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Kuwait Notes

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Unit: Kuwait History

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Kuwait Notes

  1. 1. Kuwait History KUWAIT HISTORY By Mr. Novick
  2. 2. In the Beginning…. <ul><li>In 1716 the Bani Utbah Tribe migrated across the Arabian Peninsula and settled in what is now Kuwait City. </li></ul><ul><li>It is unclear what brought this migration, but the Arabian (Persian) Gulf offered a break from their nomadic ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially the area was known as Guraine; the area would later become known as Kuwait meaning “little fort”, a derivative of the Persian language. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Early Life in Kuwait <ul><li>The Persian Gulf offered fish & pearls and there were ports from which the Kuwaitis could export goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Their culture changed from nomads to pearl divers and seafaring traders. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially Kuwait was very poor - people lived in mud homes, and poverty combined with the hot desert climate led to short life-spans. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Al Sabahs <ul><li>No written record of the first rulers of Kuwait exists. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st reference comes in 1752 when a tribal council elects Sabah Bin Jaber to administer justice. (Becomes first Sheikh) </li></ul><ul><li>The Sabah family was held in high esteem and thought to be fair minded and impartial. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The European Connection <ul><li>In 1897, fearing attack from the Turks (Ottoman Empire), Kuwait asks and receives aid from Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1898 Kuwait becomes a British Protectorate. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain gains control over Kuwait’s foreign policy in return for military protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Kuwait would be caught in a political tug-of-war for the next 20 years between the Ottoman Emp. And G.B. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How do we know where it starts and stops? <ul><li>In 1918 the end of World War I brought the defeat of the Ottoman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain, France, and Russia dissolved the Ottoman Empire into territories. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1923 Percy Cox, the British High Commissioner in Iraq, drew up a new map, starting what would be a century of border disputes between Iraq, Saudi-Arabia and Kuwait. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>In 1938 Oil was discovered in Kuwait, however with the outbreak of WWII, production was put on hold. </li></ul><ul><li>On June 30, 1946 the first oil tap was turned creating an economic boom. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1950 Amir Abdullah al-Salem al-Sabah takes rule. He creates the greatest welfare state the world has ever seen. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free housing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free Education </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed employment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free “Cradle to Grave” healthcare </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Sheikh Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah turns a silver wheel to start Kuwait’s first crude oil export. ~ June 30 th , 1946 O i l ! ! ! “ Courage, determination and hard-work are all very nice, but not so nice as an oil well in your backyard.” ~ Mason Cooley
  8. 8. Inde pend ence! <ul><li>On June 19 th , 1961 Kuwait gains its independence from Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>G.B. and Kuwait would keep strong relations. </li></ul>Sheikh Abdullah al Salem al Sabah & William Loss signing independence document.
  9. 9. Trouble Brewing w/ Iraq <ul><li>1 week later, the Iraqi leader claims Kuwait is an Iraqi territory. He believed they were both under the same province during all pre-existing rule (Ottoman, Abbasid, Persian, etc.) – PRE – 1716 Migration . He sends troops to the border. </li></ul><ul><li>British troops again arrive for protection. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arab League (formed in 1945) refutes Iraq’s claims and accepts Kuwait as a member state. Iraq withdraws its army. </li></ul>2 British Marines Prepare for Possible Iraqi Invasion ~ 1961 Vs. Why can’t we all just get along?
  10. 10. Be careful of what you wish for – ( cause you just might get it ) <ul><li>Iran becomes determined to replace secular leaders in Arab republics with more religious people. They soon become an enemy of Kuwait. </li></ul><ul><li>When Iraq and Iran engage in a 9 year war (1980-1988) Kuwaitis back the lesser of two evils – Saddam Hussein’s Iraq. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuwait provides Iraq w/ over $5 Billion U.S. Dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1979 Fundamentalist Islam Sweeps through Iran. – Ayatollah Khomeini is the new leader. </li></ul>Ayatollah Khomeini Saddam Hussein This Guy Or This Guy
  11. 11. Why Would Iraq Attack Kuwait ? <ul><li>In 1989 Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of Slant-Drilling the Rumailah oil field, ruining many Iraqi oil wells. </li></ul><ul><li>Hussein accused Kuwait of using this “bonus oil” to flood the international oil market driving prices down. </li></ul><ul><li>Kuwait demanded repayment of over $40 Billion U.S. that it had loaned Iraq to fund their war w/ Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>Hussein complained that the borders between Iraq and Kuwait were drawn in colonial times by colonial powers. </li></ul>Rumailah oil field
  12. 12. Invasion of Kuwait <ul><li>On August 2, 1990 @ 2:00 A.M. Iraq launched an invasion into Kuwait; the Kuwaiti military was caught unprepared. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially The Kuwaiti Armed Forces (KAF) fought valiantly but were vastly outnumbered. - 35 th Armored Brigade fought bravely near Jahra. </li></ul><ul><li>The KAF was forced to evacuate to Saudi-Arabia and Bahrain. </li></ul><ul><li>Amir Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah fled to Saudi, while his half brother Sheikh Fahad Al-Ahmed Al Jaber Al Sabah stayed to defend his home. He was later shot and killed. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Occupation & Response <ul><li>By August 4 th , Kuwait had fallen under complete control of Iraqi occupying forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Kuwaitis fled, but most stayed. Kuwaitis formed resistance groups, and fought occupation through both public demonstrations and military attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>The United Nations responded by condemning the invasion and demanding a withdrawal of Iraqi troops. – They placed economic sanctions on Iraq. Saddam Hussein refused to back down. </li></ul>“ In Kuwait, everyone from children to old men resisted. There were no Kuwaiti puppets which Iraq could use to form a government. Every Kuwaiti was in the resistance.” ~ Ahmar ar-Rahmani, Lieutenant-Colonel Kuwait Army Kuwaiti resistance leaflet
  14. 14. Operation Desert Shield <ul><li>The U.S. was worried Iraq would invade Saudi-Arabia (S.A.) </li></ul><ul><li>On August 7 th , President George H. Bush (NOT George W. Bush) moved U.S. troops into S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. assembled a coalition of forces to join in opposing Iraq. 34 countries contributed military support. </li></ul>American soldiers undergoing chemical training in Saudi Arabia in November 1990 during Operation Desert Shield.
  15. 15. The Coalition <ul><li>Afghanistan – 300 Troops </li></ul><ul><li>Australia – 1,800 Troops </li></ul><ul><li>Bahrain – 400 Personnel, 36 Aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladesh – 6,000 Troops </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium – 2 Minesweepers, 2 landing ships </li></ul><ul><li>Britain – 43,000 Troops, 168 Tanks, 6 Destroyers, 70 Jets </li></ul><ul><li>Canada – 4,500 Troops, 24 Bombers </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia – 200 Chemical Warfare Specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt – 40,000 Troops </li></ul><ul><li>France – 18,000 Troops, 40 Tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Germany – 18 Alpha Jets </li></ul><ul><li>Greece – 200 Troops </li></ul><ul><li>Honduras – 150 Troops </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary – 1 Medical Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Italy – 3 Frigates, 10 Tornado Jets </li></ul><ul><li>Morocco – 13,000 Troops </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand – 50 Medical soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Niger – 500 Troops </li></ul><ul><li>Oman – 25,500 Troops, 63 airplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan – 4,900 Troops </li></ul><ul><li>Poland – 1 Hospital Ship </li></ul><ul><li>Qatar – 2,600 Troops </li></ul><ul><li>Romania – 180 Chemical Weapons Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi-Arabia – 118,000 Troops, 550 Tanks </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea – 5 C130 Transport Planes, 1 Medical Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Syria – 17,000 Troops, 300 Tanks </li></ul><ul><li>U.A.E. – 40,000 Troops, 80 Planes </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.A. – 540,000 Troops, 4,000 Tanks, 1,700 Helicopters, 1,800 Airplanes, 6 Aircraft Carriers, Classified # of Submarines </li></ul>
  16. 16. Operation Desert Storm <ul><li>On January 17 th , 1991 Coalition forces began the attack on Iraq. </li></ul><ul><li>Iraqi forces were quickly devastated by allied air power. As a desperate final attempt to break up the coalition, Iraqi forces launched missiles into Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>The Coalition held strong, & on February 26 th Iraqi troops began to retreat out of Kuwait setting fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they left. </li></ul>USAF Aircraft of the 335 th Fighter Squadron (F-16, F-15C, F-15E) fly over Kuwaiti oil fires, set by retreating Iraqi army – 1991.
  17. 17. In Honor Of Those Who Fought…. <ul><li>On April 6 th , 1991 President Bush declares Kuwait liberated. </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition Casualties: </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. – 113 </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain – 38 </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia – 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt – 10 </li></ul><ul><li>UAE – 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Syria – 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Kuwait – 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq Casualties </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 – 200,000 </li></ul><ul><li>(Estimates Vary) </li></ul>Kuwait Liberation Tower
  18. 18. Key People & Terms <ul><li>Secular </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentalism </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare State </li></ul><ul><li>George H. Bush </li></ul><ul><li>Rumailah Oil Field </li></ul><ul><li>Saddam Hussein </li></ul><ul><li>Ayatollah Khomeini </li></ul><ul><li>Amir Abdullah al-Salem al-Sabah </li></ul><ul><li>Sabah Bin Jaber I </li></ul><ul><li>Protectorate </li></ul><ul><li>Arab League </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Liberation </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Desert Storm </li></ul>