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  1. Public Administration and Development Mirza Faran Baig
  2. XII. Public Administration and Development • Role of Public Administration in Development; • Concept of Development Administration; • Difference Between Development Administration and Development Management; • Changing Role of Public Administration in Development, • Issues and Challenges in Public Administration- The Pakistan Situation.
  3. Role of Administration in Development • Aftermath of WWII • Newly independent countries in the world • 3rd world problems of poverty, illiteracy, health, social & political instability • Govt. led efforts to intervene in socio- economic transformation Two aspects of Public Ad • Administration of development • Development of Administration
  4. Emergence for Development Administration • De-Colonization • Undermining of goals of administration with means of administration • CAG (Comparative Administrative Group 1960) • Need for indigenous administrative model • UN sponsored development schemes • Socio-economic development – Nation Building
  5. Concept & Objective of Development Administration • Economic Growth • Societal change in the direction of modernity • Social justice • Attitudinal change • Political Development (Equality of Law, Increased capacity of political system to deliver, sense of nationhood)
  6. Concept & Objective of Development Administration • Modernization of Administration • Sustainable Development • National Building • New Goals (Environment, Universal Education, Preservation of wild life, elimination of Poverty)
  7. Functions of Development Public Ad J.N. Khosla • Formulation of Development goals & polices • Program formulation/project management • Re-organization of administrative structure & procedures • Evaluation of results • People’s participation in development efforts • Promoting growth of social & political infrastructure The above functions requires following on the part of public administrative personnel: – Competence – Dynamic leadership – Incorruptible work force – Action orientation – Goal orientation – Change orientation
  8. Problems of Development Administration • Colonial past (Centralized/ authoritarian administrative system • The elitism • Rules, regulations & forms takes precedence over substance • Non- indigenous • Undue concentration of authority
  9. Problems of Development Administration • Limited delegation of authority • Lengthy administrative procedures • Lack of administrative leaders • Shortage of technocrats • Lack of commitment to development plans • Lack of core competencies / skills • Old Customs
  10. Problems of Development Administration • Insensitivity to people needs & oppressed sections of the society • Systemic & endemic corruption (institutionalized) • Lack of political will to support needed development plans/projects • Primodial attitudes • Lack of Attitudinal change • Lack of participatory spirit
  11. Problems of Development Administration • Alienation at grass root level • Poor direction / coordination & relationship between generalist & specialist • Poor organization of Public enterprises • Govt. departments, boards, regulatory agencies & financial institutions • Insufficient finances & material resources
  12. Solutions to the Problems of Development Administration • De-emphasis of hierarchy in the conventional pyramidal organization • Redesigned to enable cooperative decision making & promoting collaborative problem solving • Decentralization of authority – Enabling field units to make decisions on the spot – Free flow of reliable information in the organization for speedy & effective decision making – Recruitment , promotion, evaluation of public servants based on merit. – Traditional administration converted into modern administration through training/capacity building – Continuous man power planning – Emphasizing professional & technical personnel
  13. Solutions to the Problems of Development Administration – Flexibility & adaptability to quickly meet changes – Modern management techniques such as cost benefit analysis – Supremacy of the politician must be accepted & bureaucracy must work alongside as a co-partner of development – Administrative power should be under the direction & control of political authority – Bureaucracy must secure the cooperation an d participation of citizen in development
  14. Solutions to the Problems of Development Administration – Self help programs be encouraged – Popular participation in development is a resource – Work ethic – Vigorous & impartial collection of revenues – Avoiding wasteful expenditures
  15. F. W. Riggs / Widener views on Development Administration • Concept of development Administration by Riggs – Prismatic-sala model – Heterogeneity – Formulism – Overlapping • Widener’s idea on development administration – Nation Building – Socio-economic change – Modernization – System change & development – Development administration & result specific – Environmental factors – Political factors – Developmental & administration & bureaucracy
  16. Widener’s Development Administration Models • Ideal Model (Planned directional growth with system change) • Short-run payoff (planned directional growth with no system change) • Long run payoff (planned system change with no directional growth) • Failure Model (Planning with no growth & no system change) • Environmental stimuleous model (unplanned directional growth with system change) • Pragmatism Model (unplanned directional growth with no system change) • Crises Model (unplanned system change with no directional change) • Static Model (No plans – No Change)
  17. Approaches of Development Administration • Elitist (Ethnocentric approach) • Economic approach • Diffusion approach • Psychological approach • Dependency approach (theory) • Pluralistic approach • Less-western approach (indigenous approach)
  18. Conventional Public Administration Vs Developmental Administration. No Conventional Administration Developmental Administration 1 Administration Oriented Structure/action oriented. 2 Status quo oriented resists organizational changes Change Orientation & carrier of innovation 3 Oriented towards efficiency & economy Inclined towards program achievements & effectiveness 4 Regulatory Client centered – 5 Rigid Flexible & Dynamic 6 Centralized decision making Encourages participative decision making 7 People have no right in administration except the right of appeal & petition Gives position to representative of people in administrative process of making & implementing decisions
  19. No Conventional Administration Developmental Administration 8 No temporal dimensions Time oriented 9 It relies on status leadership It requires functional leadership 10 Problem solving Concerned with problem finding 11 Emphasizes centralized administration & unresponsive to the needs of the people Decentralized system & responsive to the people needs 12 It deals with routine operation, which are predictable It is concerned with new tasks & problems which at times are unpredictable Conventional Public Administration Vs Developmental Administration.
  21. Nature of Development Administration • By product of comparative study of Public Ad. • More relevant to the developing countries • Rooted in the field rather than headquarters • Emphasized decentralization of authority • Enables field units to take decision on the spot • Participative, responsive & accountable management • Ecological in nature • Closely linked with politics
  22. Scope of Development Public Ad • Extension & Community services • Program Planning • Project Management • Area Development • Urban Development • Personnel development & Administration
  23. Characteristics of Development Administration • Goal orientation • Change Orientation • Result Orientation • Time Orientation • Client Orientation • Commitment • Innovation • People’s participation