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The What and Why of Microgrids 4

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Learn what makes a microgrid, the types of microgrids and nanogrids and the benefits of microgrids for commercial & industrial facilities. microgrids. Also see how different arrangements of microgrids increase energy savings, sustainability, electrical reliability and resiliency.

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The What and Why of Microgrids 4

  1. 1. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. The What & Why of Microgrids for Facilities
  2. 2. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Electrical Supply System Many uncertainties … • Future of electric utilities • How renewables alter grid operations • Politically-driven energy plans • How to deal with a fragile grid ‒ 70% more than 30 years old ‒ Some parts 100 years old 2
  3. 3. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Challenges for Facilities 3 Growing electricity supply risks • Increases in price and variability ‒Utility revenue models changing • Energy options being limited ‒As response to environmental concerns • Risks to grid reliability increasing ‒Operational & adequacy issues • No simple fix for aging grid ‒Potential for more frequent outages
  4. 4. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Mitigate Electricity Supply Risks Microgrids provide: • Choice of electricity source ‒You choose • Control – when & how to use ‒You decide • Reliability of electricity ‒You get premium power • Resilience to disasters ‒Operate during lengthy blackouts • Risk management ‒Reduce operational & financial risks 4 2C3R is a service mark for Trystate Mechanical’s line Distributed Generation services
  5. 5. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Microgrid Bottom Line 5 Electrical supply system challenges… …increase likelihood of price increases & outages. Microgrids reduce reliance on the grid… …and increase efficiency, power quality & sustainability.
  6. 6. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. What’s a Microgrid? 6 A microgrid is a small, self- contained energy system made up of interconnected and balanced electrical loads and sources and may or may not be connected to the electrical grid. Load Source
  7. 7. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. The Simplest Microgrid 7 A solar house… • Solar photovoltaic panels are the electrical source • HVAC, lighting, etc. are connected loads • A utility connection is optional, but nearly all homes use one Buy Sell
  8. 8. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Types of Microgrids Despite the “micro” label: • Microgrids are not defined by their size • But, are defined by function or application, such as: • Campus microgrid (e.g. schools, offices, factories) ‒Supplies utility or internally generated electricity ‒Interconnects one or more buildings • Off-grid microgrid ‒Relies entirely on self-generation – no utility connection • District heating microgrid ‒A campus microgrid also providing steam or hot water 8
  9. 9. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Nanogrids Nanogrids… • A specialized type of microgrid, such as • Used for specific voltages (e.g. 12VDC, 208VAC), or • Used for specific load types (e.g. DC lighting, critical loads) Nanogrids are often “nested” within microgrids • A microgrid may be made of multiple nanogrids 9 nano-: combining form [nanˈō] prefix indicating extreme smallness
  10. 10. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. 2C3RSM Microgrid Choice 10 Electricity choices: • To generate or buy electricity ‒Spark spread: natural gas vs electricity costs ‒Utility price incentives or disincentives • More sustainable options ‒Generate with renewables ‒Combined heat & power (CHP) generation ‒Purchasing Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) • Energy efficiency options ‒Combining waste heat recovery ‒District heating network ‒DC nanogrid
  11. 11. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. 2C3RSM Microgrid Control 11 Control of electricity options: • You choose optimum times to - ‒Generate, buy, store or release electricity • To minimize costs - ‒Electricity costs ‒Energy costs ‒Time-of-use charges ‒Demand charges ‒Load shifting ‒Maximize Demand Response revenue
  12. 12. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. 2C3RSM Microgrid Reliability Eliminate power quality (PQ) problems • Poor PQ costs U.S. businesses $180 billion per year • Most problems start on the utility’s side ‒Wind, lightning, poor maintenance, etc. • Internal generation delivers high quality electricity 12
  13. 13. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. 2C3RSM Microgrid Resilience Microgrid reduces potential of long-term power outages • From hurricanes, tornados, fires, floods, ice, accidents, etc. • Natural gas system is extremely reliable • Wind & solar generation also helps • Internal generation = resilience 13
  14. 14. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Conventional Arrangement 14 Typical electrical consumer • Paying for whatever the utility offers Choice 1 Control 1 Reliability 0 Resiliency 0 • Few ways to save costs • Subject to demand charges • Generally poor reliability • No resiliency Out of 5
  15. 15. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Microgrid Arrangements 15 The basic microgrid • Adding a single integrated generation source • Utility used for backup, incremental supply and selling excess Choice 2 Control 2 Reliability 3 Resiliency 3 • Two choices ‒Generate or buy • Added control of usage • Increased reliability • Increased resiliency Out of 5
  16. 16. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Microgrid Arrangements 16 Multi-source microgrid • Renewables & natural gas for cost saving & sustainability • CHP substantially increases efficiency & resiliency Choice 4 Control 3 Reliability 4 Resiliency 4 • Optimize choice of source • More control of use • High reliability • Very high resiliency Out of 5
  17. 17. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Microgrid Arrangements 17 Advanced Microgrid • Addition of energy and electricity storage • Maximizes cost saving, reliability & resiliency Choice 5 Control 5 Reliability 5 Resiliency 5 • Maximum choice • Very high control • Highest reliability • Highest resiliency • Optimum operations Out of 5
  18. 18. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Microgrid Arrangements 18 DC Nanogrid • Maximizes efficiency by optimizing AC-DC & DC-AC conversions • Maximum sustainability options Choice 5+ Control 5+ Reliability 5 Resiliency 5 Out of 5
  19. 19. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Financial & Other Considerations 19 Microgrids support… • Energy cost saving & revenue generation • Energy efficiency increases up to 50% • Multiple sustainability strategies • Advantages from economies of scale • Phased installation & expansion • Future energy & electricity technologies
  20. 20. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Planning Your Microgrid 20 Define your energy needs & objectives • Include sustainability goals & corporate values Get professional assistance to examine options • Data collection – loads, generation, operation, etc. • Modeling – arrangements , technologies & financials • Permitting & licensing review • Study – normal operation, stability, faults, protection, etc. • Design validation • Construction & installation planning ‒Design Build, Design Assist, turnkey, etc.
  21. 21. © 2019 Trystate Mechanical Inc. Contact TMI… 21 www.engiemep.com 2C3R is a service mark for Trystate Mechanical’s line Distributed Generation services …to discuss your microgrid options

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