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Fluke Electrical Safety Seminar Slides

  1. 1. Electrical Measurement Safety You’re right to be concerned Presenter: Curt Geeting, Fluke Corporation
  2. 2. Risks from electrocution and shock hazards Shock • Contact with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient current through the skin, muscles, or hair. • Shock can cause electrocution and death.
  3. 3. Risks from an arc flash Created by a phase to phase or phase to ground short circuit. • Current passes through the air. • Ionized air (plasma) is a good conductor. • Once an arc begins, it feeds off any matter in its path and vaporizes it. • Duration is under one second.
  4. 4. Risks from an arc blast The explosive result of an arcing fault. • Vaporized conductors are rapidly expelled creating such hazards as intense heat, thermoacoustic shock wave, molten metal, shrapnel, blinding light, toxic smoke and contact with energized components.
  5. 5. Transients can trigger an arc flash What causes a transient? • Motor or other inductive load switching off • Equipment malfunction • Utility load switching • Adjustable speed drives • Lightning strike 480 V rms, +/- 678 V peaks Spikes up to 8,000 volts Transients: • Are invisible and largely unavoidable. • May last under 100 mS but can be extremely dangerous. • May overcome test equipment input protection causing an arc/short in the tester.
  6. 6. What likely causes these incidents? 1. Racking a circuit breaker – Inserting or removing a breaker on a live bus. 2. Lose panel wiring – A lose conductor that shorts across another conductor or ground. 3. Removing panel covers – Retaining screws and fasteners fall into an unsecured panel against a live bus. 4. Hand tool shorted across two phases – Experienced electrician cuts into live cable with cable shears, shear handle touches another phase. 5. Using incorrect test probes – The user gets distracted or hand slips while measuring phase to phase or phase to ground while using old style ¾ inch probe tips. 6. Misuse of measurement tools – Measuring across phases with an inline amp meter creating a short circuit. – Measuring continuity on a live circuit with a tool that cannot withstand full voltage. – Accidental shorting of phases with a test lead tip that is too long for the safety category.
  7. 7. 1NFPA-70E – Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace As the work environment and the type of job become more hazardous, the need for protection increases. Follow industry guidelines NFPA-70E1 addresses: Safety-related work practices Maintenance of safety equipment Safety requirements for special equipment Safety related installation requirements
  8. 8. Boundaries apply when workers are exposed to energized electrical conductors or circuit parts. Safe working distances Flash limits of approach
  9. 9. PPE Category Required Minimum Arc Rating of PPE Typical Layers 1 4 Cal/cm² 1 2 8 Cal/cm² 1 or 2 3 25 Cal/cm² 2 or 3 4 40 Cal/cm² 3 or more The higher the electrical environment, the stronger the personal protective equipment must be to withstand an arc-flash incident. Images courtesy of Salisbury PPE – Personal Protective Equipment The PPE category is used to determine the necessary arc rating of a garment worn during a given job task.
  10. 10. NFPA: Test instruments are part of PPE (Article 110.4): • Shall be rated for circuits and equipment to which they will be connected* • Shall be designed for the environment to which they will be exposed, and the manner in which they will be used.* • Shall be visually inspected before use. Defective or damaged equipment must be repaired and tested before being used again* • The insulation of protective tools, including voltage test indicators, shall be verified by test and inspection (Article 110.4(5)) * NFPA 70E 110.4(A), 2015 Edition Reduce the risk by using the right test equipment IEC 61010: International Standards for low voltage “test, measurement and control equipment”
  11. 11. Measurement Category locations or ratings CAT IV Three-phase at utility connection, any outdoor mains conductor CAT III Three-phase distribution, including single-phase commercial lighting CAT II Single-phase receptacle connected loads The level and energy of voltage impulses are dependent on the location. The closer the location is to the utility supply, the higher the available fault current and the higher the category. IEC 61010 defines three measurement locations or categories: The greatest danger from transients is in the high categories, because they could trigger an arc blast.
  12. 12. Ensure your test equipment meets or exceeds industry standards To provide better protection for electrical workers standards have been developed for test equipment used in environments of 1000 volts or less, including 480 volt and 600 volt three-phase circuits. 1International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61010 are the group standards for low voltage “test, measurement and control equipment”
  13. 13. First the category, then the voltage First know the category you are working in, then choose the appropriate voltage rating • The working voltage could be 1,000 V, 600 V or 300 V • Equipment can be dual rated, meeting both requirements • If you measure power circuits, you should use a CAT III-600 V or CAT IV-600 V/CAT III-1000 V meter, in addition to CAT IV-600 V/CAT III-1000 V test leads and probes Voltage rating by itself can be misleading • CAT III-1000 V (withstands 8 kV transient) is safer than CAT III-600 V (withstands 6 kV transient) Bottom line and most importantly, know the measurement category and voltage you are working in.
  14. 14. The test equipment should be independently tested, marked and certified. CAT III-600 V CAT III-1000 V CAT IV-600 V CAT III-1000 V CAT IV-600 V Look for CAT markings between input jacks
  15. 15. What if I can’t find a rating? Older Fluke 70 Series-III CAT II-600 V Original Fluke 70 Series UNDER RATEDNOT RATED Meters and testers designed and produced prior to 1997 no longer meet code and therefore should be replaced.
  16. 16. Independent testing and certification • IEC sets standards, but does not test or inspect for compliance. • A manufacturer can claim to “design to” a standard with no independent verification. • To be UL listed, or CSA or TÜV certified, a manufacturer must employ the listing agency to test the product’s compliance with the standard. • Look for the listing agency’s emblem on the meter. “Listed” vs. “designed to” Tester must be independently tested, marked and certified.
  17. 17. Read and understand the manufacturer’s instructions
  18. 18. 1. Verify the voltage detector function is working properly. 2. Make sure the detector is rated for the level of voltage being measured and is sensitive enough for your application. 3. Make sure that you also wear the appropriate PPE based on the environment you're in. 4. Make sure the hazardous voltage is not shielded. Use only a digital multimeter or contact type voltage tester to test for the absence of voltage. Non-contact voltage detectors Non-contact voltage detectors are a quick, inexpensive way to check for the presence of live voltage on ac circuits, switches and outlets before working on them.
  19. 19. Live-dead-live testing Verify the operation of the contact voltage tester Before beginning the absence of voltage test, check the test instrument to ensure it is working properly in accordance with NFPA 70E Article 110.9 (A)(4) 1. Wearing proper PPE, measure a voltage similar to the voltage of the equipment about to be tested. This would include whether it is ac or dc and approximately the same magnitude. 2. Now test the circuit that is supposed to be de-energized. 3. Once testing is complete, re-verify the meter is still functioning properly by going to the same known voltage source and making another measurement.
  20. 20. Operational readiness test Verify proper operation of test tools on a known voltage source before and after absence or presence of voltage testing is performed. Several options: 1. Use a convenient electrical outlet (if available) 2. Access live conductors (posing unnecessary risk) –Suit up in appropriate PPE arc flash gear 3. No power exists • The Fluke PRV240 Proving Unit provides a regulated and fixed ac or dc output voltage of 240 volts specifically to allow for verification testing of Multimeters, Clampmeters or testers When test instruments are used for testing the absence of voltage on conductors or circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more, the operation of the test instrument shall be verified on a known voltage source before and after an absence of voltage test is performed. NFPA70 E 2015 edition Article 110.4 (A)(5) Operation Verification proposed wording change
  21. 21. Double insulation, finger guards, shrouds and recessed input jacks protect against electric shock from accidental contact with live circuits. Perform an inspection of the test leads  CAT III-1000 V or CAT IV-600 V/CAT III-1000 V rating  Wear indicator on lead wires  Shrouded connectors  Finger guards  Insulation not damaged (melted, cut, cracked or stretched)  Connectors: no insulation pulled away from end connectors  Probe tips: not loose or broken off (too short)  4mm exposed probe tips in CAT III or CAT IV environments Test Lead Safety Checklist Don’t let test leads be a weak point!
  22. 22. The amount of exposed metal at the tip of the test lead must match the energy potential of a given measurement Minimize exposed metal for safety In accordance with IEC 61010-031 Safety requirements for hand-held probe assemblies for electrical measurement and test. Some leads offer extendable tip shrouds to meet the reduced tip length requirement Other leads come with tip guards to minimize exposed metal The higher the CAT rating the less exposed metal is allowed at the tip of the test lead. CAT II – 19 mm (0.75 inch) CAT IV – 4 mm (0.16 inch)
  23. 23. The bottom line ― Safety First Best practices include: 1. Whenever possible, work on de-energized circuits. • Follow proper lock-out/tag-out procedures 2. Use well maintained tools and appropriate personal protective equipment according to NFPA 70E. • Safety glasses, insulated tools, insulating gloves, arc- rated clothing, arc shields, flash suits, insulating mats, etc. 3. Don’t work alone. 4. Practice safe measurement techniques. • Always connect the grounded lead first, hot second • Disconnect the hot lead first, grounded lead second 5. Use the live-dead-live test method. • Test known circuit, measure target circuit, then re-test known circuit
  24. 24. Built-in protection devices guard against the most common safety hazards: Overload protection on all functions 1000 V high energy fuses CAT IV-600 V CAT III-1000 V Protection that’s designed in An industrial grade Fluke meter devotes 10 to 15% of its components exclusively to protection 1. High voltage transients and danger of arc-over 2. Voltage contact while in continuity or resistance mode 3. Voltage measurement while test leads are plugged into the amps jacks
  25. 25. Common errors with measurement tools Connecting a meter to a voltage source with the meter configured for inline amp measurements. The amps mode on a meter is almost a short circuit Measuring ohms or continuity on a live circuit. Most older meters cannot handle the full voltage on the ohms function
  26. 26. Handheld Test Tool Safety Last known earthly residence of automotive fuse used to replace original fuse Test leads survived intact How not to save time...
  27. 27. The wrong meter to use on a power circuit. Probe tips burned off Poor quality leads and probes led to injury. 250V fuse didn’t open in time Handheld Test Tool Safety
  28. 28. Fingerprints burned into probes The electrician suffered severe burn injuries on his hand and arm. Handheld Test Tool Safety
  29. 29. Fluke incorporates specially designed “high-energy” fuses in our digital multimeters Designed to keep the energy generated by an electrical short within the fuse enclosure • Limit the amount of time current is applied and oxygen available for combustion • In addition to the specially designed fuse element, the high energy fuse is filled with sand Protection devices provide additional safety 30 High temperatures (up to 10,000F) generated by the energy will melt the sand and turn it into glass, smothering the fireball by cutting off the available oxygen
  30. 30. Common DMM safety hazards • Measuring voltage while test leads are in the current jacks: short-circuit! Protection: Fluke meters use high energy fuses. • Contact with ac or dc power source while in Ohms mode. • Using meter above rated voltage, i.e., on medium voltage circuits. • No Protection above rated voltages Protection: Fluke meters have “Overload Protection”. Functions are self-protected to the meter’s rated voltage. Three common errors that are avoidable
  31. 31. PRESENTER SLIDE: HIDE Meter Examples/Demonstrations • Hold up Fluke 87 with leads in Amps Jack • To measure amps in-line, you wire your meter in series with the circuit. In order not to interfere with the measurement , you want your meter to look like a piece of wire. Another word for a piece of wire is a short circuit. So when you have your leads in the amps input terminals, you have a dead short across these probe tips. That is why it is so important that your meter has fused input jacks. And not just any fuse, but a specially designed high energy fuse. “ If this happens with a properly fused meter, the fuse will blow, and you will not even know it. to check the fuse, you open the meter, pull out the fuse, close the meter or get another meter, and measure the ohms or continuity to see of the fuse is open. There is a much easier way to do this, without even having to open up your meter The black input jack is common for all measurements. So, by measuring across the Common and Amps input jacks in Ohms, you can check your fuses without opening the case (show how to do this while talking) Never change a fuse with the wrong fuse. It is very important to replace the fuse with the manufacturer’s suggested high energy fuse Now most of the time you will be using a current clamp to measure current safely (play amps input-fuse animation)?
  32. 32. Safety Inspection • In a power circuit, use current clamp accessory. • In low energy ckt, 10A or less, open the circuit: – Measure in series (current is the same in a series circuit). The amps circuit resistance must be small, to have a minimal effect on the current. This low impedance input requires fuse protection. Caution!!! Don’t leave the leads in mA or A input jacks and then take voltage measurements. A, mA/uA inputs COM Ammeter circuit inside DMM Amps inputs need high energy fuses
  33. 33. PRESENTERS SLIDE: HIDE BEFORE PRESENTATION:Next 3 slides ClampMeter Examples/Demonstrations • Hold up Fluke 376 with iFLEX plugged into it • “Most of the time you will be measuring current with a current clamp accessory or ClampMeter. This is a safer, noncontact method for measuring current. • There are two type of current clamps and ClampMeters: AC and AC/DC – AC CLAMP SLIDE: AC is just a coil of wire that picks up the magnetic field (AC Current clamp slide) There are new technologies that make this easier than every (do iFLex explanation) – AC DC CLAMP SLIDE: AC/DC uses an electronic sensor, because DC current generates a much smaller magnetic field around the wire. (DC Current clamp slide) • This applied to current clamp accessories you plug into your meter as well. (How DMMs measure current slide). One of the most common questions on our 800-44-FLUKE technical hot line is “I plug in my new clamp meter accessories into my meter and it does not work” • Process Loop slide: Does any one have to check 4-20 mA control loops? Until recently, the only way to do this was too break the circuit. Now there are new test tools that can measure the loop currents with out breaking the loop (hold up Fluke 771 or 773). For these , it is very important to zero out the ClampMeter next to the wire before making the measurement. • HOLD 771, 323, iFLex UP“ the moral of this story is that, depending on the size of the wire and the level of current you are looking to measure, there are different size ClampMeter openings to get the best measurement.
  34. 34. How DMMs Measure Current • Current transformer (CT) style preferred for AC: – CT clamps have good noise immunity: recommended for AC Variable Speed Drives and other noisy environments • How to use: use A inputs – They are CTs with 1:1000 turns ratio: 1 A on primary (circuit being measured) = 1 mA on secondary (input signal to DMM) – Connect probe to Amps jacks of DMM. – Select A – 87: select manual range of 4000mA for direct reading of Amps (since 1 mA = 1 A) – 26: Select manual range of 4.000A. Mentally move the decimal three places to the right: .089 = 89 Amps • True-rms measurements require a T-rms meter. AC Current Clamp Accessories
  35. 35. How DMMs Measure Current • AC/DC clamps: use V inputs of DMM – Use Hall-effect technology: require batteries in clamp – 1 mV per Amp. – Select Vdc or mVdc to measure DC current – Select Vac to measure AC current • True-rms measurement (of ac current) requires a T-rms meter. • Always “Zero” clamp next to wire before measurement to eliminate incorrect measurements from AC magnetic fields in cabinet AC/DC Current Clamp Accessories
  36. 36. • In power circuits, clamps are used to measure amps. • Two types of clamps: AC or AC/DC (Scope clamps have BNC connectors: AC or AC/DC both output mV. ) How DMMs Measure Current Current Clamp Accessories AC Model: 80i-400 AC/DC Model: i410, i1010 Output signal Current Voltage Scale factor 1 milliAmp per Amp 1 milliVolt per Amp Sensor Current Transformer Hall effect Battery No Yes
  37. 37. 2200 ºC ZERO SPAN Process Loops 4 to 20 mA Transmitter Sensor Indicator Loop Supply 4-20 mA process signals • Very low current, in line measurement • Measure transmitter o/p: • Source 4-20 mA to indicator • Simulate 4-20 mA Fluke 789
  38. 38. Fluke 771 mA Process Clamp Meter • Measure mA signals without breaking the loop • Best in class mA measurement accuracy and resolution • Save time and money troubleshooting PLC analog I/O and process loops • Detachable clamp with extension cable • Dual display with both mA and % of span readouts • Measurement spotlight illuminates hard to see wires. • Fluke 772 and Fluke 773 add full 4-20mA Source and Measurement for loop calibration and troubleshooting Measure 4-20 mA signals without breaking the loop. Innovative new approach to measuring mA loop signals
  39. 39. Misuse of DMM in Ammeter Mode
  40. 40. Safety Inspection Step 1: Plug test lead in V/  input. Select  . Step 2: Insert probe tip into mA input. Read value. Step 3: Insert probe tip into A input. Read value. • Is the fuse okay? What would an open fuse read? Checking fuses on the Fluke 87-IV Step 1: Select (w/o test leads). Step 2: Plug lead into mA and A input. Step 3: Listen for Beeps=fuse is good (special automatic warning circuit to prevent you from doing this) Checking meter fuses on most meters DMM BASICS Fluke 87: With lead in mA or A, select  and listen
  41. 41. Common errors with measurement tools Measuring ohms or continuity on a live circuit. Most older meters cannot handle the full voltage on the ohms function
  42. 42. PRESENTER SLIDE: PRACTICE and HIDE: Connecting Voltage while in the Ohms Demonstration • Hold up Fluke 87 with leads plugged into Fluke 1587, 87=DC Volts; 1587 = Insulation Test mode • “Part of the IEC 61010 Safety rating is if I have a 1000 volt meter, I should be able to connect 1000 volts in the volts terminals in any function, without anything happening to me or the meter. • “Here I am applying 1000 volts to the input of this meter (Hold up 87-V with 1587 locked in 1000 mode output, walk around and show audience 1000V displayed on meter). • I switch to ohms mode and apply the same 1000V. (show meter face “OL”) Those of you who have been around a while probably instinctively wanted to step back a little. Why? With older or unprotected meters, when you do this, if you are lucky you typically would see a puff of smoke and be in the market for a new meter. If you are unlucky, you’re holding a fire ball • I’ll go back to volts, and see how the meter is still working fine? (Show 1000V on meter display) • What I am using here is a mega-ohm meter, or insulation resistance tester. This pressure tests electrical wires, motor coils and such, to see if the insulation is going bad. Just as I would use water pressure to look for leaks on a hose, we use Electrical Pressure, or VOLTS, to pressureize the wire and look for leaks in t he insulation. It is also a great way to test new wiring you just installed, instead of turning everything on and looking for smoke. • Now while you have your meter with you at all times, chances are the megaohmmeter is back in the shop. What we’ve done is take the meter (show Fluke 87 in front) and the megger (show 1587 in front with other hand) and built them into one unit ( move and hold the Fluke 87 behind the Fluke 1587). This way you always have an insulation tester with you, and you are more likely to make these tests, instead of having to walk back to the shop.
  43. 43. Boundaries apply when workers are exposed to energized electrical conductors or circuit parts. Safe working distances: Work Outside the Danger Zones Flash limits of approach
  44. 44. New Wireless measurement tools Provide physical separation in an arc flash environment One technician can do jobs that would otherwise require two people Connect the meter or clamp to a conductor, remove the display and walk across the room to operate controls or remove protective equipment, all the while watching real-time readings.
  45. 45. Enhance safety with wireless tools Fluke Connect™ enabled tools for data transfer
  46. 46. Fluke Connect Wireless Measurement Tools
  47. 47. Fluke 1736/1738 Power/Energy Loggers Monitor, Record and Troubleshoot behind closed doors! • Key Power Measurements – All measurements are measured and logged to eliminate the risk of not recording the important parameters. • Fluke Connect App Compatible – Enables data to be viewed without having to suit up and can remotely view measurements – no need to visit panel • Convenient Instrument Power – Powered from the measurement circuit means there’ no need to find a power outlet and run power cord extensions Improves measurement efficiency, improves safety while measuring to get to answers more quickly and reliably
  48. 48. Fluke Connect Wireless Measurement Tools
  49. 49. View multiple measurements simultaneously with Fluke Connect™ wireless tools View up to 10 live measurements simultaneously from energized equipment well outside of arc flash boundaries • 3-phase current and voltage • Cause and effect relationships • Log intermittent problems over time • Verify lockout/tagout electrically safe status Save all measurements wirelessly, for each piece of equipment, in one place, with the same one App for all testers. • Electrical measurements • Temperature measurements • Power and Energy usage • Thermal Images • Vibration : Build your equipment maintenance database over time while doing your normal work!
  50. 50. The Safest Way to Measure Electricity is to Get No Where Near It!!
  51. 51. View the degree of heat coming from various components, all in a single image Most equipment’s failure mechanisms involve a significant rise in operating temperature long before catastrophic failure occurs • Equipment remains operational • Captured at a safe distance increasing safety • Live voltage still requires full electrical safety precautions • Access components and systems not otherwise measurable, such as ceiling runs • Help detect imminent failures in nearly all types of equipment • Uncover potential problems in areas that would typically be ignored Fluke Infrared Cameras
  52. 52. Abnormal heating associated with high resistance or excessive current flow is the main cause of many problems in electrical systems Analyze the invisible with Infrared • Troubleshoot problems in electrical connections • Detect high resistance loose connections • Check for unbalance in 3-phase electrical systems • Balance branch loads and identify excessive current consumption
  53. 53. Inspect indoor or outdoor switchgear and panels safely An IR window can help increase the safety of personnel and reduce the cost of predictive maintenance, in compliance with switchgear codes.
  54. 54. Test instrument training and proficiency NFPA states that “Employees shall be trained to”: • Select an appropriate test instrument for a given task • Demonstrate how to use a test instrument • Interpret results • Understand ratings of the test instrument • Perform a visual inspection of the test instrument and accessories • Perform an operational verification on a known voltage source • Identify misapplication
  55. 55. Next steps: Test Equipment Safety Audit 1. Complete the on-line training course for electrical measurement safety 2. Match you working environment to the CAT rating of your tools 3. We can help Audit your test tool inventory • Ensure compliance with industry ratings and standards • Verify the operational readiness of your tools • Order spare parts where appropriate 4. Make training and briefings part of your daily work
  56. 56. Electrical Measurement Safety You’re right to be concerned Thank you!
  57. 57. Special limited-time offer! • Gift with purchase – up to $1350 value • Go to www.transcat.com/deals for more details Electrical Measurement Safety Fluke Corporation © 2016
  58. 58. Questions or Comments? Email Nicole VanWert-Quinzi nvanwert@Transcat.com Transcat: 800-800-5001 www.Transcat.com For related product information, go to: www.Transcat.com/Fluke Electrical Measurement Safety Fluke Corporation © 2016