 600 Mpa.  Pork samples treated at 800 Mpa for 20 min and stored at 50℃ presented a shorter induction time for lipid oxidation and greater peroxide & TBA values than untreated pork samples.  After 4,, and 8 days of storage at 50℃, the lipid oxidation in terms of peroxide and TBA values of high-pressure-treated (800 Mpa, 20 min) pork fat was inhibited to some extent at aw values higher or lower than 0.44.
  33. 33. Possible application areas of HPP  Tempering of chocolate  Gelatinization of starches  Blanching of vegetables  Tenderization of meats  Coagulation and texturization of fish and meat minces  Instant freezing and thawing (very rapid & without temperature gradient)  Increased water absorption rate and reduced cooking time for beans  Pre-cooked rice for microwave readiness Pasteurization: Juices, milk, meat and fish Sterilization : High and low acid foods Texture modification: Fish, egg, protein, starches Functional changes: Cheese, yogurt, surimi Specialty processes: Freezing, thawing, fat crystallization, enhancing reaction kinetics
  34. 34. Pressure shift freezing (PSF)  PSF involves reducing the temperature of a food sample (cooled to 20℃ at 200 Mpa having water in liquid state), held in an HP vessel whose temperature is regulated at sub-zero temperatures under pressure ad then depressurized to atmospheric pressure. The sample temperature changes suddenly to the phase changes temperature (water to ice) at the current pressure.  In PSF, ice formation is instantaneous and homogeneous throughout the whole volume of the product because of the high degree of super cooling reached on release of pressure.  PSF can be especially useful for freezing of foods with large dimensions in which a uniform ice crystal distribution is required.
  35. 35. High pressure thawing  HP treatment of a frozen sample to induce thawing, the transition to the non-frozen state occurs at high pressure and an introduction of pressure-related latent heat seems necessary.  Thawing under HP preserve food quality and reduces thawing times.  In pressure-assisted thawing the phase transition (ice to water) occurs at constant pressure by increasing the temperature.  In pressure-induced thawing the phase change in initiated by a pressure change and proceeds at constant pressure.
  36. 36. High pressure non-frozen storage  Significant energy can be saved using storage rather than freezing under pressure and product changes due to freezing and thawing effects can be avoided.  Raw pork can be stored under pressure, avoiding drip losses occurring after thawing.  The count of most microorganisms in meat samples reduces by low temperature storage under pressure (200 Mpa, 20℃), in some cases more than by freezing.
  37. 37. Benefits of High-Pressure Processing For consumer For industry Minimally processed foods with no added preservatives Improved process efficiency High quality beverages, such as fruit juices Opportunities for development of new products and intermediates Improved digestibility of milk for infants Improved product safety and quality, e.g, longer shelf-life Increased choice of products Products that meets consumer demands for more ‘natural’ food More stable products and novel dairy products Design improvements to HP equipment for liquid and solid foods
  38. 38. Issues & challenges in HPP of food 1. Heat transfer under HP and process Inhomogeneity  The main difficulty in monitoring or modelling eat transfer in high pressure processes is the lack of data on thermo-physical properties under pressure. 2. Pressure non-uniformity  More research is needed to evaluate pressure uniformity pressure within pressure vessels of larger volumes.  The assumption that all foods follow the isostatic rule is also not well accepted .  The change in density at the geometric centre of food may experience different pressure.
  39. 39. 3. Compression heating of food materials  All compressible substances change temperature during physical compression and this is an unavoidable thermodynamic effect.  The temperature of pressure transmitting fluid will also change after compression depending on its own thermal properties and will influence the temperature of the sample.  Change in pressure transmitting fluid temperature as a result of compression heating and subsequent heat transfer should be considered in process modelling. 4. Properties of food material under pressure  The determination of properties foods under high pressure is a complex task and practically no data exists in this regard.  Mathematical modelling of process uniformity.
  40. 40. Conclusion The food industry nowadays has a large choice of production capacity for industrial machines: from 200kg/h up to more than 2000kg/h for single vessel equipment working at 6000 bar. This can satisfy the needs of niche markets as well as those of large volume productions. HPP is an emerging non-thermal technology that is being successfully implemented in food industries that look for innovation, safety, export development and higher quality as key tools for the improvement of competitiveness and profitability in global markets. It is an especially powerful tool for new product development, principally for the safe commercialization of natural, organic, preservative-free readyto- eat products; for maintaining freshness of fruit and vegetable products; and for the automation of some processes in the seafood industry.
  41. 41. Reference 1. Food product and process innovation, Hari Niwas Sharma (IIT-Kharagpure) 2. Matsumoto et al., (1990) 3. Shrbauchi et al., (1992) 4. Defave et al., (1992) 5. Hayakawa et al., (1992) 6. Desobry-Banon et al., (1995) 7. Emerging technologies for food processing, Da-Wen Sun., (2005)

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