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Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source:
The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste
(MSW) to Energy
Baharuddin Bin Ali
[BSc...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Sypnosis
The pap...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biomass as Energ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Clean Air Act & ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Renewable Fuel S...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
2007 Renewable F...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Typical Elementa...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
1st Generation B...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Edible Constitue...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Ethanol From Cor...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Ethanol from Cor...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Criticisms of Et...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Corn Ethanol Ene...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biodiesel Cycle
...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biodiesel Produc...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biodiesel Produc...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
2nd Generation B...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Non‐Edible Const...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biochemical Conv...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Thermochemical C...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Syngas Products
...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Thermochemical C...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Hydrodeoxygenati...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Algae
• Better s...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Bioethanol Produ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biofuels Product...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biomass Cycle
27
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Composition of P...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Where does bioma...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Representation o...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biomass Resource...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biomass in Malay...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Current Applicat...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Current Applicat...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Current Applicat...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Applications and...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Applications and...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Applications and...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Current Applicat...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biomass Potentia...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biomass Potentia...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 42
Biomass Resou...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Malaysian Gov’t ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Energy Content i...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Moisture Content...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Some typical cha...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Volume (m³) requ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
What is Modern B...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
The Range Of Cos...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Bioenergy Key Dr...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Other Important ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Barriers To Bioe...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Conversion Route...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 54
Stage Emergin...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biofuels Procure...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Overview of inve...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Competitiveness ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Environmental be...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Environmental Be...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
GHG savings for ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
GHG Emission Bal...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
GHG Savings For ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Global GHG Emiss...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Employment Benef...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
An estimate of t...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Employment per P...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Impact Of Renewa...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Bioenergy employ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Bioenergy employ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biomass in Relat...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Bio-energy in th...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Contribution of ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Contribution of ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biomass Resource...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Biomass resource...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Current Technica...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Current Technica...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Estimation of Gl...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Estimation of Gl...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Availability of ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Trade of Biofuel...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Research & Devel...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
R & D Orentation...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
R&D and Policy N...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Crosscutting Imp...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
R&D : Plant Bioc...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
R&D : Chemical &...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
R&D : Agronomic ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
R&D : Feedstock ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Crosscutting Ben...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
R&D : Thermochem...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
R&D : Bioconvers...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
R&D : Biorefiner...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
R&D : End-Produc...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Quranic Inspirat...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Operational prob...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Operational prob...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Cogeneration
98
...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Benefits of Co-g...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Deployment of Co...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Applications of ...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Cogeneration Tec...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Typical Cogenera...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Gasification
104...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
The SilvaGas® Ga...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
A Commercial Sca...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
The Vermont Gasi...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Vermont Gasifier...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
The Vermont Gasi...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
The Battelle Hig...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Pyrolysis Of Bio...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Pyrolysis Of Bio...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Pyrolysis Of Bio...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Pyrolysis Of Bio...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Pyrolysis Of Bio...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Pyrolysis Of Bio...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Pyrolysis Of Bio...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Pyrolysis Benefi...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Agri-THERM's Mob...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Pyrolysis and Ga...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Why use Pyrolysi...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Why use Pyrolysi...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
What types of wa...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
What processes a...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Is this technolo...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
How do the econo...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Pyrolysis and Ga...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Principles of Py...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Fast Pyrolysis
1...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Fast Pyrolysis
1...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Overall Fast Pyr...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Overall Fast Pyr...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
BIO-OIL - Pyroly...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
BIO-OIL - Pyroly...
Baharuddin Bin Ali
7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014
Typical properti...
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy
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Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy

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The paper describes the importance of biomass as a source of renewable energy. Biomass materials have greatest potential to be processed as feedstocks in bio-energy production or as fuels in combustion, gasification and pyrolysis systems. It discusses various methods of preparing the biomass materials. It identifies various applications and focus areas of research and development in handling, storage of biomass.

Veröffentlicht in: Technologie
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Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy

  1. 1. Biomass As A Renewable Energy Source: The case of Converting Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Energy Baharuddin Bin Ali [BSc(Hons) PhD(Leeds), FIEM, PEng] Puri Pujangga Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) National University of Malaysia 16TH June 2014 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy President Yayasan Mahkota
  2. 2. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Sypnosis The paper describes the importance of biomass as a source of renewable energy. Biomass materials have greatest potential to be processed as feedstocks in bio-energy production or as fuels in combustion, gasification and pyrolysis systems. It discusses various methods of preparing the biomass materials. It identifies various applications and focus areas of research and development in handling, storage of biomass. 2
  3. 3. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biomass as Energy Source : Pros and Cons • Pros: • Domestic benefit • Reduced trade deficit • Create jobs • Strengthen rural economies • Local raw materials • Renewable resources • Carbon cycle to reduce build up of greenhouse gases • Technology improvements should continue to reduce costs 3 Cons: • Lower energy density • Solids difficult to handle • High water content • Competing uses as high value food stuff • Symbiotic relationship —producers & users • Commercial Issues • Biomass feedstock, availability, & cost • Suitable sites • Production technologies • Qualified owner‐operator • Project financing
  4. 4. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Clean Air Act & Amendments • Series of Clean Air Acts • Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 • Clean Air Act of 1963 • Air Quality Act of 1967 • Clean Air Act Extension of 1970 • Clean Air Act Amendments in 1977 & 1990 • 1977 Clean Air Act amendments set requirements for "substantially similar gasoline“ • Oxygenates added to make motor fuels burn more cleanly & reduce tailpipe pollution (particularly CO) • Required that oxygenates be approved by the U.S. EPA • MTBE & ethanol primary choices • California Phase 3 gasoline regulation approved by California Air Resources Board in December 1999 prohibits gasoline with MTBE after Dec 31, 2002 • Water quality issues 4
  5. 5. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Renewable Fuel Standard • Energy Policy Act of 2005 • Replaced oxygenate requirements • MTBE & ethanol • Renewable fuel volume mandates • Ethanol volumes • 2nd generation production methods given a higher multiplier to encourage investment & production 5
  6. 6. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 2007 Renewable Fuel Standard 6
  7. 7. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Typical Elemental Analyses: Petroleum, Biomass, & Biofuels 7
  8. 8. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 1st Generation Biofuels • Ethanol • Typically derived from fermentation of sugars & starches • US: Corn starch • Brazil: Sugar cane juice • Biodiesel • FAME – Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (Malaysia) • From fats and oils • US: Soybean oil • Europe: Rapeseed oil 8
  9. 9. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Edible Constituents of Biomass • Starch: 70%–75% (corn) • Readily available and hydrolysable • Basis for existing U.S. “biorefineries” • Oil: 4%–7% (corn), 18%–20% (soybeans) • Readily separable from biomass feedstock • Basis for oleochemicals and biodiesel • Protein: 20%–25% (corn), 80% (soybean meal) • Key component of food • Chemical product applications 9
  10. 10. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Ethanol From Corn Starch Two primary processing options • Wet mills • Expensive to build – not common • Sophisticated operations • Multiple products (Fuel, food, & fiber) • Dry mills • Most common – fairly simple operations • Processing options making more sophisticated • Limited products – primarily ethanol & Distiller’s Dried Grains (DDG) with Solubles (DDGS) • More sophisticated operations may add germ, fermentation co-products, … 10
  11. 11. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Ethanol from Corn vs. Sugar Cane 11
  12. 12. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Criticisms of Ethanol • Food vs fuel – Divert land from growing food to growing fuel • Just a farmer subsidy • Ethanol not compatible with gasoline infrastructure – RBOB – (Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending) special blend stock to allow for RVP increase at E10 levels – Picks up water • Cannot be transported in petroleum pipelines – use water slugs between batches • Takes more energy to make that you get back – Based on “wells to wheels” Life Cycle Assessment – LCA normally compare energy out vs. fossil energy in – Highly dependent upon feedstock, farming practice, processing, … • Takes too much water to make – Highly dependent upon feedstock, farming/irrigation practice, processing, … 12
  13. 13. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Corn Ethanol Energy Balance 13 Source: M. Wang (2003)
  14. 14. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biodiesel Cycle 14
  15. 15. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biodiesel Production 15
  16. 16. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biodiesel Production Example 16
  17. 17. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 2nd Generation Biofuels • Cellulosic/Lignocellulosic Ethanol – Biochemical pathway • Utilize sugars from cellulose & hemicellulose – Thermochemical pathway • Utilize all carbon, including lignin • Butanol – More closely compatible to petroleum derived gasoline – From fermentation (BP/DuPont) – Gasification & catalytic synthesis • Green/Renewable Diesel/Gasoline – Hydrocarbon just like petroleum‐derived products – Multiple sources & processing paths • Hydro-processed fats & oils – Both diesel & gasoline – Could be integrated into existing refineries • End product from gasification & FT synthesis (Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of CO and H2 into liquid hydrocarbons. – Excellent diesel 17
  18. 18. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Non‐Edible Constituents of Biomass • Lignin: 15%–25% – Complex aromatic structure – Very high energy content – Resists biochemical conversion • Hemicellulose: 23%–32% – Xylose is the second most abundant sugar in the biosphere – Polymer of 5‐ and 6‐carbon sugars, marginal biochemical feed • Cellulose: 38%–50% – Most abundant form of carbon in biosphere – Polymer of glucose, good biochemical feedstock 18
  19. 19. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biochemical Conversion Process 19 Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics NREL/TP‐510‐32438 June, 2002 http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/32438.pdf
  20. 20. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Thermochemical Conversions • Pyrolysis • Thermal conversion (destruction) of organics in the absence of oxygen • In the biomass community, this commonly refers to lower temperature thermal processes producing liquids as the primary product • Possibility of chemical and food byproducts • Gasification • Thermal conversion of organic materials at elevated temperature and reducing conditions to produce primarily permanent gases, with char, water, & condensibles as minor products • Primary categories are partial oxidation and indirect heating 20
  21. 21. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Syngas Products 21 • Hydrogen • Methanol and its derivatives (NH3, DME, MTBE formaldehyde, acetic acid, MTG, MOGD, TIGAS) • Fischer Tropsch Liquids • Ethanol • Mixed alcohols • Olefins • Oxosynthesis • Isosynthesis Products from Syngas TIGAS - Topsoe's Improved Gasoline Synthesis Process (converts the synthesis gas to gasoline) MTG - Methanol-to-Gasoline MOGD - (Mobil-Olefins-to-Gasoline-and- Distillate
  22. 22. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Thermochemical Conversion 22 Personal communication Ryan Davis, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. November 2009.
  23. 23. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Hydrodeoxygenation of Organic Oils • Organic oils can be hydrotreated to form “green” diesel • Fully compatible with petroleum derived diesel • Excellent cetane number because of the straight chain nature • Challenges for catalyst design • Oxygen relatively easy to remove, but large oxygen content • Prefer to deoxygenate to CO2 to maximize fuel usage of H2 23 “Hydrotreating in the production of green diesel”, . Egeberg, N. Michaelsen, L. Skyum, & P. Zeuthen Journal of Petroleum Technology, 2nd Quarter 2010
  24. 24. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Algae • Better solar collector than land‐based biomass • Higher solar utilization • Lower land use requirements • Can use brackish water • Limitation is getting carbon to the organism • Co‐locate with power plants – use CO2 in flue gas • Biofuels potential • Kill the algae & harvest its natural oils • Biodiesel or biocrude feedstock • Biocatalyst to secrete desired product • Like yeast for fermentation • Hydrogen production possible 24 • Near‐term processing steps • Cultivation • Open ponds • Low cost but high potential for contamination • Photo bioreactors – flat panel, tubular, column • Higher cost but more controlled conditions • Harvesting • High water content of algae • Oil extraction • Intercellular rather than intracellular • Usually chemical extraction
  25. 25. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Bioethanol Production 25
  26. 26. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biofuels Production 26
  27. 27. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biomass Cycle 27
  28. 28. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Composition of Plant Biomass 28 • The chemical composition of plant biomass varies among species. Yet, in general terms, plants are made of approximately 25% lignin and 75% carbohydrates or sugars. • The carbohydrate fraction consists of many sugar molecules linked together in long chains or polymers. • Two categories are distinguished: cellulose and hemi-cellulose. The lignin fraction consists of non-sugar type molecules that act as a glue holding together the cellulose fibers. Cellulose Hemi-cellulose Lignin Softwood 45 25 30 Hardwood 42 38 20 Straw stalks 40 45 15 Typical values for the composition of straw, softwoods and hardwoods
  29. 29. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Where does biomass come from? The Global carbon cycle 29 • Carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and water absorbed by the plants roots are combined in the photosynthetic process to produce carbohydrates (or sugars) that form the biomass. • The solar energy that drives photosynthesis is stored in the chemical bonds of the biomass structural components. During biomass combustion, oxygen from the atmosphere combines with the carbon in biomass to produce CO2 and water. • The process is therefore cyclic because the carbon dioxide is then available to produce new biomass. • This is also the reason why bio-energy is potentially considered as carbon-neutral, although some CO2 emissions occur due to the use of fossil fuels during the production and transport of biofuels.
  30. 30. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Representation of the Global Carbon Cycle 30 The figure above shows the global carbon reservoirs in Gtons of carbon (1GtC = 1012 kg) and the annual fluxes and accumulation rates in GtC/year, calculated over the period 1990 to 1999. The values shown are approximate and considerable uncertainties exist as to some of the flow values.
  31. 31. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biomass Resources 31 • Biomass resources can be classified according to the supply sector Supply Type Sector Example Forestry Dedicated forestry Short rotation plantations (e.g. willow, poplar, eucalyptus) Forestry by-products Wood blocks, wood chips from thinnings Agriculture Dry lignocellulosic energy crops Herbaceous crops (e.g. miscanthus, reed canary grass, giant reed) Oil, sugar and starch energy crops Oil seeds for methyl esters (e.g. rape seed, sunflower) Sugar crops for ethanol (e.g. sugar cane, sweet sorghum) Starch crops for ethanol (e.g. maize, wheat) Agricultural residues Straw, prunings from vineyards and fruit trees Livestock waste Wet and dry manure Industry Industrial residues Industrial waste wood, sawdust from sawmills Fibrous vegetable waste from paper industries Waste Dry lignocellulosic Residues from parks and gardens (e.g. prunings, grass) Contaminated waste Demolition wood Organic fraction of municipal solid waste Biodegradable land filled waste, landfill gas Sewage sludge
  32. 32. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biomass in Malaysia 32 Municipal Wastes Sugarcane 1% Biomass Rice 1% Wood 1% Oil Palm 94% EFB Fibre Shell POME Forest Sawmill Husk Straw Bagasse Molasses MSW Landfill Gas Organic Fertlizer Fronds/ trunk Abundant in Malaysia > 70 million tonnes collected / year Production of biomass throughout the year because of –high sunlight intensity/time and high rainfall Main contributor of biomass is the palm oil industry, mainly ligno-cellulosics • Malaysia generates in excess of 15,000 tons of solid waste per day • Malaysian government recognizes the importance of preserving the environment by promoting recycling (4R)
  33. 33. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Current Applications and Potential of Renewable Energy (Biomass-Oil Palm Industry) 33
  34. 34. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Current Applications and Potential of Renewable Energy (Potential : Biomass-Oil Palm Industry) 34 Industry Production (1000 xTon) Residues Residues Product Ratio (%) Residues Generated (1000 x Ton) Potential Energy (PJ) Potential Electricity (MWe) Oil palm 59,800 EFB 21.14 12,642 59 570 (at 65%MC) Fiber 12.72 7,607 113 1080 Shells 5.67 3,391 57 545 Total 23,640 229 2195 Others (POME) 41,860 24 346 Ref: BioGen,2004
  35. 35. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Current Applications and Potential of Renewable Energy (Biomass : Approved Projects) 35 No. Type Energy Resource Approved Application Grid Connected Capacity (MW) 1 Biomass Empty Fruit Bunches 15 103.2 Wood Residues 1 6.6 Rice Husk 1 4.1 Municipal Solid Waste 4 25 2 Landfill Gas 3 6.0 3 Mini-hydro 23 93.2 Total 47 244 Source: Energy Commission, July 2006
  36. 36. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Applications and Potential of Renewable Energy (Biomass : Rubber Residues) 36 • The replanting of rubber plantations used to be very important source of fuel. However, with the development of technology for the utilization of rubber wood for the manufacture of furniture and other value-added wood products, the availability of rubber wood waste for fuel is much decreased.
  37. 37. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Applications and Potential of Renewable Energy (Biomass : Paddy Residues) 37 Industry Production Year 2000 (x1000 Ton) Residues Residue product Ratio (%) Residues Generated (1000 x Ton) Potential Energy (PJ) Potential Power ( MW ) Rice 2,140 Rice Husk 22 471 7.536 72.07 Paddy Straw 40 856 8.769 83.86 TOTAL 2,140 1327 16.305 155.93 Ref: BioGen,2004
  38. 38. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Applications and Potential of Renewable Energy (Biomass : MSW) 38 Year Population (Million) Estimated amount of wastes (mil.ton/yr) 1991 17.5 4.5 1994 18.9 5.0 2015 31.3 7.8 2020 35.9 9.0 Ref: BioGen,2004 Industrial 24% Construction 9% Municipal 2% Domestic 49% Commercial/ Institutional 16% Composition of Solid MSW in Malaysia
  39. 39. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Current Applications and Potential of Renewable Energy 39 • 2 MW installed capacity. • Fuel by biogas captured from the landfill area. • Commissioned in April 2004. TNB Jana Landfill at Puchong TSH Bio Energy Project • Located in Kunak, Sabah • Generation Capacity of 14 MW (10 MW to be sold to SESB) • Fuel by oil palm residues (EFB, shells and fibres) • Commissioned in December 2004
  40. 40. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biomass Potential in Malaysia 40 Location Hectare under oil palm cultivation (2005) Number of Palms (at 136/Ha) million FFB delivered to Mills Million Tonnes Sabah 1,081,102 147 25 Sarawak 405,729 55 6 Peninsula Malaysia 1,956,129 266 43 Total 3,450,960 468 74 Oil Palm planted areas and FFB production in 2005 By 2020 5,500,000 new acreage mainly in Sarawak & Sabah
  41. 41. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biomass Potential in Malaysia 41 Biomass Components Quantity Available million tons(2005) Energy Potential (MWhr) Empty fruit bunches (EFB) 17.0 At 9t/MWh = 1,900 Fibre 9.60 Shell 4.44 Wet shell 1.48 At 2t/MWh = 0.74 Oil Palm Biomass- Energy potential Sources: MPOB, Malaysian Statistics of Oil Palm 2005
  42. 42. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 42 Biomass Resource Potential for Malaysia Renewable Energy Energy Value (RM mil per annum) Forest residues 11,984 Oil palm biomass 6,379 Solar thermal 3,023 Mill residues 836 Hydro 506 Solar PV 378 Municipal Waste 190 Rice Husk 77 Landfill gas 4
  43. 43. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Malaysian Gov’t Initiatives in promoting Renewable Resources 43 Type Energy Resource Approved Application Generation Capacity (MW) Grid Connected Capacity (MW) Biomass Empty Fruit Bunches 22 200.5 165.9 Wood Residues 1 6.6 6.6 Rice Husk 2 12.0 12.0 Municipal Solid Waste 1 5.0 5.0 Mix Fuels 3 19.2 19.2 Landfill Gas 5 10.2 10.0 Mini-hydro 26 99.2 97.4 Wind and Solar 0 0 0.0 Total 60 352.70 316.1 Sources: Hashim, Mazlina, 2005 As of August 2004 , SREP Projects Approved by SCORE stands at 60
  44. 44. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Energy Content in Biomass 44 • The calorific value of a fuel is usually expressed as Higher Heating Value (HHV) and/or Lower Heating Value (LHV). The difference is caused by the heat of evaporation of the water formed from the hydrogen in the material and the moisture. The difference between the two heating values depends on the chemical composition of the fuel. • The HHV correspond to the maximum potential energy released during complete oxidation of a unit of fuel. It includes the thermal energy recaptured by condensing and cooling all products of combustion. • The LHV was created in the late 1800s when it became obvious that condensation of water vapour or sulfur oxide in smoke stacks lead to corrosion and destruction of exhaust systems. As it was technically impossible to condense flue gases of sulfur-rich coal, the heat below 150°C was considered of no practical use and therefore excluded from energy considerations. • The most important property of biomass feedstocks with regard to combustion – and to the other thermo-chemical processes - is the moisture content, which influences the energy content of the fuel. • the evolution of the lower heating value (LHV, in MJ/kg) of wood as a function of the moisture content.
  45. 45. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Moisture Content For Selected Biomass Resources 45 Biomass resource Moisture content Wt % (wb) Industrial fresh wood chips and sawdust 40 – 60 Industrial dry wood chips and sawdust 10 – 20 Fresh forest wood chips 40 – 60 Chips from wood stored and air-dried several months 30 – 40 Waste wood 10 – 30 Dry straw 15
  46. 46. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Some typical characteristics of biomass fuels compared to oil and coal 46 • Biomass resources include a wide variety of materials diverse in both physical and chemical properties. These variations may be critical for the final performance of the system. Some advanced applications require fairly narrow specifications for moisture, ash content, ash composition. Both the physical and chemical characteristics vary significantly within and between the different biomass raw materials. • However, biomass feedstocks are more uniform for some of their properties compared with competing feedstocks such as coal or petroleum. • Coals show gross heating value ranges from 20 - 30 GJ/ton. • Nearly all kinds of biomass feedstocks destined for combustion fall in the range 15-19 GJ/ton for their LHV, (most woody materials are 18-19 GJ/tonne), (most agricultural residues are in the region of 15- 17 GJ/ton). Typical characteristics GJ/t toe/t kg/m³ GJ/m³ Volume oil equivalent (m³)Fuel Fuel oil 41,9 1,00 950 39,8 1,0 Coal 25,0 0,60 1000 25,0 1,6 Pellets 8% moist. 17,5 0,42 650 11,4 3,5 Pile wood (stacked, 50%) 9,5 0,23 600 5,7 7,0 Industrial softwood chips 50% moist. 9,5 0,23 320 3,0 13,1 Industrial softwood chips 20% moist. 15,2 0,36 210 3,2 12,5 Forest softwood chips 30% moist. 13,3 0,32 250 3,3 12,0 Forest hardwood chips 30% moist. 13,3 0,32 320 4,3 9,3 Straw chopped 15% moist. 14,5 0,35 60 0,9 45,9 Straw big bales 15% moist. 14,5 0,35 140 2,0 19,7
  47. 47. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Volume (m³) required to substitute 1 m³ of oil by some other fuels 47
  48. 48. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 What is Modern Bioenergy? 48 • Bioenergy is energy of biological and renewable origin, normally derived from purpose-grown energy crops or by- products of agriculture. • Examples of bioenergy resources are wood, straw, bagasse and organic waste. • The term bioenergy encompasses the overall technical means through which biomass is produced, converted and used. • Modern bio-energy refers to some technological advances in biomass conversion combined with significant changes in energy markets that allow exploring an increased contribution of biomass to our energy needs, whether throughout traditional and emerging technological areas (e.g. from combustion to liquid biofuels).
  49. 49. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 The Range Of Costs For Different Fossil And Renewable Technologies And Fuels 49 • Biomass is the cheapest of the renewable energies for electricity production. • Biomass is present almost everywhere, indigenous energy source generation of electricity. • The figures in blue, represent the CO2 emissions from each fuel. • Biomass is a CO2 saver as it emits only 30 kg of CO2 equiv/MWh (fossil fuels : range 400 - 800 kg of CO2 equiv/MWh). • Subsidies are unfairly supporting high carbon emitters, thus limiting the growth of renewable energies. Removal of such subsidies seems unlikely as this will only increase electricity prices. • Gradual reduction in these subsidies should lead to an increase in low carbon technology markets. Subsidies NOT shown
  50. 50. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Bioenergy Key Drivers And Advantages 50 Some bioenergy key drivers consist in its contribution to: • the reduction of energy dependency on energy imports and thus, the increased security of supply • the climate change mitigation (bioenergy use decrease net greenhouse gas emissions and some other noxious gas emissions compared to fossil fuels and the fight against desertification • stable employment opportunities in rural areas and among small and medium sized enterprises; this in turn fosters regional development, achieving greater social and economic cohesion at community level.
  51. 51. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Other Important Advantages Of Bioenergy 51 • Widespread resources are available • Biomass resources show a considerable potential in the long term, if residues are properly valorised and dedicated energy crops are grown. Bioenergy makes valuable use of some wastes, avoiding their pollution and cost of disposal • Biomass has the capacity to penetrate every energy sector: heating, power and transport. • Bio-fuels can be stored easily and bioenergy produced when needed • Bioenergy creates worldwide business opportunities • Biofuels are generally bio-degradable and non toxic, which is important when accident occur.
  52. 52. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Barriers To Bioenergy, Specific Actions Against Them And Driving Forces To Support These Activities 52 Barriers to bioenergy expansion • costs of bioenergy technologies and resources • competitiveness strongly depends on the amount of externalities included in the cost calculations • resource potentials and distributions • lack of organisation in supply structures for the supply of biofuels • local land-use and environmental aspects in the developing countries • administrative and legislative bottlenecks. Overcoming these barriers • improving the cost-effectiveness of conversion technologies; • developing and implementing modern, integrated bioenergy systems • it took farmers thousands of years to develop plants that are especially suitable for food. There is therefore a considerable potential in developing dedicated energy crops productivity • establishing bioenergy markets and developing bioenergy logistics (transport and delivery bioenergy resources and products • valuing of the environmental benefits for society e.g. on carbon balance.
  53. 53. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Conversion Routes to Bioenergy 53 • The energy available in biomass may be used either by direct use as in combustion, or by initial upgrading into more valuable and useful fuels such as charcoal, liquid fuels, producer gas or biogas. • Thus, biomass conversion technologies can be separated into 4 basic categories: • direct combustion, • thermo-chemical conversion processes (pyrolysis, gasification), • bio-chemical processes (anaerobic digestion, fermentation) and • physico-chemical processes (the route to biodiesel).
  54. 54. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 54 Stage Emerging technologies Future technologies Biomass resources • New energy crops • New oilseed crops • Bio-waste management • Bio-engineering of new energy plants • Development of low-energy agricultural production systems • Aquatic biomass (algae) • IT methods in land and biological systems management Supply systems • Use of new agro-machinery • Biomass densification • Other simple pretreatments (e.g. leaching) • Logistics of supply chains • Biorefining • Biotech-based quality monitoring throughout the whole procurement chain • IT tools for supply chain modelling and optimal management Conversion • Advanced combustion • Co-combustion • Gasification • Pyrolysis • Bioethanol from sugar and starch • Bioethanol from lignocellulosics • Biodiesel from vegetable oils • Advanced anaerobic digestion • Biohydrogen (hydrogen from bioconversion of biomass) • Plasma-based conversions • Advanced bioconversion schemes • Other novel conversion pathways (e.g. electrochemical) • Novel schemes for down-stream processing (e.g. of pyrolytic liquids or synthetic FT-biofuels) End products • Bioheat • Bioelectricity • Transport biofuels • Upgraded solid biofuels (pellets) • Use of hydrogen in fuel cells • Use of FT-biofuels in new motor-concepts e. g. CCS (Combined Combustion Systems) • New bio-products (biotech) • Complex, multi-product systems (IT) • CO2 sequestration; other new end-use “cultures” (e.g., user-friendliness, “closed cycle”) System integration • Normalisation and standards • Best practices • Economic/ecological modelling and optimisation • IT-based management • Socio-technical and cultural design of applications • Sustainability based on global as well as local effects
  55. 55. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biofuels Procurement / Production Costs 55 EU-15 10 NMS + BG + RO €/GJ €/toe €/GJ €/toe Tradables Forestry by-products 2.4 100 2.1 88 Wood fuels 4.3 180 2.7 113 Dry agricultural residues 3.0 126 2.1 88 Solid industrial residues 1.6 67 2.5 105 Solid energy crops 5.4 226 4.4 184 Imported biofuels 6 251 6 251 Transport fuels Biodiesel 23 ≈ 960 23 ≈ 960 Bio-ethanol 29 ≈ 1200 29 ≈ 1200 • On average, supply costs of tradable biomass fuels in the EU-15 vary from 1.6 EUR/GJ (solid industrial residues) to 5.4 EUR/GJ (solid energy crops). • On average, the supply costs of solid energy crops are close to those of imported biomass, which was taken at a standard level of 6 EUR/GJ. • Single average supply costs of 23-29 EUR/GJ were determined for the refined bio-transport fuels bio-ethanol (from sugar beet and wheat) and biodiesel (from rape and sunflower seed). Average supply costs of tradable biomass and crops for transport fuels (EUR/GJ).
  56. 56. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Overview of investment costs and production costs of biofuels 56 Investment costs [€/kWhr] Productions costs [€/litre] Productions costs [€/GJ] short term Long term short term long term short term long term Ethanol (sugar crops) 290 170 0.32 - 0.54 15 - 25 Ethanol (wood) 350 180 0.11 - 0.32 5 - 15 RME 150 110 0.50 0.20 15 6 Methanol 700 530 0.14 - 0.20 0.10 9 - 13 7 DME 0.27 14 Fischer-Tropsch diesel 720-770 500-540 0.31 - 0.45 9 - 13 Pyrolysis oil 1.000 790 0.06 - 0.25 4 - 18 HTU diesel 535 400 0.16 - 0.24 5 - 7
  57. 57. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Competitiveness in the electricity market . Capital costs & efficiencies of principal bioelectricity & competing conversion technologies 57 Technology Capital cost in 2002 (EUR/kWe) Capital cost in 2020 (EUR/kWe) Electrical efficiency (%) Cost of electricity in 2020 ** (EUR/MWh) Existing coal – co-firing 250 250 35 - 40 24 – 47 Existing coal and natural gas combined cycle – parallel firing 700 600 35 - 40 34 – 59 Grate / fluid bed boiler + steam turbine* 1500 - 2500 1500 – 2500 20 - 40 57 - 140 Gasification + diesel engine or gas turbine - (50 kWe – 30 MW)* 1500 - 2500 1000 - 2000 20 – 30 50 - 120 Gasification + combined cycle - (30 – 100 MWe) 5000 - 6000 1500 - 2500 40 – 50 53 - 100 Wet biomass digestion + engine or turbine 2000 - 5000 2000 - 5000 25 - 35 52 - 130 Landfill gas + engine or turbine 1000 - 1200 1000 25 - 35 26 Pulverised coal – 500 MWe 1300 1300 35 - 40 48 – 50 Natural gas combined cycle – 500 MWe 500 500 50 - 55 23 - 35 • Larger scale systems will be characterised by the lowest cost and higher efficiency in the value ranges ** 15% discount rate; biomass fuel cost between 7,2 and 14,4 EUR/MWh except for digestion and landfill gas plants where fuel cost assumed to be zero; coal cost 5,8 EUR/MWh; natural gas cost between 5,4 and 10,8 EUR/MWh. The cost is calculated for electricity supply only and cogeneration could reduce the electricity cost significantly. Source: Bauen et. al,2003
  58. 58. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Environmental benefits of Bioenergy 58 + avoided mining of fossil resources – emission from biomass production + avoided fossil fuel transport (from producer to user) – emission from biomass fuel transport (from producer to user) + avoided fossil fuel utilisation • One of the key drivers to bioenergy deployment is its positive environmental benefit, in particular regarding the global balance of green house gas (GHG) emissions. • IEA Bioenergy Task 38 (Greenhouse Gas Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems) investigates all processes involved in the use of bioenergy systems on a full fuel-cycle basis with the aim of establishing overall GHG balances. • This is not a trivial matter, because biomass production and use are not entirely GHG neutral. In general terms, the GHG emission reduction as a result of employing biomass for energy, read as follows: Budget breakdown of GHG emission savings
  59. 59. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Environmental Benefits 59 • The real gains are made with that of avoided emissions from the use of fossil fuels. The balance of the other four matters is not neutral, and in fact slightly negative for the biomass system. Two GHG emission types are omitted from the above balance: the negative emission (capture) as a result of biomass growth, and the positive emission as a result from using the biomass fuel. They are considered to cancel out. • GHG emission balances for biomass-fuelled electricity and heat applications GHG balances for a wide range of technologies to produce electricity and heat were prepared by Elsayed, Matthews and Mortimer (2003). System boundaries encompassed the entire chain from fuel production to end-use. • Some biomass systems show net GHG emissions savings of more than 40% of the substituted fossil alternatives, while some others only score 4%. • Thus, the span of the environmental benefit is wide, and the effective value will depend on the particular application situation (technology, scale etc). • The total GHG emissions from contaminated biomass fuels (non-tradables) are set at 0, since these fuels are available anyway. There existence cannot be avoided, and all GHG emissions associated with their production should be allocated to the products from which they are the unavoidable result.
  60. 60. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 GHG savings for selected technologies to produce electricity and heat from biomass fuels 60 Source: Elsayed, Matthews and Mortimer (2003).
  61. 61. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 GHG Emission Balances Of Selected Bio-transport Fuels 61 • For an assessment of GHG emission reduction that result from replacing fossil transport fuels by biofuels, the entire life cycle of the respective fuels is usually considered from well to wheel. A complete life cycle analysis (LCA) of emissions takes into account • the direct emissions from vehicles and also those associated with the fuel’s production process, (extraction, production, transport, processing and distribution). • Ranges in data result from local variations between fuel routes and differences in technology, which may occur at all stages of the well- to-wheel fuel chain. • The pivots indicate the uncertainty related to the used data. • The substitution of biodiesel for petrol results in a total GHG emission reduction of 45-80%. If replacing fossil diesel fuel, this emission reduction is smaller, because diesel shows lower CO2-equivalent well-to-wheel emissions than petrol. The range of ethanol-starch is quite broad, which can be partly explained by differences in crop (corn, sugar beet, molasses), and differences in technology.
  62. 62. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 GHG Savings For Selected Bio-transport Fuels 62 Source: Elsayed, Matthews and Mortimer (2003)
  63. 63. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Global GHG Emission Savings 63 • From the White Paper issued in 1997, it appears that biomass would be the biggest contributor in absolute terms to the CO2 emissions reduction effort. Estimated CO2 benefits from the increase of renewable energy in the EU primary energy supply Additional capacity (1997-2010) CO2 reduction (Mt CO2-eq./year) Biomass 90 Mtoe 255 Wind 36 GW 72 Hydro 13 GW 48 Solar collectors 94 Mio m2 19 Geothermal 2.5 GW 5 Photovoltaic 3 GWp 3
  64. 64. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Employment Benefits 64 • Bioenergy is a decentralised energy option whose implementation presents positive impacts on rural development by creating business and employment opportunities. Jobs are created all along the bioenergy chain, from biomass production or procurement, to its transport, conversion, distribution and marketing. • Bioenergy appears as the most labour-intensive sector among renewables. The jobs created range from manual ones to specialised engineering and administration positions. • Through liquid biofuels, bioenergy can also offer agriculture an opportunity to diversify its market outcomes. • From the perspective of bioenergy projects, the term employment usually includes three different categories. Direct employment results from operation, construction and production. In the case of bioenergy systems, this refers to the total labour necessary for crop production, construction, operation and maintenance of conversion plants, and for the transportation of biomass. • Indirect employment is jobs generated within the economy as a result of expenditures related to biomass fuel cycles. Indirect employment results from all activities connected, but not directly related, such as supporting industries, services and similar. • The higher purchasing power, due to increased earnings from direct and indirect jobs may also create opportunities for new secondary jobs, which may attract people to stay or even to move in. These latter effects are referred to as induced employment. • The main issue is whether the bioenergy project will provide earnings that are high enough for long enough to make it worthwhile to mobilise local resources for implementation.
  65. 65. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 An estimate of the employment effect of forest chips production in Finland by 2010 65 Product Production 1000 m3 Man.years/ 1000 m3 Man.years/ annum Small tree chips - whole tree chips, mechanised cutting 600 0.60 360 - whole tree chips, manual cutting 200 1.20 240 - stemwood chips, self-employed forest owners 200 2.00 400 Logging residues chips 2500 0.30 750 Stump chips 1500 0.35 525 Forest chips, total 5000 0.45 2275
  66. 66. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Employment per PJ Annual Fuel Consumption Among Selected European Projects 66 Biomass source/ technology MWth Direct jobs Indirect jobs Induced jobs Total jobs Multiplier Country SRC, gasifier 2 51 11 36 98 1.25 The UK Miscanthus, heat 0.13 321 0 214 534 1.21 Belgium Forest residues, CHP 40 52 33 30 115 1.30 France Triticale, proc. Heat 2 134 60 28 222 1.33 Germany Artichoke, heat 1 269 19 93 380 1.50 Greece SRC, gasifier 5 36 21 23 80 1.29 Ireland Ind. Residues, CHP 17 41 11 13 65 1.46 Italy Waste etc. CHP 5 13 2 27 42 1.18 Netherlands Logging Residues, heat 10 52 2 21 76 1.26 Sweden
  67. 67. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Impact Of Renewable Technologies On Employment In The European Union 67 Technology 2005 2010 2020 Bioenergy 449,928 642,683 838,780 - Energy crops and residues, forest residues 307,641 416,538 515,364 - Bio-anaerobic 37,223 70,168 120,285 - Bio-thermal 94,164 123,608 154,422 - Liquid biofuels 10,900 32,369 48,709 Solar thermal heat 4590 7390 14, 311 PV 479 -1769 10,231 Solar thermal electric 593 649 621 Wind onshore 8690 20,822 35,211 Wind offshore 530 -7968 -6584 Small hydro -11,391 -995 7977 TOTAL 453,418 660,812 900,546 Source: IEA, 2003 (from the ECOTEC study “The impact of renewables on employment and economic growth. Directorate General for Energy, European Commission, 1999.) • The use of renewable energy technologies will more than double by 2020 and will lead to the creation of about 900,000 jobs by 2020. • More than 90% of these jobs (approximately 840,000) will be in the bioenergy sector and 500,000 of them in the agricultural industry in order to provide primary biomass fuels. Impact of renewable technologies on employment in the European Union (new net jobs FTE employment relative to base in 1995)
  68. 68. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Bioenergy employment in the EU 68 Bioenergy employment in the EU (new net jobs FTE employment relative to base in 1995
  69. 69. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Bioenergy employment in the EU 69 • There is quite a wide consensus that, over the coming decades, modern biofuels will provide a substantial source of alternative energy. Nowadays, biomass already provides approximately 11-14% of the world’s primary energy consumption (data vary according sources). There are significant differences between industrialised and developing countries, as shown in the figure below. In particular, in many developing countries bioenergy is the main energy source. Bioenergy contribution worldwide as a fraction of total energy consumption
  70. 70. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biomass in Relatively Poor Countries 70 • For 75% of the world’s population living in developing countries, biomass is the most important source of energy. • With increases in population and per capita demand, and depletion of fossil-fuel resources, the demand for biomass is expected to increase rapidly in developing countries. • On average, biomass produces 35 % of the primary energy in developing countries, but many sub-Saharan countries depend on biomass for up to 90 %. • Biomass will remain an important global energy source in developing countries well into the next century. • Despite its wide use in developing countries, biomass is used with very low efficiency applications. • The overall efficiency in traditional use (e.g. cooking stoves) is only about 5 - 15 %, and biomass is often less convenient to use compared with fossil fuels. • It can also be a health hazard in some circumstances. For example, cooking stoves can release particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxides (NOx) and other organic compounds in poorly ventilated homes, often far exceeding the recommended World Health Organisation levels. • Furthermore, inefficient biomass utilisation is often associated with the increasing scarcity of hand-gathered wood, nutrient depletion, and the problems of deforestation and desertification.
  71. 71. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Bio-energy in the EU 71 Bio-energy in the EU • In the EU, renewable energy sources provide approximately 6% of the total gross inland energy consumption (5.7% in 2002 for the EU-25). EU-25 gross inland consumption by fuel
  72. 72. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Contribution of RES to the EU Primary Energy Supply 72 EU-15 EU-25 Mtoe % Mtoe % Renewables 85,3 100% 94,9 100% Biomass 53,9 63% 62,1 65% Hydro 24,2 28% 25,6 27% Wind 3,1 4% 3,1 3% Solar 0,5 1% 0,5 1% Geothermal 3,7 4% 3,7 4% • Bioenergy contributes about 64% of all RES primary energy requirements of the European Union, about 98% of RES heat and 9% of RES electricity. Bioenergy use in EU countries varies from 1% in the UK to 20% in Finland. Contribution of RES to the EU primary energy supply (2002) Source: EUROSTAT
  73. 73. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Contribution of RES to the EU Primary Energy Supply 73
  74. 74. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biomass Resources Assessments 74 Biomass resources assessments • Biomass resources and potential are considerable. Estimations vary according to the calculation methodology and the assumptions made (e.g. land use patterns for food production, agricultural management systems, wood demand evolution, production technologies used, natural forest growth etc). It is also common to distinguish several potentials: • Theoretical potential: the theoretical maximum potential is limited by factors such as the physical or biological barriers that cannot be altered given the current state of science. • Technical potential: the potential that is limited by the technology used and the natural circumstances. • Economic potential: the technical potential that can be produced at economically profitable levels. • Ecological potential: the potential that takes into account ecological criteria, e.g. loss of biodiversity or soil erosion.
  75. 75. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Biomass resources : World Bioenergy Potential 75 • Bioenergy could in principle provide all the world’s energy requirements, but its real technical and economic potential is much lower 10%. • The WEC Survey of Energy Resources (2001) estimates that bioenergy could theoretically provide 2900 EJ/y, but that technical and economic factors limit its current practical potential to just 270 EJ/y. • Table B1 shows the potential and current use of bioenergy by region. Even with the current resource base, the practical potential of bioenergy is much greater than its current exploitation. • Obstacles to greater use of bioenergy include poor matching between demand and resources, and high costs compared to other energy sources. • Projections by the WEC, WEA and IPCC estimate that by 2050 bioenergy could supply a maximum of 250–450 EJ/y, representing around 25% of global final energy demand. • The technological potential of bioenergy at 30% of global energy demand.
  76. 76. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Current Technical Potentials And Biomass Use Compared To Primary Energy Consumption (PEC) From Fossil Fuels & Hydro 76 PEC fossil fuels + hydro Bioenergy use Bioenergy potential Use / potential Use / PEC Potential / PEC (EJ/year) % North-America 104.3 3.1 19.9 16% 3% 19% Latin-America & Caribbean 15.1 2.6 21.5 12% 17% 142% Asia * 96.8 23.2 21.4 108% 24% 22% Africa 11 8.3 21.4 39% 75% 195% Europe 74.8 2 8.9 22% 3% 12% Former USSR 37.5 0.5 10 5% 1% 27% Total 339.5 39.7 103.1 39% 12% 30% Current technical potentials and biomass use compared to primary energy consumption (PEC) from fossil fuels & hydro • In Asia the actual use of biomass is higher than the potential. The value for potential and actual use refer to sustainable use, indicating that in the case of Asia the actual use is not sustainable, i.e. it can not be sustained over a long period, due to e.g. limited land availability Source: Kaltschmitt, 2001
  77. 77. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Current Technical Potentials And Biomass Use Compared To Primary Energy Consumption (PEC) From Fossil Fuels & Hydro 77
  78. 78. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Estimation of Global Conventional And Biomass Resources 78 Energy category Million toe EJ Oil statistics (ENI, 2003-2004) Annual oil extraction 3850 161.2 World oil reserves 149600 6263.5 World energy statistics (IEA, 2003) World annual primary energy supply 10376 434.4 - Oil 3715 155.5 - Coal 2379 99.6 - Natural gas 2169 90.8 - Renewables & Waste 1121 46.9 - Nuclear 695 29.1 - Hydro 228 9.5 - Other (includes geothermal, solar, wind, etc.) 52 2.2 EUROSTAT, EU-25 Energy statistics (2002) Annual gross inland consumption (GIC) 1680 70.3 Share of renewable energy sources in GIC 95 4.0 Share of bioenergy in GIC 62 2.6 EU-25 (+Bulgaria, +Romania) biomass available potential (BTG, 2004) Biomass available potential by 2010 183 7.7 Biomass available potential by 2020 210 8.8
  79. 79. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Estimation of Global Conventional And Biomass Resources 79 Energy category Million toe EJ EUBIA 2020 biomass potential in the EU-25 200 8.4 2050 biomass potential in the EU-25 400 16.7 EU-25 forest biomass, crop residues and energy crops (Ericsson, Nilsson, 2004) Scenario 1 (short term, 10-20 years) 105 4.4 Scenario 2a (medium term, 20-40 years; low harvest) 184 7.7 Scenario 2b(medium term, 20-40 years; high harvest) 220 9.2 Scenario 3a (long term, >40 years; low harvest) 375 15.7 Scenario 3b (long term, >40 years; high harvest) 451 18.9 World bioenergy potential from forestry by 2050 (Smeets et al., 2004) Low demand 764 32.0 Medium demand 1027 43.0 High demand 1242 52.0 Bioenergy technical production potentials from agricultural residues and bioenergy production on surplus agricultural lands to 2050 (Smeets et al., 2004) World min. 6520 273.0 World max. 35134 1471.0 West Europe min. 191 8.0 West Europe max. 597 25.0 East Europe min. 96 4.0 East Europe max. 693 29.0
  80. 80. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Availability of bioenergy in Europe in 2000, 2010 and 2020 (Mtoe/yr) 80 Source: BTG, 2004 EU-15 10 NMS + BG, RO 2000 2010 2020 2000 2010 2020 Tradables: 86 93 101 21 22 24 Forestry by products & (refined) wood fuels 34 38 42 7.9 8.7 9.6 Solid agricultural residues 25 28 31 7.3 8.1 8.9 Solid industrial residues 11 12 13 2.1 2.4 2.6 Solid energy crops* 16 16 16 3.2 3.2 3.2 Non-tradeables: 40 53 66 7.1 9.4 13 Wet manure 11 12 13 3.4 3.8 4.2 Organic waste - Biodegradable municipal waste 6.7 17 28 0.5 2.5 5.7 - Demolition wood 5.3 5.8 6.4 0.6 0.6 0.7 - Dry manure 1.9 2 2.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 - Black liquor 9.9 11 12 0.7 0.8 0.9 Sewage gas 1.7 1.9 2.1 0.4 0.4 0.5 Landfill gas 4.0 3.8 2.1 1.1 0.9 0.4 Transport fuels 4.9 4.9 4.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 Bio-ethanol* 3.7 3.7 3.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 Bio-diesel* 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 Total bio-energy 131 151 172 28 32 38 *: It is assumed that 50% of the set-aside area is available for solid energy crops and 25% each for liquid bio- fuel (bio-ethanol and biodiesel) crops Note the growth in the availability of organic wastes, which results from the EU implementation of the EC directive on the landfill of waste (1999/31/EC). This directive discourages the land filling of biodegradable waste and prescribes a time schedule to reduce this waste disposal to a specific level.
  81. 81. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Trade of Biofuels 81 • The most critical non-technical barrier to bioenergy is the availability of resources to ensure long-term supply at a reasonable cost. International trade of solid biomass fuels and this supply chain is an important element in the development of bioenergy on a global scale. • Biofuels are usually produced and used locally. This pattern has changed in northern Europe due to industrial and large scale uses (e.g. in district heating systems) of different forms of biofuels. • Today, solid biofuels like wood residues, pellets and wood chips are traded in Europe and have reached 50 PJ/a. International biomass trade can provide biofuels at lower prices. The largest volumes of biomass are traded from the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) to the Nordic countries (especially Sweden, Denmark, Finland). Some are also traded from Finland to other Nordic countries, and between neighbouring countries in Central Europe, especially the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Slovenia and Italy. The traded biofuel is most often of refined wood fuels (pellets and briquettes) and industrial by-products (sawdust, chips), in Central Europe also wood waste. • Bio-ethanol has also become a global commodity. Since May 2004, futures in bioethanol are traded at the New York stock exchange. • Land availability for fuel crops in Europe is limited. From the current 6 million ha of set aside in the EU-15, approximately 7 Mtoe of RME could be produced, or 8.5 – 16 Mtoe of bio-ethanol (respectively from wheat or sugar beet). This corresponds to 2.1 – 4.7% of the fuel used for transport (338 Mtoe in 2002). • Brasil could have a production potential in the region of 100 Mtoe/year by 2020. Therefore, biofuels use in the EU is likely to be supported by global trade. Tropical countries are the most interesting stakeholders in biofuels due to their favourable production conditions. Moreover, their experience (e.g. Brasil) can be instrumental for biofuel development in the European context.
  82. 82. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Research & Development in Biofuels and Bioenergy 82
  83. 83. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 R & D Orentations 83 • In order to foster the development of sustainable biomass-based energy technologies, different fields of research must be integrated.
  84. 84. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 R&D and Policy Needs for Achieving Vision Goals 84
  85. 85. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Crosscutting Impacts of Feedstock Production R&D 85
  86. 86. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 R&D : Plant Biochemistry & Enzymes 86
  87. 87. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 R&D : Chemical & Biological Pathways 87
  88. 88. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 R&D : Agronomic Pathways 88
  89. 89. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 R&D : Feedstock Logistics & Handling Pathways 89
  90. 90. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Crosscutting Benefits of Processing & Conversion 90
  91. 91. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 R&D : Thermochemical Conversion 91
  92. 92. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 R&D : Bioconversion 92
  93. 93. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 R&D : Biorefinery 93
  94. 94. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 R&D : End-Products & Distribution System 94
  95. 95. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Quranic Inspiration 95 "The same Who produces for you fire out of the green trees, when behold! Ye kindle therewith (your own fires)! (Surah Yaasin : 80)
  96. 96. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Operational problems in biomass combustion 96 • Complete combustion produces minimum pollution and depends on the combustion chamber temperature, the turbulence of the burning gases, residence time and the excess O2 These parameters are governed by : • combustion technology (e.g. combustion chamber design, process control) • settings of the combustion (e.g. primary and secondary air ratio, distribution of the air nozzles) • load condition (full- or part-load) • fuel characteristics (shape, size distribution, moisture content, ash content, ash melting behaviour). • Biomass is difficult to handle and combust due to low energy density and presence of inorganic constituents. • Some types of biomass contain significant amounts of chlorine, sulfur and potassium. The salts, KCl and K2SO4, are quite volatile, and the release of these components may lead to heavy deposition on heat transfer surfaces, resulting in reduced heat transfer and enhanced corrosion rates. Severe deposits may interfere with operation and cause unscheduled shut downs. • The release of alkali metals, chlorine and sulfur to the gas-phase may also lead to generation of significant amounts of aerosols (sub-micron particles) along with relatively high emissions of HCl and SO2.
  97. 97. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Operational problems in biomass combustion 97 • The nature and severity of the operational problems related to biomass depend on the choice of combustion technique. • In grate-fired units deposition and corrosion problems are the major concern. • In fluidized bed combustion the alkali metals in the biomass may facilitate agglomeration of the bed material, causing serious problems for using this technology for herbaceous based biofuels. Fluidized bed combustors are frequently used for biomass (e.g. wood and waste material), circulating FBC are the preferred choice in larger units. • Application of biomass in existing boilers with suspension- firing is considered an attractive alternative to burning biomass in grate-fired boilers. • However, also for this technology the considerable chlorine and potassium content in some types of biomass (e.g. straw) may cause problems due to deposit formation, corrosion, and deactivation of catalysts for NO removal (SCR). • Currently wood based bio-fuels are the only biomasses that can be co-fired with natural gas; the problems of deposition and corrosion prevent the use of herbaceous biomass. However, significant efforts are aimed at co-firing of herbaceous biomass together with coal on existing pulverized coal burners. • For some problematic fuels, esp. straw a separate auxiliary boiler may be required. In addition to the concerns about to deposit formation, corrosion, and SCR catalyst deactivation, the addition of biomass in these coal units may impede the utilization of fly ash for cement production. In order to minimize these problems, various fuel pretreatment processes have been considered, including washing the straw with hot water or using a combination of pyrolysis and char treatment.
  98. 98. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Cogeneration 98 • Cogeneration is the combined production of electrical (or mechanical) and useful thermal energy from the same primary energy source. • It encompasses a range of technologies, but always includes an electricity generator and a heat recovery system. Cogeneration is also known as combined heat and power (CHP). • Comparison: • Conventional power generation, on average, is only 35% efficient – up to 65% of the energy potential is released as waste heat. • Combined cycle generation can improve efficiency to 55%, excluding losses for the transmission and distribution of electricity. • Through the utilisation of the heat, the efficiency of cogeneration plant can reach 90% or more.
  99. 99. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Benefits of Co-generation 99 • Cogeneration installations are usually sited as near as possible to the place where the heat is consumed and, ideally, are built to a size to meet the heat demand. Otherwise an additional boiler will be necessary, and the environmental advantages will be partly hindered. This is the central and most fundamental principle cogeneration. • The benefits of cogeneration are: • Increased efficiency of energy conversion and use, and thus large cost savings, providing additional competitiveness for industrial and commercial users, and offering affordable heat for domestic users • Lower emissions to the environment, in particular of CO2 • An opportunity to move towards more decentralised forms of electricity generation, and to improve local and general security of supply
  100. 100. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Deployment of Cogeneration 100 • Cogeneration is an established technology. Its ability to provide a reliable and cost-effective supply of energy has been proven. Cogeneration is currently used on many thousands of sites throughout the EU, and supplied around 10% of both the electricity generated and heat demand in the EU-15 in 1999. The EU target is to reach 18% by 2010. The following table illustrates what this target could achieve in terms of CO2 emissions reduction. The results are different depending on the fuel being displaced: Fuel displaced CO2 savings Million tonnes Coal electricity and coal boilers 342 Gas electricity and gas boilers 50 Fossil mix and boilers 188 Source: COGEN
  101. 101. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Applications of Cogeneration 101 • There are 4 broad categories of cogeneration applications: 1. small-scale cogeneration schemes, usually designed to meet space and water heating requirements in buildings, based on spark ignition reciprocating engines 2. large-scale cogeneration schemes, usually associated with steam raising in industrial and large buildings applications, and based on compression ignition reciprocating engines, steam turbines or gas turbines 3. large scale cogeneration schemes for district heating based around a power station or waste incinerator with heat recovery supplying a local heating network 4. Cogeneration schemes fuelled by renewable energy sources, which may be at any scale. • Since 1990, significant technological progress has been made to enable engine and turbine technology to be widely implemented and promote more decentralised forms of cogeneration and power generation. Cost-effectiveness and decreasing emissions have resulted. There are an increasing number of varied applications in industry and residential areas and which can be used in heating and cooling applications.
  102. 102. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Cogeneration Technologies 102 • A cogeneration plant consists of 4 basic elements: 1. a prime mover (engine), 2. an electricity generator, 3. a heat recovery system and 4. a control system. • Cogeneration units are generally classified by the type of prime mover (i.e. drive system), generator and fuel used. Currently available drive systems for cogeneration units include: • Reciprocating engines • Steam turbines • Gas turbines • Combined cycle • New developments are bringing new technologies towards the market. It is expected that fuel cells, Stirling engine and micro-turbines will become economically available from in the next decade.
  103. 103. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Typical Cogeneration Systems 103 Prime mover Fuel used Size range (MWe) Heat: power rat Electrical efficiency Overall efficiency Heat quality Pass out steam turbine Any fuel 1 - 100+ 3:1 - 8:1+ 10 - 20% Up to 80% Steam at 2 Press or more Back pressure steam turbine Any fuel 0.5 – 500 3:1 - 10:1+ 7 - 20% Up to 80% Steam at 2 Press or more Combined cycle gas turbine Gas, biogas, gasoil, LFO, LPG, naphtha 3 - 300+ 1:1 - 3:1* 35 – 55% 73 - 90% Medium grade steam; high temp. hot water Open cycle gas turbine Gas, biogas, gasoil, HFO, LFO, LPG, naphtha 0.25 - 50+ 1.5:1 - 5:1* 25 – 42% 65 – 87% High grade steam; high temp. hot water Compression Ignition engine Gas, biogas, gasoil, HFO, LFO, naphtha 0.2 - 20 0.5:1 - 3:1* 35 – 45% 65 - 90% Low pressure steam low; medium temp. hot water Spark ignition engine Gas, biogas, LHO, naphtha 0.003 – 6 1:1 - 3:1 25 - 43% 70 - 92% Low and medium temp. hot water * Highest heat:power ratios for these systems are achieved with supplementary firing. Source: COGEN
  104. 104. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Gasification 104 The SilvaGas® Gasification Process • The SilvaGas gasification technology underwent initial development at Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories as a part of the USA DOE’s Biomass Power Program. • In the process, biomass is indirectly heated using a hot sand stream to produce a medium calorific value gas (approximately 17 to 19 /Nm3.
  105. 105. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 The SilvaGas® Gasification Process 105 • The process uses 2 circulating fluidized bed reactors as the primary process vessels. The circulating sand is used as a heat transfer medium to rapidly heat the incoming biomass and convey char from the gasification reactor into the process combustor. • Thermal gasification of biomass provides flexibility for the production of the complete slate of products in a virtual “biomass refinery". Indirect gasification holds great potential as a means for generating a flexible product gas capable of fulfilling a range of energy needs by its direct use or as input to a synthesis reactor. By providing a full scale demonstration of the SilvaGas process, the VGP has been used to validate the technology and confirm its commercial viability. • The flexibility of the medium Btu gas produced in the SilvaGas process allows its use for: • Direct use as a fuel gas that can be interchanged with natural gas or distillate oil • Co-fired with biomass or fossil fuels for heating or power applications, • Use as a fuel for advanced power generation cycles including turbines or fuel cells, and • Use as a feed gas for synthesis applications such as production of Fisher Tropsch liquids, alcohols, and hydrogen.
  106. 106. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 A Commercial Scale Demonstration Plant 106 • Designed for 182 dry tonnes (200 tons) per day of biomass feed. based on the SilvaGas process was constructed in Burlington, Vermont. Burlington Electric Department’s (BED) McNeil station and commissioned in 1999. • BED’s McNeil station, 50 MW, is one of the world’s largest wood fired power stations. • It uses conventional biomass combustion technology, a stoker grate, conventional steam power cycle, and particulate removal using ESP’s. • BED improves its generating efficiency by implementing a gasification combined cycle system. • The gas produced is being used as a co-fired fuel in the existing McNeil power boilers. • A gas combustion turbine is installed to accept the product gas from the gasifier • The SilvaGas process uses short residence time circulating fluidized bed reactors for both the gasification and combustion systems. • Gasifier capital costs for a 400 ton per day (dry biomass basis) gasification plant have been estimated to be approximately USD12.0 million. • This facility will produce > 200 million Btu/hr of medium Btu product gas plus recoverable sensible energy from the flue gas and product gas streams of approximately 46 million Btu/hr. • If a net zero cost biomass fuel is assumed, a 12% ROI can be realized with a medium Btu gas selling price of $3.00/MM Btu – a value competitive in today’s energy market. • These favorable economics reflect the simplicity of operation of the SilvaGas system. Only one operator is required for plant operations, exclusive of feedstock handling. • This gas selling price does not reflect any potential tax credits or “green energy” credits.
  107. 107. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 The Vermont Gasification Project 107 Indirect Gasifier Biomass Biogas Heat Recovery Flue Gas Steam turbine Generator Electricity Char Combustor Hot Sand Steam Air Gas turbine Fuel Gas Comp Steam Char & Sand Scrubber To heat recovery & exhaust Dryer Boiler
  108. 108. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Vermont Gasifier General Layout View From West Vermont Gasifier General Layout View From East 108
  109. 109. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 The Vermont Gasification Project 109 The Vermont Gasification Plant (the largest in the world)
  110. 110. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 The Battelle High Throughput Gasification Process 110
  111. 111. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Pyrolysis Of Biomass 111 • Pyrolysis is a very old energy technology • Vehicles were run on gas produced by pyrolysis of wood in times of war. • Main advantages over conventional combustion technologies: • The combined heat and power generation via biomass gasification connected to gas-fired engines or gas turbines can achieve significantly higher electrical efficiencies (22 - 37 %) • Using the produced gas in fuel cells for power generation can achieve an even higher overall electrical efficiency of 25 - 50 %, even during partial load operation • Improved electrical efficiency of the energy conversion via pyrolysis means greater reduction in CO2. • Reduced NOx compounds and removal of pollutants in most cases. The NOx advantages may be partly lost if the gas is consumed in gas-fired engines or gas turbines. • Significantly lower emissions of NOx, CO and hydrocarbons when the gas is used in fuel cells. Steam is used to gasify biomass in order to get higher quality gas
  112. 112. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Pyrolysis Of Biomass 112 • Pyrolysis of biomass generates 3 different energy products in different quantities: coke, gas and bio-oils. • Flash pyrolysis gives high bio-oil yields, but requires further technical R&D efforts to process bio-oils • Pyrolysis as the first stage in a 2-stage gasification plant for straw and other agricultural materials does deserve consideration. • In the typical biomass gasification process, air is used as the gasifying agent and hence the gas has a low calorific value (3-5 MJ/m3). After cleaning it can be used in gas-fired engines or gas turbines. Flash pyrolysis of biomass in action
  113. 113. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Pyrolysis Of Biomass 113 • Gas turbines connected to a steam turbine will burn medium calorific value (MCV) gas (12-15 MJ/m³) more favourably than low calorific gas. The use of steam injection into the gas turbine combustion chamber (Cheng process) requires at the very least MCV gas. • The production of hydrogen or methanol from gasification of biomass or the use of producer gas in low-temperature fuel cells also require either gasifiers that operate with highly-enriched oxygen and steam, or indirectly heated gasifiers must be used with steam as a gasification medium to generate the necessary medium calorific value producer gas with high hydrogen content. • Gasification of wood, wood-type residues and waste in fixed bed or fluidised bed gasifiers with combustion of the gas for heat production is now standard. • Much greater technical problems are posed by gasification of straw and other solid agricultural materials, which generally have much higher concentrations of chlorine, nitrogen, sulphur, and alkalis. • The gasification of green biomass is still at an early stage of development. Strengthened development efforts on gasification technologies for green biomass materials are essential as the potential supply of this type of fuels is comparatively large.
  114. 114. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Pyrolysis Of Biomass 114 • Efficient cleaning of the gas and correct adaptation of the products of biomass gasification to the specific requirements of the gas combustion systems are prerequisites for use in gas-fired engines, gas turbines and fuel cells. • Tar compounds can be effectively removed by increasing the gas temperature or by catalytic cracking over nickel. There is still no economically viable solution of this problem. Tar is one of products of gasification of biomass • None of the gasifier types currently available have been successfully tested in connection with gas-fired engines in long term operation in working combined heat and power stations • Pressurised gasification achieves higher overall electrical efficiencies, but requires greater technical resources to feed the biomass into the gasifier, and problems with gas cleaning may occur. The gas produced consists mainly of high levels of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, coupled with some methane and other combustibles.
  115. 115. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Pyrolysis Of Biomass 115 • For power plants with integrated biomass gasification in the range 3 - 20 MW electricity, fluidised bed gasification of biomass under atmospheric pressure, coupled with gas turbines using the Cheng cycle or gas and steam turbines appear to be the most promising technology at present in technical and economic terms. • For combined heat and power stations with capacities up to about 2 MW electricity, gas use in gas-fired engines is, at the moment, more attractive than gas turbines. • Because of problems with fuel supply and transport, biomass gasification plants with capacities above 30 MW electricity are not a viable proposition in most countries. • The co-firing of biomass in existing large coal power stations (< 100 MW) is currently being investigated in various countries. The integration of biomass-fuelled gasifiers in coal-fired power stations would have certain advantages over stand-alone biomass gasification plants. Most important are the improved flexibility in response to annual and seasonal fluctuations in biomass availability and the lower investment costs.
  116. 116. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Pyrolysis Of Biomass 116 • Organic (carbon-based) compounds and materials can be "broken down" into their constituent elements when rapidly exposed to high temperatures in the absence of oxygen; this process is called "fast pyrolysis“. The process produces gases, liquids and solids (char). • The exact composition and volume of products produced varies depending on the specific biomass being processed: • combustible gases and BIO-oil can be used as a renewable, clean burning source of energy for heating, motive power and electrical generation. • Non combustible gases (primarily CO2) could be utilized in green house operations. • BIO-oil can be further processed into chemical feed stock for industrial and commercial applications • Carbon char can be utilized as a fuel source, or sold as a carbon compound • Ash can be utilized as an additive for cement production or agricultural fertilizer • The high temperature nature of pyrolysis will destroy pathogens and can also act to isolate and concentrate chemical pollutants for appropriate disposal.
  117. 117. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Pyrolysis Of Biomass 117
  118. 118. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Pyrolysis Benefits 118 • Production of valuable liquid, gaseous and solid products from agricultural wastes • Renewable "green" energy source (bio-oil) for use in motive power, electrical generation and/or heating • Reduction of prohibitive feed stock shipping costs • Reduction of pollution from agricultural waste, particularly the burning of certain straws (rice & flax) • Destruction of pathogens in potentially hazardous materials (animal renderings) • Soil nutrient recovery N, P, C additives in char and ash used as fertilizer additives • Adaptable to many different agricultural and agri-food materials, solid, or liquid • Bench test lab facilities available for pre-testing new materials and optimizing operating parameters
  119. 119. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Agri-THERM's Mobile Pyrolysis Pilot Plant 119 Ready to be relocated Ready for action 119 Dorchester, Ontario, Canada N0L 1G5 • Agricultural waste is a light density, large volume product and is seasonal in nature. Therefore, it is preferable to have a mobile pyrolysis plant that can be transported to the source of the waste product. • Agri-THERM have designed and built a mobile pilot plant with the capacity of processing 10 – 40 Tonne/day of agricultural waste.
  120. 120. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Pyrolysis and Gasification Factsheet 120 • Pyrolysis and gasification, like incineration, are options for recovering value from waste by thermal treatment. The basic technology concepts are not novel but, several new proprietary processes have been developed. What are Pyrolysis and Gasification ? • Both pyrolysis and gasification turn wastes into energy rich fuels by heating the waste under controlled conditions. Whereas incineration fully converts the input waste into energy and ash, these processes deliberately limit the conversion so that combustion does not take place directly. Instead, they convert the waste into valuable intermediates that can be further processed for materials recycling or energy recovery. Pyrolysis: • Thermal degradation of waste in the absence of air to produce char, pyrolysis oil and syngas, eg the conversion of wood to charcoal Gasification: • Breakdown of hydrocarbons into a syngas by carefully controlling the amount of oxygen present, eg the conversion of coal into town gas
  121. 121. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Why use Pyrolysis and Gasification ? 121 1. Increased possibilities for recycling • Pyrolysis and gasification offer more scope for recovering products from waste than incineration. When waste is burnt in a modern incinerator the only practical product is energy, whereas the gases, oils and solid char from pyrolysis and gasification can not only be used as a fuel but also purified and used as a feedstock for petro- chemicals and other applications. • Many processes also produce a stable granulate instead of an ash which can be more easily and safely utilised. In addition, some processes are targeted at producing specific recyclables such as metal alloys and carbon black. From waste gasification, in particular, it is feasible to produce hydrogen, which many see as an increasingly valuable resource. • While this type of recycling is rarely economically attractive under current market conditions, these technologies do offer the scope for increasing recycling rates to achieve government targets or address environmental concerns.
  122. 122. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Why use Pyrolysis and Gasification ? 122 2. Better energy efficiency & contribution to reducing global warming • Gasification can be used in conjunction with gas engines (and potentially gas turbines) to obtain higher conversion efficiency than conventional fossil-fuel energy generation. By displacing fossil-fuels, waste pyrolysis and gasification can help meet renewable energy targets, address concerns about global warming • Conventional incineration, used in conjunction with steam-cycle boilers and turbine generators, achieves lower efficiency. • For technical and financial reasons, many current projects do not implement these advantages, preferring instead to use proven – but lower efficiency – methods of energy recovery integration with composting and materials recovery • Many of the new processes fit well into a modern integrated approach to waste management. 3. More flexibility of scale • Systems are being developed for a wide range of capacities. • Small scale (30,000 tonne/year) systems handle wastes generated by isolated communities, while large (150,000 – 500,000 tonne/year) systems serve regional facilities.
  123. 123. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 What types of waste can be processed ? 123 • Gasification and Pyrolysis technologies can handle a very wide range of materials (over 50 different types of waste for which systems are available or under development). • Specific processes have been optimised to handle particular feedstock (for example, tyre pyrolysis and sewage sludge gasification), while others have been designed to process mixed wastes like MSW. Today, the main applications are: • Processing agricultural and forestry residues • Handling household and commercial waste • Recovering energy from residues left from materials recycling (auto- shredder residue, electrical and electronic scrap, tyres, mixed plastic waste and packaging residues) • Materials recycling and composting cannot handle mixed waste feeds – today only landfill and incineration can do this. • A few pyrolysis and gasification systems can handle unsegregated MSW, although operational reliability has not yet been fully demonstrated for most of these processes.
  124. 124. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 What processes are available commercially ? 124 •More than 150 companies are marketing systems based on pyrolysis and gasification concepts for waste treatment. Many of these are optimised for specific wastes or particular scales of operation. •Today, about 10 companies are vying for the largest potential market, bulk disposal of MSW.
  125. 125. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Is this technology proven in operation ? 125 • More than 100 facilities operating or ordered around the world, capable of processing over 4 million tonnes of waste per year. • Some plants – particularly in Europe and Japan - have been operating commercially for more than 5 years. • Many of the proprietary systems currently being promoted have only operated so far as small scale pilots and, in general, incineration is far more proven than pyrolysis and gasification for most applications. • There are of course concerns about operational reliability.
  126. 126. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 How do the economics compare with alternatives ? 126 • Shortage of hard data on true CAPEX and OPEX for 'real- world' applications (many projects have been supported by subsidies while, in other cases, vendors have forward-priced projects to secure prestigious references. • Gasification and pyrolysis have been proven commercially feasible. • But project costs are rarely significantly lower than conventional alternatives. Individual projects need to be considered on a case-by-case basis to determine economic viability.
  127. 127. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Pyrolysis and Gasification for handling unsegregated MSW 127 • Focus is on the potential for these technologies to handle the bulk disposal of household waste. Several commercial sites in Japan. • Technical and economic feasibility not fully demonstrated. • Increasing emphasis upon resource recovery and renewable energy may make these processes more attractive in the medium term. • The key to their widespread adoption will be successful extended operation at 'flagship' reference facilities.
  128. 128. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Principles of Pyrolysis 128 Mode Conditions Liquid Char Gas Fast pyrolysis moderate temperature, short residence time particularly vapour 75% 12% 13% Carbonisatio n low temperature, very long residence time 30% 35% 35% Gasification high temperature, long residence times 5% 10% 85% • Pyrolysis is thermal decomposition occurring in the absence of oxygen. It is always also the first step in combustion and gasification processes where it is followed by total or partial oxidation of the primary products. • Lower process temperature and longer vapour residence times favour the production of charcoal. • High temperature and longer residence time increase the biomass conversion to gas and moderate temperature and short vapour residence time are optimum for producing liquids. • The product distribution obtained from different modes of pyrolysis process are summarised in the table below. Fast pyrolysis for liquids production is of particular interest currently as the liquids are transportable and storage. Typical product yields (dry wood basis) obtained by different modes of pyrolysis of wood
  129. 129. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Fast Pyrolysis 129 1. Fast pyrolysis occurs in less than few seconds. Therefore chemical reaction kinetics, heat and mass transfer processes, and phase transition phenomena, play important roles. The critical issue is to bring the reacting biomass particle to the optimum process temperature and minimize its exposure to the intermediate (lower) temperatures that favour formation of charcoal either: 1. by using small particles, eg: in the fluidised bed processes, or 2. to transfer heat very fast only to the particle surface that contacts the heat source, which is applied in ablative processes. 2. In fast pyrolysis biomass decomposes to generate mostly vapours and aerosols and some charcoal. After cooling and condensation, bio-oil is formed which has a heating value about half that of conventional fuel oil. While it is related to the traditional pyrolysis processes for making charcoal, fast pyrolysis, with carefully controlled parameters gives high yields of bio- oils. The essential features of a fast pyrolysis process for producing bio-oils are: • very high heating and heat transfer rates at the reaction interface, which usually requires a finely ground biomass feed • carefully controlled pyrolysis reaction temperature 500ºC and vapour phase temperature of 400 - 450ºC, • short vapour residence times of typically < 2 seconds • rapid cooling of the pyrolysis vapours to give the bio-oil product.
  130. 130. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Fast Pyrolysis 130 3. The main product, bio-oil (75% wt on dry feed basis). By-products char and gas which are used within the process to provide the process heat requirements so there are no waste streams other than flue gas and ash. 4. A fast pyrolysis process includes drying the feed to typically < 10% water in order to minimise the water in the product liquid oil (< 15% acceptable), grinding the feed (2 mm in the case of fluid bed reactors) to ensure rapid reaction, pyrolysis reaction, separation of solids (char), quenching and collection of the liquid product (bio-oil). 5. Virtually any form of biomass can be considered for fast pyrolysis. Nearly 100 different biomass types have been tested by many laboratories ranging from agricultural wastes. 6. At the heart of a fast pyrolysis process is the reactor. Although it probably represents at most only about 10-15% of the total capital cost of an integrated system, most R & D has focused on the reactor, followed by control and improvement of liquid quality including improvement of collection systems. 7. The rest of the process consists of biomass reception, storage and handling, biomass drying and grinding, product collection, storage and, when relevant, upgrading.
  131. 131. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Overall Fast Pyrolysis Process 131 1. Reception and storage • Low capacity systems of < 3 t/h feed typically consist of a concrete pad for tipping delivered feed and a front end loader to move it between reception, storage and handling steps. • Larger size plants require more sophisticated systems employs weighbridge, tipping units, conveyors, bunker storage. 2. Feed drying • Usually essential unless a naturally dry material such as straw is available (< 10% moisture). The feed moisture report to the liquid product but also the reaction water from pyrolysis, (typically gives 12-15% water) in the product. • Waste low grade process heat would usually be employed. 3. Comminution • Particles have to be very small to fulfil the requirements of rapid heating and to achieve high liquid yields. • This is costly and reactors that can use larger particles, such as ablative pyrolysers, have an advantage. 4. Reactor • various configurations have been tested that show considerable diversity and innovation in meeting the basic requirements of fast pyrolysis. The "best" method is not yet established.
  132. 132. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Overall Fast Pyrolysis Process 132 Overall fast pyrolysis process (continue) 5. Char + ash separation • Some char is inevitably carried over from cyclones and collects in the liquid. Almost all of the ash in the biomass is retained in the char. So successful char removal gives successful ash removal. • The char may be separated and exported, otherwise it would be used to provide process heat either directly as in circulating fluid bed reactors or indirectly as in fluid bed systems . 6. Liquids collection • Larger scale processing would usually employ quenching with an immiscible liquid such as a hydrocarbon or cooled liquid product. Although collection of aerosols is difficult there has been considerable success with electrostatic precipitators. Careful design is needed to avoid blockage from differential condensation of heavy ends. Light ends collection is important in reducing liquid viscosity. 7. Storage and transport • The bio-oils require a tank farm for storage and later blending facilities. Both storage and transport are features unique to fast pyrolysis and permit economies of scale to be realised from building as large a conversion plant as possible as well as offering economic supplies of bio-oil for distributed or decentralised small scale power and heat applications.
  133. 133. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 BIO-OIL - Pyrolysis Liquid 133 1. Crude pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil is dark brown and approximates to biomass in elemental composition of a very complex mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons with an appreciable proportion of water from both the original moisture and reaction product. Solid char may also be present. 2. Bio-oil is formed by rapidly quenching and thus ‘freezing’ the intermediate products of flash degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Bio-oil thus contains many reactive species, which contribute to its unusual attributes. Bio-oil can be considered a micro-emulsion in which the continuous phase is an aqueous solution of holocellulose decomposition products, that stabilizes the discontinuous phase of pyrolytic lignin macro-molecules through mechanisms such as hydrogen bonding. Aging or instability is believed to result from a breakdown in this emulsion. In some ways it is analogous to asphaltenes found in petroleum. 3. Fast pyrolysis bio-oil has a higher heating value of about 17 MJkg-1 as produced with about 25% wt. water that cannot readily be separated. Bio-oil will not mix with any hydrocarbon liquids. It is composed of a complex mixture of oxygenated compounds that provide both the potential and challenge for utilisation.
  134. 134. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 BIO-OIL - Pyrolysis Liquid 134 4. Bio-oil has a distinctive odour - an acrid smoky smell, can irritate the eyes on prolonged exposure due to the low molecular weight aldehydes and acids. It contains several hundred different chemicals in widely varying proportions, ranging from formaldehyde and acetic acid to complex high molecular weight phenols, anhydrosugars and other oligosaccharides. 5. Bio-oil contains varying quantities of water, which forms a stable single phase mixture, ranging 15 wt% to 30 - 50wt% water, depending on how it was produced and subsequently collected. Pyrolysis liquids can tolerate the addition of some water, before phase separation occurs. It cannot be dissolved in water. It is miscible with polar solvents such as methanol, acetone, etc. but totally immiscible with petroleum-derived fuels. 6. The density of bio-oil is very high at around 1.2 kg/litre (light fuel oil 0.85 kg/litre), meaning the liquid has 42% of the energy content of fuel (weight basis), but 61% (volumetric basis). This has implications on the design and specification of equipment such as pumps and atomisers in boilers and engines. 7. The viscosity of the bio-oil as produced can vary from 25 - 1000 cSt (at 40°C) or more depending on the feedstock, the water content of the oil, the amount of light ends that have been collected and the extent to which the oil has aged. 8. Bio-oils cannot be completely vaporised once they have been recovered from the vapour phase. If bio-oil is heated to > 100ºC it rapidly reacts and eventually produces a solid residue of around 50 wt% of the original liquid and some distillate containing volatile organic compounds and water. While bio-oil has been successfully stored for several years in normal storage conditions in steel and plastic drums without any deterioration that would prevent its use in any of the applications tested to date, it does change slowly with time, most noticeably there is a gradual increase in viscosity.
  135. 135. Baharuddin Bin Ali 7th Asian School on Renewable Energy, Puri Pujangga UKM, Malaysia, 16th-20th June 2014 Typical properties of wood derived crude bio-oil 135 Physical property Typical value Characteristics Moisture content 20-30% pH 2.5 Specific gravity 1.20 Elemental analysis C 55-58% H 5.5-7.0% O 35-40% N 0-0.2% Ash 0-0.2% HHV as produced 16-19 MJ/kg Viscosity (40oC & 25% H2O) 40-100 cp Solids (char) 0.1 – 0.5% Vacuum distillation residue <50% · Liquid fuel · Ready substitution for conventional fuels in many stationary applications such as boilers, engines, turbines · Heating value of 17 MJ/kg at 25% wt. water, is about 40% that of fuel oil / diesel · Does not mix with hydrocarbon fuels · Not as stable as fossil fuels · Quality needs definition for each application

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