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Some concept about nanotechniology.,applications of nanotechnology in Electronics,and the future scope of nanotechnology.

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  1. 1. Presented by: Electro Infinity Vikas Kumar(1325280) Shaheed Udham Singh College of Engineering & Technology
  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction What is “Nanoscale”? Nanotechnology What makes the Nanoscale special? Need of Nanotechnology in Electronics Nanotechnology in Electronics Common Applications of Nanotechnology in Electronics Future Scope of Nanotechnology
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION What is “Nano”? Nano in Greek means ‘dwarf’…..but in actual Nano is even smaller than dwarf i.e atomic level of anything.
  4. 4. What is Nanoscale ? 1.27 × 107 m 0.22 m 0.7 × 10-9 m Fullerenes C60 12,756 Km 22 cm 0.7 nm 10 millions times smaller 1 billion times smaller 4
  5. 5. NANOTECHNOLOGY • Nanotechnology is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic scale. • Nanotechnology refers to the constructing and engineering of the functional systems at very micro level or we can say at atomic level. • A Nanometer is one billionth of a meter, roughly the width of three or four atoms. The average human hair is about 25,000 nanometers wide.
  6. 6. What makes the Nanoscale special?  High density of structures is possible with small size.  Physical and chemical properties can be different at the nano-scale (e.g. electronic, optical, mechanical, thermal, chemical).  The physical behavior of material can be different in the nano-regime because of the different ways physical properties scale with dimension (e.g. area vs. volume).
  7. 7. What is a Carbon Nanotube? A Carbon Nanotube is a tube-shaped material, made of carbon, having a diameter measuring on the nanometre scale. Carbon Nanotubes are formed from essentially the graphite sheet and the graphite layer appears somewhat like a rolled-up continuous unbroken hexagonal mesh and carbon molecules at the apexes of the hexagons. Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family.
  8. 8. Need of Nanotechnology in Electronics Today microelectronics are used and they solve our most of the problems. The two exceptional disadvantages of micro electronics are:  Physical size  Increasing cost of fabrication of integrated circuits. To overcome these disadvantages nanotechnology can be used.
  9. 9. Nanotechnology in Electronics Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology on electronic components, especially transistors.  Nanoelectronics often refer to transistor devices that are  so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum  mechanical properties need to be studied extensively.  Besides being small and allowing more transistors to be  packed into a single chip, the uniform and symmetrical  structure of nanotubes allows a higher electron mobility, a  higher dielectric constant (faster frequency), and a  symmetrical electron/ hole characteristic.
  10. 10. Increasing the density of memory chips Decreasing the weight and thickness of the screens Nanolithography is used for fabrication of chips. Reducing the size of transistors used in integrated circuits. Improving display screens on electronics devices. Reducing power consumption. Advantages of Using Nanotechnology in Electronics
  11. 11. Graphene transistor • Graphene is a single sheet of carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice, isolated from graphite. • Allows electrons to move at an extraordinarily high speed. • With its intrinsic nature of being one-atom-thick, can be exploited to fabricate field-effect transistors that are faster and smaller.
  12. 12. Single Electron Transistor • A single electron transistor needs only one electron to change from the insulating to the conducting state. • Deliver very high device density and power efficiency with remarkable operational speed. • Quantum dots with sub- 100 nm dimensions have to be fabricated.
  13. 13. Carbon-based nanosensors Graphene and carbon nanotubes have:   Excellent thermal conductivity   High mechanical robustness    Very large surface to volume  ratio making them superior  materials for fabrication of  electromechanical and  electrochemical sensors with  higher sensitivities, lower limits of  detection, and faster response  time. Any additional gold atom that adsorbs on the surface of a vibrating carbon nanotube would change its resonance frequency which is further detected.
  14. 14. Computer processing Moore’s Law describes a trend of technology. It states that the number of transistors that can be put on a single chip will double every two years.
  15. 15. Because of nanotechnology, the speed of computers has increased while the price of computing has decreased.
  16. 16. Memory and storage 2 GB in 1980s $80,000 2 GB in 1990s $200 2 GB in 2010 $5
  17. 17. Displays Carbon nanotubes on a glass or plastic sheet allow manufacturers to make clear conductive panels for displays that are extremely thin.
  18. 18. FUTURE SCOPE IN NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology for flexible Electronics Nanotechnology for wireless devices Nanotechnology for molecular devices
  19. 19. NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS Stretchable electronics or flexible electronics is likely to be the future of mobile electronics. Potential applications include wearable electronic devices, biomedical uses, compact portable devices, and robotic devices.  In the future, it is likely that graphene will become a dominant material in flexible electronics. Graphene is nothing but an allotrope of carbon that has superb electrical conductivity, flexibility, and physical strength.
  20. 20. NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR MOLECULAR DEVICES Reducing size of electronics is the need of era and this can be achieved with the help of molecules that can be used in active devices. These molecules behave as diodes or programmable switches that make connections between wires and consume less current. Thousands of molecules can be sandwiched between two crossing micro-scale wires to create an active devices. Since molecular devices fit between the wires, large area savings could be achieved.
  21. 21. "The Next Big Thing Is Really Small”