Structure and function of proteins
● Rahul Sharma
● Mukesh Ramola
• PROTEIN = they are long chain of amino acid residues
attach by peptide bond.
• Protein synthesis or translation = it is biological
process through which protein synthesis occurs in
• The process of protein synthesis occurs in cytoplasm,
the end result of translation is a long amino acid chain
which is the primary structure of protein.
• This is chain is need to be folded to make it
• Primary structure- 10 – 20 long chain of amino acid.
• Have N and C terminal. This structure is simple to
• In secondary structure alpha helix – the hydrogen bond
interaction between oxygen and hydrogen of nitrogen and
carboxylic acid, right handed coiled.
• In beta pleated the hydrogen bond occurs as the same as
in alpha helix but the interaction between two
polypeptides chain, parallel and anti parallel.
Tertiary structure • Tertiary structure
• In tertiary structures – the
arrangement of primary and
secondary structures to formed a
closely pack structures.
• It is 3- dimensional structure of
• It is very basic structure and simple to understand.
• Different polypeptide chains arranged in manner to
• Like Hemoglobin has two different polypeptide chain
in its structures.
India’s protein consumption is much lower than the 48 gms/day that is
recommended by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). The National
Sample Survey 2011-12 indicates a decline in the per capita protein consumption in
both urban (4 percent) and rural (11 percent) areas. India is also facing the double
burden of malnutrition, with 38 percent undernutrition (46.6 million) in children
under the age of five and about 15 percent obesity and overweight (14.4 million).
The solution to tackling protein deficiency in india starts with awareness about
malnutrition and by clarifying some myths about protein. Myth like Protein is difficult
to digest . Leads to wt gain and only for body builders. Protein is required for several
reasons as well.
Growth and maintenance
● Protein is required for growth and maintenance of tissues.
● Your body’s protein needs are dependend upon your health and activity level
● Under normal circumstances ,your body breaks down more protein than it can create
,thus increasing your body needs
Causes biochemical reactions
● Enzymes are proteins that allow key chemical reactions to take place within your body
● Bodily functions that depend on enzymes include -Digestion ,Energy production ,Blood clotting,
• Acts as messanger
Amino acid chains of various lengths form protein and peptides, which make up several of
your body’s hormones and transmit information between your cells, tissues and organs
Hormones are grouped into 3 main categories-;
Proteins and peptides (made innsulin, glucagon, hGH ,ADH, ACTH)
A class of proteins known as fibrous proteins provide various parts of your body with
structure, strength and elasticity.
Eg. Keratin, collagen, elastin
Maintains proper pH
● act as a buffer system, helping your body maintain proper pH values of the blood and
other bodily fluids .
● pH 2 stomach acid ; pH7.4 human blood
● Eg. Hemoglobin
Proteins in your blood maintain the fluid balance between your blood and the surrounding
Eg. Albumin and globulin
Deficiency causes kwashiorkor
Bolsters immune health
Proteins form antibodies to protect your body from foreign invaders, such as disease-
causing bacteria and viruses
Transport and stroes nutrients
● Some proteins transport nutrients throughout your entire body, while others store
● Protein transporters are specific
● Substances could be vitamins minerals blood sugar cholesterol oxygen
● Hemoglobin transports oxygen
● Ferritin stores iron
Protein can serve as a valuable energy source but only in situations of fasting, exhaustive
exercise or inadequate calorie intake.
● India’s nutrition programmes, through the Public
Distribution System (PDS), have targeted the poor by
providing for subsidised food grains to be given to
beneficiaries under the National Food Security Act,
which includes rice, wheat and millets. The protein
supplementation through PDS averages to 7.2 gms/day
and 3.8 gms/day in rural and urban areas.
● The school meal scheme provides for 300
kilocalorie and 8-12 gms of protein per day.
● In 2020, to protect the community from the impact of the pandemic, the
government had announced an additional Rs. 22.6 billion relief package
under the Garib Kalyan Yojana, which allows for an additional supply of 5 kg
rice/wheat and 1 kg of preferred pulses per month.
● There is an urgent need to create awareness on what to eat, how much to
● This can be done at the community level through community health
workers (AWW & ASHA) who counsel mothers on nutrition and health and
through demonstrations during the Village Health and Nutrition Day on
how to enrich food with macro and micronutrients.
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