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Leadership and power workshop

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Leadership and power workshop

  1. 1. Organisational Leadership Dr. Hilary Duckett
  2. 2. White House, Copyright waived by US Government
  3. 3.  To define power  To identify sources of power  To explore destructive power  To explore power and charisma  To draw conclusions
  4. 4. ‘To manage with power means recognizing that in almost every organisation there are varying interests. It means figuring out what point of view those various individuals and subunits have on issues of concern to you .. And thus it is imperative to understand where power comes from and how sources of power can be developed.’ Jeffrey Pfeffer interviewed in Business Magazine, November 1993 in Thompson et al 2009
  5. 5.      Reward – use of resources as rewards e.g. promotion, bonuses etc Coercive – the ability to punish and discipline based on a fear of loss (of money, bonuses, status, reputation etc) Referent – when the personal characteristics or attributes of a leader are attractive to subordinates e.g. charisma Legitimate - power is accepted because subordinates accept positional or hierarchical structures Expert – expertise, knowledge or specialist skills are held by the leader which others accept French, J.R.P and Raven B.H., (1959)
  6. 6.       Emphasises individualism - the exercise of power by individuals Oversimplifies the complex relationship between realised and symbolic power Organisational reality is pluralistic and relational. They involve networks and coalitions and form a competitive arena for resources. Leaders need to work within and through coalitions Presents traditional hierarchical model of organizations – increasing flatter looser forms of structure and therefore power. Organisations are seen as political systems See Foucault’s work on panopticon power – organisations seeking to control and acquire conformity to organisational values and systems Adapted from Thompson and McHugh (2009); Watson (1994) ; Foucault (1977) ; and Western, (2008)
  7. 7. “Barack Obama admits he needs 'to do a better job' after midterms defeat” “President Barack Obama admitted he had been "humbled" today by the worst Democratic midterm election defeat in 70 years, and promised to work alongside the revitalised Republican party in Congress. Obama admitted that the Republicans had given his party a severe beating – or as he termed it, a "shellacking" – and said it had given him a late and uncomfortable night. "Some election nights are more fun than others," he said. "Some are exhilarating. Some are humbling." Ewen MacAskill, Guardian 4th November 2010 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/nov/03/barack-obama-midterms-better-job Accessed 26th July 2011
  8. 8. ‘A useful way to consider the all too easily overlooked role of followers in the construction of a leader’s power is to envisage the difference between a domino-run and a Mexican wave. In the former all the power resides with the first movement that stimulates the dominoes to fall in sequence … Thus power resides with the pusher, the leader. But a Mexican wave that runs around a sports stadium does not depend on an individual leader to make it work; it works without apparent leadership and it ‘dies’ when the collective decide not to engage in further ‘waves’. Grint, 2005:p46
  9. 9. ‘At the moment of action, in the midst of the struggle, there is a natural division of roles according to the aptitude of each, assessed and judged by the collective whole: some direct and command, others execute orders. But no function must be allowed to petrify or become fixed and it will not remain irrevocably attached to any one person. Hierarchical order and promotion do not exist, so the commander of yesterday can become a subordinate tomorrow. No one rises above others, or if he does rise it is only to fall back a moment later, like the waves of the sea forever returning to the salutary level of equality’. Joll, 1979:92
  10. 10.  Leaderless groups mask leadership structures  Leaderless groups perpetuate ‘in-groups’ and ‘outgroups’  Real question is ‘what kind of leadership exists?’  Useful aspect of anarchist critique is the search for leadership without oppression
  11. 11.  Writers in Human Relations school emphasise that a democratic leader should seek to empower employees  Assuming authority different to authoritarianism
  12. 12. “Destructive leadership behaviour is defined as the systematic and repeated behaviour by a leader, supervisor or manager that violates the legitimate interest of the organisation by undermining and/or sabotaging the organisation’s goals, tasks, resources, and effectiveness and/or the motivation, well-being or job satisfaction of his/her subordinates.” Einarsen, S., Aasland, M.S., and Skogstad, A. (2007)
  13. 13. Need to account for historical and social context of behaviour in analysing legitimacy. For example - Ironside and Seifert (2003) describe leadership at the beginning of the industrial revolution as follows: ‘Their need to secure the adaptation of workers from the rhythms of agricultural and domestic work to the discipline of factory production resulted in management regimes in which fines, beatings, sackings and all forms of harassment and abuse were a daily experience of the majority’ (p383) Is this justifiable ?
  14. 14. Pro-subordinate behaviour Antiorganisation behaviour SupportiveDisloyal leadership Derailed Leadership Constructive Leadership Proorganisation behaviour Tyrannical Leadership Antisubordinate behaviour
  15. 15. Tyrannical – ‘behaviours undermine the motivation, well being or job satisfaction of subordinates, without necessarily being clearly destructive to the organisation’s goals’ – p212 (Einarsen et al, 2007).  Behaviours – humiliating, manipulating, belittling, shouting. Example – Sir Simon Marks  Derailed  Supportive-disloyal?? 
  16. 16.  Derailed – neither subordinate nor employee behaviours. Engage in anti-subordinate behaviour such as harassment, bullying while simultaneously exhibiting anti-organisational behaviour such as fraud, absenteeism or theft. Examples: Sir Robert Maxwell (Mirror Group), Lay and Skilling (Enron)
  17. 17.  Supportive-Disloyal – show consideration for welfare of subordinates but to the disadvantage of the organisation. For example enabling employees to ‘loaf’, steal, gain more benefits than their entitlement.
  18. 18.  Constructive Leadership – act in the legitimate interests of the organisation in the allocation of resources and effort whilst simultaneously ensuring the well-being of employees.
  19. 19. Kakabadse et al (2007) define temptation as: 1) Being tempted – a state of awareness of one’s desires 2) Entering into Temptation - contemplation of fulfilling desires 3) Falling into temptation – fulfilling desires Paper also discusses concept of free will (Aristotle, Kant and Bentham) and nature vs nurture (actions result from genetics and social stimuli)
  20. 20. Hedonism (pleasure) – seeking personal gratification the absolute pursuit of wealth and other vices (Bill Clinton, Kennedy ?) See Case??  Power – single minded pursuit of power and influence – often such leaders possess charisma and large personal wealth that attracts devotion (Robert Maxwell, Hitler, Bush Junior, Lay and Skilling ?)  Posterity and Narcissism – focus on empire building and legacy often highly dependent personalities (Richard Branson, Bill Gates, Anita Roddick ?) 
  21. 21. “City boss Jerry Lees accused over affairs and bonuses”
  22. 22. Cognitive/Perceptual style – nature of thinking and personality type  Sensations – seeing, hearing, touching  Deep-seated feelings – e.g. confidence, lust, respect, affection, compassion etc  Interpersonal state – energy level, health which affect decision process  Group relations – sense of belonging, participation patterns  Social context – societal structure and norms 
  23. 23. Charisma -/krizm/ noun 1 compelling attractiveness or charm. 2 (pl. charismata /krizmt/) Christian Theology a divinely conferred talent. Oxford English Dictionary (2009) How is this talent applied?
  24. 24.  A unitary perspective that centres leadership on an individuals rather than a collective – e.g Mayor Guliani  Danger of instilling sense of infallibility in the leader  Ultimate position is totalitarianism  Simplistic framing of complex decisions, behaviours and actions e.g. contrasting images of Rudy Guliani
  25. 25. Hijacked Jets Destroy Twin Towers and Hit Pentagon “Hijackers rammed jetliners into each of New York's World Trade Center towers yesterday, toppling both in a hellish storm of ash, glass, smoke and leaping victims, while a third jetliner crashed into the Pentagon in Virginia. There was no official count, but President Bush said thousands had perished …” New York Times, September 12th 2001 ( http://www.nytimes.com/2001/09/12/national/12PLAN.html Accessed 26/7/11)
  26. 26. Thank You, Mr. Mayor “We desperately needed a leader -and Rudy was there. Brave, focused, never far from the front lines, and clearly suffering with us, Rudy was one of the many reasons we were proud to be New Yorkers that week”. Pilgrims Corner http://pilgrimsreview.blogspot.com/ 2009/09/our-911-tribute-picturesand-articles.html Accessed 27/7/11 Photo: Robert D. Ward, US Office of the Secretary of Defence
  27. 27. 9/11 workers outraged by new Rudy claim “Rudy Giuliani drew outrage and indignation from Sept. 11 first-responders yesterday by saying he spent as much time – or more - exposed to the site's dangers as workers who dug through the debris for the missing and the dead. Speaking to reporters at a Cincinnati Reds ballgame he caught between fund-raisers, the GOP front-runner said he helped 9/11 families and defended himself against critics of how he managed the attack's aftermath. "This is not a mayor or a governor or a President who's sitting in an ivory tower," Giuliani said. "I was at Ground Zero as often, if not more, than most of the workers. I was there working with them. I was exposed to exactly the same things they were exposed to. So in that sense, I'm one of them. “His statement rang false to Queens paramedic Marvin Bethea, who said he suffered a stroke, posttraumatic stress disorder and breathing problems after responding to the attacks."I personally find that very, very insulting," he said. "Standing there doing a photo-op and telling the men, 'You're doing a good job,' I don't consider that to be working," said Bethea, 47”. Celeste Katz, New York Daily News.com, 10th August 2007 http://www.nydailynews.com/news/2007/08/10/2007-0810_911_workers_outraged_by_new_rudy_claim.html Accessed 27th July 2011
  28. 28. Giuliani’s Office Shifted Money Around? Yes. To Hide Hamptons Trips? Unlikely. “The headlines have dogged Rudolph Giuiiani’s presidential campaign for weeks. “Security costs for trysts draw attention,” said one. The articles questioned whether, as mayor, Mr Giuliani tried to hide his visits to Judith Nathan in the Hamptons by burying the associated security costs in the budget of obscure mayoral agencies like the Loft Board”. Russ Buettner, New York Times December 20 2007 http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2007/12/20/us/politics/20071221_GIULI ANI_GRAPHIC.html?bl&ex=1198558800&en=f6a6bab7b149f46a&ei=5087%0A Accessed 27/7/11
  29. 29. Leadership and power are inseparable  Power is a problematic construction at an extreme evoking totalitarian oppression  Power can be explored across a number of dimensions across a spectrum of constructive to destructive  Power is interlinked with the construct of charisma which again can engender a simplistic level of analysis  An analysis of power should be contextualised (e.g. economic, social, political) 
  30. 30. References Einarsen, S., Aasland, M.S., and Skogstad, A. (2007) Destructive Leadership Behavior: A Definition and Conceptual Model, The Leadership Quarterly, 18, p207-216 Foucault, M(1977) Discipline and Punish, The Birth of the Prison, Harmondsworth:Penguin; French, J.R.P and Raven B.H., (1959) The Social Bases of Power in D. Cartwright (ed.), Studies in Social Power, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press Grint, K. (2005) Leadership Limits and Possibilities, Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke Ironside, M. and Seifert, R. (2003) Tackling bullying in the workplace; The collective dimension. In S.Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf and C.L. Cooper (eds) Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace. International perspectives in research and practice (pp 383-398) London:Taylor and Francis Joll, J. (1979) The Anarchists. London:Methuen in Western, S., (2008) Leadership a Critical Text, London:Sage Kakabadse, A.P. Kakabadse, N.K., and Lee-Davies, L. (2007) Leadership and Organizationa Development Journal, Vol 28, No 3, pp196-208 Oxford English Dictionary (2009) Thompson, P and McHugh, D 2009 Organisations A critical Approach , Palgrave MacMillan:Basingstoke Thompson and McHugh (2009)??? Watson, T (1994) In Search of Management: Culture, Chaos and Control in Managerial Work, London: Routledge; Western, S., (2008) Leadership a Critical Text, London: Sage
  31. 31. This resource was created by the University of Plymouth, Learning from WOeRk project. This project is funded by HEFCE as part of the HEA/JISC OER release programme. This resource is licensed under the terms of the Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/). The resource, where specified below, contains other 3rd party materials under their own licenses. The licenses and attributions are outlined below: 1. The name of the University of Plymouth and its logos are unregistered trade marks of the University. The University reserves all rights to these items beyond their inclusion in these CC resources. 2. The JISC logo, the and the logo of the Higher Education Academy are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution -non-commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK England & Wales license. All reproductions must comply with the terms of that license. Author Dr. Hilary Duckett Institute University of Plymouth Title Leadership and Power Description Presentation Date Created 18th November 2010 Educational Level 6 Keywords UKOER, LFWOER, UOPCPDLM, Continuous Professional Development, CPD, Work-based Learning, WBL, Leadership, Power ©University of Plymouth, 2010, some rights reserved Back page originally developed by the OER phase 1 C-Change project