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  2. Social Realism • Expressed the artist’s role in social reform • Artists used their works to protest against the injustices, inequalities, immorality, and ugliness of the human condition. • Social realists have addressed different issues: war, poverty, corruption, industrial and environmental hazards and more – in the hope of raising people’s awareness and pushing society to seek reforms
  3. Ben Shahn’s Miners’ Wives, for example, spoke out against the hazardous conditions faced by coal miners, after a tragic accident killed 111 workers in Illinois in 1947, leaving their wives and children in mourning.
  4. Pablo Picasso’s Guernica has been recognized as the most monumental and comprehensive statement of social realism against the brutality of war.
  6. Abstractionism • Based largely around 3 artists- Wassily Kandinsky, Kazimir Malevich, and Piet Mondrian • Time period is approximately from late 1800’s into the early 1900’s • Influences: chemistry, physics, psychology, philosophy, poetry, and music
  7. Abstractionism • It is a departure from reality • Relationships of forms and colors • Forms: institutional, emotional, organic, curvilinear, decorative, romantic, or focuses on the mystical • Artists draw their inner world
  8. Abstractionism • Pure abstraction is non objective and non representational • Figurative abstractions represent non visual things- sound emotion, spiritual
  9. Oval Still Life (Le Violon) Georges Braque, 1914 Oil on canvas
  10. Cubism Cubism was a revolutionary new approach to representing reality invented in around 1907–08 by artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. They brought different views of subjects (usually objects or figures) together in the same picture, resulting in paintings that appear fragmented and abstracted
  11. Cubism Cubism was one of the most influential styles of the 20th century. It is generally agreed to have begun around 1907 with Picasso’s celebrated painting Demoiselles D’Avignon which included elements of cubist style. The name ‘cubism’ seems to have derived from a comment made by the critic Louis Vauxcelles who, on seeing some of Georges Braque’s paintings exhibited in Paris in 1908, described them as reducing everything to ‘geometric outlines, to cubes’.
  12. Demoiselles D’Avignon
  13. Three Musicians Pablo Picasso, 1921 Oil on Canvas
  14. Girl Before a Mirror (detail) Pablo Picasso, 1932 Oil on canvas
  15. Futurism • The movement known as futurism began in Italy in the early 1900s. • The futurists created art for a fast-paced, machine- propelled age. • They admired the motion, force, speed, and strength of mechanical forms. • Their works depicted the dynamic sensation of all these
  16. Armored Train Gino Severini, 1915 Oil on canvas
  17. Mechanical Style • It is a result of the futurist movement • In this style, basic forms such as planes, cones, spheres, and cylinders all fit together precisely and neatly in their appointed places.
  18. Mechanical Style • This can be seen in the works of Fernand Leger. • Mechanical parts such as crankshafts, cylinder blocks, and pistons are brightened only by the use of primary colors. • Even human figures are mere outlines, rendered purposely without expression.
  19. The City Fernand Leger, 1919 Oil on canvas
  20. Non-Objectivism • It is the logical geometrical conclusion of abstractionism • Works in this style did not make use of figures or even representations of figures • They did not refer to recognizable objects or forms in the outside world.
  21. Non-Objectivism • Lines, shapes and colors were used in a cool, impersonal approach that aimed for balance, unity and stability. • Colors were mainly black, white,and the primaries. • Foremost among the non-objectivists was Dutch painter Piet Mondrian.
  22. New York City Piet Mondrian, 1942 Oil on canvas
  24. Abstract Expressionism It is the term applied to new forms of abstract art developed by American painters such as Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Willem de Kooning in the 1940s and 1950s. It is often characterized by gestural brush-strokes or mark-making, and the impression of spontaneity.
  25. Action Painting One form of abstract expressionism was seen in the works of Jackson Pollock. Action painters who attacked their canvases with expressive brush strokes.
  26. Pollock worked on huge canvases spread on the floor, splattering, squirting, and dribbling paint with (seemingly) no preplanned pattern or design in mind. Pollock’s first one-man show in New York in 1943 focused worldwide attention on abstract expressionism for the first time.
  27. Autumn Rhythm by Jackson Pollock, 1950
  28. Color Field Painting In contrast to the vigorous gestures of the action painters, another group of artists who came to be known as color field painters used different color saturations to create their desired effects. Some of their works were huge fields of vibrant color.
  29. Magenta, Black, Green on Orange Mark Rothko, 1949
  30. Vir Heroicus Sublimis Barnett Newman, 1950-51
  31. Others took the more intimate “pictograph” approach, filling the canvas with repeating picture fragments or symbols – as in the works of Adolph Gottlieb and Lee Krasner.
  32. Forgotten Dream Adolph Gottlieb, 1946
  33. Abstract No. 2 Lee Krasner, 1948
  35. Pop Art Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the 1950s and flourished in the 1960s in America and Britain, drawing inspiration from sources in popular and commercial culture. Different cultures and countries contributed to the movement during the 1960s and 70s
  36. Pop Art Their works ranged from paintings, to posters, to collages, to three-dimensional “assemblages” and installations. Their inspirations were the celebrities, advertisements, billboards, and comic strips. Hence the term pop (from popular) art emerged.
  37. Pop Art Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997) was an American pop artist. During the 1960s, along with Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns, and James Rosenquist, among others, he became a leading figure in this new art movement.
  38. Twelve Cars Andy Warhol, 1962 Art print
  39. Marilyn Monroe Andy Warhol, 1967 Silkscreen print
  40. Whaam! By Roy Lichtenstein, 1963 Acrylic and oil on canvas
  41. In the Car Roy Lichtenstein, 1963
  42. Op Art Op art is short for 'optical art'. This was yet another experiment – a form of “action painting,” with the action taking place in the viewer’s eye. Artists use shapes, colors and patterns in special ways to create images that look as if they are moving or blurring. Op art started in the 1960s and the painting above is by Bridget Riley who is one of the main op artists.
  43. Fall by Bridget Riley, 1963
  44. Hesitate by Bridget Riley, 1964
  45. Conceptual Art Conceptual art is art for which the idea (or concept) behind the work is more important than the finished art object. It emerged as an art movement in the 1960s and the term usually refers to art made from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s.
  46. Conceptual art can be – and can look like – almost anything. This is because, unlike a painter or sculptor who will think about how best they can express their idea using paint or sculptural materials and techniques, a conceptual artist uses whatever materials and whatever form is most appropriate to putting their idea across – this could be anything from a performance to a written description. Although there is no one style or form used by conceptual artists, from the late 1960s certain trends emerged.
  47. One and Three Chairs Joseph Kosuth, 1965
  48. Clock (One and Five), English/Latin Version Joseph Kosuth 1965