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  1. 1. CSD 2230 HUMAN COMMUNICATION DISORDERS Topic 7 Speech Disorders Voice Disorders
  2. 2. Pitch The perceptual counterpart to fundamental frequency associated with the rate of vocal fold vibration Average fundamental frequencies  Men 130 Hz  Woman 250 Hz  Children 500 Hz Habitual pitch Optimal pitch
  3. 3. Changes in the Larynx with Development At birth, the infant larynx is at C3 Larynx reaches C6 by 5 years and C7 by 15-20 years At birth, the vocal folds are 3 mm long Growth rates  0.4 mm/year for girls  0.7 mm/year for boys Puberty
  4. 4. Inflection The cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscles work to tense the glottis which causes the vocal folds to become stretched and vibrate faster, thereby causing pitch to rise
  5. 5. Vocal Intensity Changes in vocal intensity are perceived as changes in loudness Changes in vocal intensity require the vocal folds to stay together longer during their closed phase of vibration
  6. 6. Voice Disorders About 3-6% of school-aged children and 3-9% of adults are affected The five perceptual signs
  7. 7. Disorders of Vocal Pitch 1. Monopitch: a voice that lacks normal inflectional variation and to change pitch voluntarily 2. Inappropriate pitch: a voice judged to be outside the normal range of pitch for age and/or gender 3. Pitch breaks: sudden, uncontrolled changes in pitch
  8. 8. Disorders of Vocal Loudness 1. monoloudness: a voice that lacks normal variations of intensity and the inability to change vocal loudness voluntarily 2. loudness variation: extreme variations in vocal intensity in which the voice is either too soft or too loud
  9. 9. Disorders of Vocal Quality 1. Hoarseness/roughness: a voice that lacks clarity and is noisy 2. Breathiness: the perception of audible air escaping thru the glottis during phonation 3. Tremor: variations in pitch and loudness of the voice not under voluntary control 4. Strain and struggle: related to problems with initiating and maintaining voice
  10. 10. Nonphonatory Vocal Disorders 1. Stridor: noisy breathing or involuntary sounds that accompany inspiration and expiration 2. Consistent aphonia: a persistent absence of voice perceived as whispering 3. Episodic aphonia: uncontrolled and unpredictable aphonic breaks in voice
  11. 11. Etiologies  Vocal abuse  Medical conditions  Psychiatric conditios
  12. 12. Vocal Abuse Structural damage to vocal fold tissue which affects vibration 1. Vocal nodules: localized growths on the vocal folds  Hoarseness and breathiness  Audio example 2. Contact ulcers: reddened ulcerations on the vocal folds  Hoarseness, breathiness, excessive throat clearing, vocal fatigue  Audio example 3. Polyps: fluid-filled lesions on the vocal folds  Hoarseness, breathiness, roughness 4. Acute and chronic laryngitis: inflamation of the vocal folds  Mild hoarseness, aphonia
  13. 13. Medical Conditions 1. CNS disorders  Dysarthria from Parkinson’s  Vocal fold paralysis  Pseudobulbar palsy  Huntington’s chorea  Spastic dysphonia  Audio example 2. Organic disease  Laryngeal cancer 3. Laryngeal trauma
  14. 14. Psychiatric Conditions Conversion disorders result from the psychological suppression of emotion  Aphonia  Audio example