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  2. Certificate
  3. What is networking ??  Computer networking refers to interconnected computing devices that can exchange data and share resources with each other.  These networked devices use a system of rules, called communications protocols, to transmit information over physical or wireless technologies.  Almost every field of science and electronics has something to do with Data networks and networking technology. Thus, networking technology touches almost every sphere of modern life
  4. Networking using Cisco packet tracer  Cisco certified Network Associate (CCNA) installs, configure and troubleshoot networks using products from Cisco, a major provider of networking services.  The CCNA is designed to validate your knowledge on fundamental networking concepts often requested in networking roles in IT positions.  Cisco Packet tracer can be used to create complicated network typologies, as well as to test and simulate abstract networking concepts.  It acts as a playground for you to explore networking and the experience is very close to what you see in computer networks.
  5. Component used in Networking
  6. Cabling  Cabling- Networking cables are networking hardware used to connect one network device to other network devices or to connect two or more computers to share printers, scanners etc. Common cables used are given below- 1. Straight cable 2. Crossover cable 3. Console Cable (Rollover cable) 4. Auxiliary cable
  7. Router and switch  A router is a device that connects two or more packet-switched networks or subnetworks.  A router serves two primary functions: managing traffic between these networks by forwarding datconnection to their intended IP addresses, and allowing multiple devices to use the same Internet connection.  Network switch is networking hardware that connects devices on a computer network by using packet switching to receive and forward data to the destination device  A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses MAC addresses to forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model
  8. Hub  A Hub is a hardware device that divides the network connection among multiple devices. When computer requests for some information from a network, it first sends the request to the Hub through cable.  The process used by the Hub consumes more bandwidth and limits the amount of communication.  Nowadays, the use of hub is obsolete, and it is replaced by more advanced computer network components such as Switches, Routers.
  9. End to end encrypted message network using Cisco packet tracer  Like WhatsApp, where messages are end to end encyrpted, the backend topology that is used to make this possible is elaborated here.  In this we created internet connection between different end users using DNS.  Routing is done to send message from best suited path.  IP addressing and MAC addressing class types were used.  Coding is done in Physical, data link layer and network layer of OSI model
  10. IP Addressing  IP address stands for internet protocol address; it is an identifying number that is associated with a specific computer or computer network.  An internet protocol (IP) address allows computers to send and receive information.  There are four types of IP addresses: public, private, static, and dynamic.  An IP address allows information to be sent and received by the correct parties, which means it can also be used to track down a user’s physical location in some instances.  There are five classes of addressing Class A, class B, class C, class D, class E.
  11. MAC addressing  A media access control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC) for use as a network address in communications within a network segment.  MAC addresses are primarily assigned by device manufacturers, and are theMAC addresses are recognizable as six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by hyphens, colons, or without a separator.  MAC addresses are recognizable as six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by hyphens, colons, or without a separator.
  12. OSI Model
  13. Routing  Router is a deviceby which communication takes place between two networks. IP Routing is the process of sending packets from a host on one network to another host on a different network. Types of Routing:- 1. Static routing 2. Default Routing 3. Dynamic Routing
  14. Switching  In large networks, there can be multiple paths from sender to receiver. The switching technique will decide the best route for data transmission.  Switching technique is used to connect the systems for making one- to-one communication.
  15. Virtual private network (VPN)  It is used private to private over public network.  VPN stands for “virtual private network” — a service that helps you stay private online. A VPN establishes a secure, encrypted connection between your computer and the internet, providing a private tunnel for your data and communications while you use public networks.
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