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Corporate Lighting:
Methods and techniques of
architectural lighting for
brand communication
Thomas Schielke
Doctoral thesis from
Darmstadt University of
Technology
1
1 Introduction
1.1 Relevance
1.2 Research questions
1.3 Methods
1.4 Thesis structure
2 Architecture
2.1 Corporate identity
2.2 Semiotics in architecture
2.3 History of
corporate architecture
2.4 Typologies of
corporate architecture
3 Light and visual image
3.1 Characteristics of light
3.2 Perception of light and space
3.3 Lighting concepts
3.4 History of
architectural lighting
2
4 Lighting technology and
types of lighting
4.1 Light sources
4.2 Lighting control
4.3 Types of lighting
4.4 Ecological and economical factors
5 Analysis
5.1 Theoretical background and
hypothesis for experiments
5.2 Methodology
5.3 Evaluation criteria
5.4 Experiments in neutral interior
space
5.5 Experiments for interior spaces
with different functions
5.6 Experiments for exterior spaces
with different functions
5.7 Case studies interior spaces
5.8 Case studies exterior spaces
5.9 Design guidelines
6 Findings
6.1 Findings
6.2 General experimental critique
6.3 Design guidelines in practice
6.4 Relevance of findings
7 Summary
7.1 Findings
7.2 Outlook
8 Index
8.1 Literature index
8.2 Image index
8.3 Table index
9 Appendix
9.1 Results and analysis of experiments
9.2 Images
9.3 Tables
Corporate Lighting:
Methods and techniques of
architectural lighting for
brand communication
Context
Methods
Analysis
Critique
Outlook
3
Corporate Lighting:
Methods and techniques of
architectural lighting for
brand communication
> Challenge:
Interdisciplinary
connections
4
Light Perception Marketing
Context
Context
5
Name
Citroën
Paris, 1925
Colour corporate design
Esso
Germany, 1998
Geometry of logo
adidas
Berlin, 2008
Illumination of architecture
as a message from brands
Context
6
Luminaire arrangement
Aldi Nord
Dortmund, 2006
Luminous intensity distribution
Edeka
Ingolstadt, 2007
Light spectrum
La Rinascente
Milan, 2007
30° 30°
60° 60°
3000 cd
Architectural lighting and
perception psychology
Richard Kelly, 1952:
- Focal glow
- Ambient luminescence
- Play of brilliants
> Lighting changes
perception of environment
> Basis for designing
experiments
Context
7
Stage lighting for creating
atmosphere
Stanley McCandless, 1958:
- Visibility
- Revealing form
- Good composition
- Atmosphere
> Lighting for story telling
8
Context
Corporate Identity
Corporate Design
Corporate Architecture
Corporate Lighting
Marketing:
Corporate communication
- Brands communicate their
identity for differentiation
- Visual elements contribute
to building an identity
> Usage of design guidelines
for lighting to install
corporate identity
9
Context
Marketing analysis
- Sociology: Social milieus
as model for life style of
target groups
- Marketing: Personality
to describe characteristic
brand attributes
> Examining the effects of
lighting in regard to
communication models
in marketing
10
Context
Research questions
Corporate visual
image
4. Investment costs
1. Perception of light
2. Types of lighting
3. Coloured lighting
Price perception
11
Context
Stimulus
- Space
- Light
Response
- Attribution
Independent
variables
- Lighting
- Environment
- Visual
perception
- Individual
differences
- Cultural context
Dependent variables
- Light
- Social milieu
- Brand personality
Model
Methods
Process
- Psychobiological
12
Pro
- Controllable
variables
- Close to reality
Contra
- High costs
for using
variations
- Fixed site
Pro
- Controllable
variables
- Flexibility
- Online survey
Contra
- No 3D perception
of space
Pro
- Close to reality
Contra
- Environmental
effects
- Variables non-
controllable
Pro
- Close to reality
Contra
- Representativeness
Experiments
Real space
Case studies
Real space
Survey
Real space
Methods
Simulation
13
Methods
Light
Types of lighting
Coloured lighting
Dynamic lighting
Light
Types of lighting
Coloured lighting
Experiments
Real space
Variables, independant
Simulation
14
Methods
Light
Types of lighting
Coloured lighting
Space
Material
Architecture
Variables, independant
Simulation
15
Methods
Social milieu
Becker & Nowak, 1982
Pro
- repeated implementation
Contra
- no spatial pattern
Pro
- widely spread
Contra
- inner consistancy
Pro
- tested for architecture
Contra
- not yet widely spread
Brightness
Variables, dependant
Colour temperature
Contrast
Chromaticity
Price
Style
Temperament
Competence
Attractiveness
Naturalness
Brand personality
Aaker, 1997; Raffelt, 2012
16
Light
Tiller & Rea, 1992
Methods
Experiments
- 16 experiments
- 210 light scenes
- 30% real space,
70% simulations
- 56% white light scenes,
46% coloured light scenes
Probands
- On average n = 30 per
stimulus, min. 14, max. 99
- Mean age: 26
- 59% women, 41% men
Overview experiments
17
Evaluation
- Max. 8 scenes per
test group
- Evaluation after each
light scene
- Likert scale, 7 points
- 2 items per Index
Methods
- Conformity for 7-8
of 10 indexes between
reality and simulation
- Difference mainly applies
to colour, but hardly
brand image
- Option: Colour calibration
> Image techniques provide
valid basis for brand
indexes
Validity
Display screen
≠ Colour temperature
≠ Chromaticity
Video projector
≠ Colour temperature
≠ Chromaticity
≠ Naturalness
Reality
18
Methods
Analysis: Experiments
19
Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality+
Price
Style
Temperament
Competence
Attractiveness
Naturalness
General
lighting
Wall washing
Accent
lighting with
projection
Accent
lighting
20
Wall washing
Accent lighting
with projection
Accent lightingGeneral
lighting
+
Analysis: Experiment #8
Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality
21
3,0
3,5
4,0
4,5
5,0
5,5
6,0
+
3,8
4,3
4,7
4,8
Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality
Analysis: Experiment #8
22
3,0
3,5
4,0
4,5
5,0
5,5
6,0
+
3,8
4,3
4,7
4,8
Friedman test:
No significant results
Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality
Analysis: Experiment #8
23
3,0
3,5
4,0
4,5
5,0
5,5
6,0
+
3,8
4,3
4,7
4,8
5,7
5,5
5,0
Friedman test:
Significant results
Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality
Analysis: Experiment #8
24
3,0
3,5
4,0
4,5
5,0
5,5
6,0
+
3,8
4,3
4,7
4,8
5,7
5,5
5,0
3,7
3,8
Friedman test:
Significant results
Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality
Analysis: Experiment #8
25
3,0
3,5
4,0
4,5
5,0
5,5
6,0
+
3,8
4,3
4,7
4,8
5,7
5,5
5,0
3,7
3,8
Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality
Analysis: Experiment #8
Space
neutral
Interiors
Space
neutral
Interiors
Limitations: Based on 95% accordance of significant results. Significant results not for all experiments.
Low speed used for dynamics.
Social milieu
Price Style
Brand personality
Temp. Comp. Attract. Naturl.
General
26
+Types of lighting
Analysis: Experiments #1-16
Types of lighting
- Conformity of results from
light lab and interior
application experiments
with interior case studies
Analysis: Case studies
Supermarket
Fashion retail
Computer stores
27
Influence environment
- Wall materials, furniture
and neighbouring buildings
partially change corporate
image factors
- Limitation: Limited
number of variables
> Environment has partially
influence on corporate
image
Analysis: Experiments
Wall materials
Furniture
28
Investment costs and
price perception
- Hight investment costs do
not necessarily result in a
higher price perception
- Planning enables
high price perception
without maximum budget
> Value of lighting also
includes value for
brand communication
Analysis: Experiments
29
0 500 1000 1500
Total cost per year EUR/a
6,0
5,5
5,0
4,5
4,0
3,5
Price perception
Design guidelines in practice -
Automotive industry
- 7 of 10 automotive
companies use design
guidelines for lighting
- Survey: In Germany active
automotive companies with
3800 showrooms. 2009: 66%
share of new car registrations
> Widely spread usage of
design guidelines for
light in automotive segment
Analysis: Survey
30
Design guidelines in practice -
Automotive industry
Relevance for corporate design
in general:
Logo/Brand name
Material of the interior
Furniture
Light
Colour concepts
Decoration objects
Building type/Construction
Visual displays
Music
31
7,0
6,1
5,7
5,4
5,4
5,0
4,7
3,9
3,7
Analysis: Survey
Evaluation of findings
- New interpretation of
lighting as a message
- Closing research gap
between light, architecture
and marketing
- High relevance for
brand communication
- Valuable basis for various
brand concepts
Critique
32
Method
Pro
- Broad focus
- In relation to existing
models
- Proof of causal relations
between light and brand
- Results mainly base on
multiple experiments
- Close to reality due to
realistic simulations and
case studies
33
Critique
Method
Contra
- Simulations allow limited
spatial perception
- Nocalibrationofprobandsbefore
tests for evaluation criteria
- Coloured lighting was used
with a limited number of
variables
- Few causal effects for brand
values based on light
perception factors
34
Critique
Design guidelines for lighting
in practice
- Implementation is dependant
on organisation: Owned
showroom versus franchise
- Finance programs:
Promotions, sanctions
- Budget assignment:
Architecture versus
interior design
35
Critique
1. Method
- Field tests for more practice
orientation as well as
interactions
- Increasing the test group for
older age group and
international comparisons
- Inclusion of long term
effects
- Optimisation for reliability
regarding index style
- Testing more exteriors
Outlook
36
2. Lighting design und
technology
- Stronger consideration of
daylight
- Integration of sensors for
dynamic lighting concepts
37
Outlook
3. Interdisciplinary
Stronger cooperation with
other disciplines:
- Environmental psychology:
Information models
(Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989)
- Semiotics: Matrix
(Bense & Walther, 1973)
- Medicine: Studies of
neuronal effects
38
Outlook
39
Corporate Lighting:
Methods and techniques of
architectural lighting for
brand communication
Thomas Schielke
Doctoral thesis from
Darmstadt University of
Technology. 4.3.2014
40
Corporate Lighting:
Methods and techniques of
architectural lighting for
brand communication
Online access to complete doctoral thesis:
http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/3466
Contact for correspondence:
www.arclighting.de
Thomas Schielke
Doctoral thesis from
Darmstadt University of
Technology
- Lighting changes corporate visual image
- Accentuation for modern and temperament image
- Blue wallwashing increases price image, competence,
attractiveness and naturalness
- Accentuation or wallwashing results in higher
temperament and attractiveness
- Combined luminous intensity distributions lead to
modernised and temperamental images
- Coloured light results in a modernised and
temperamental image
- Dynamic saturated colours result in cheaper, less
temperamental and less competent images
- Lighting alters price perception
- Interaction with materials and neighbourhood
- Design guidelines for lighting
- Semiotics for analysing interdependencies
- Sustainability concept
41
Executive summary
People Phillip Anzalone, Borisuit Apiparn, Edward Bartholomew, Helmut Bien, Frieder Blickle, Erik Bohr, Peter Boyce, Howard Brandston, Susanne Brenninkmeijer, Louis Brill,
Jason Bruges, Jean-Luc Capron, Jimmy Chorssen, Jens Christoffersen, Acharawan Chutarat, James Crowley, Christopher Cuttle, Mike Day, Hannelore Deubzer, Johann Eisele,
Agneta Ejhed, Jan Ejhed, ERCO colleagues, Oscar Falk, Family, Steve Fotios, Friends, Bernadette Fülscher, Chris Gascoigne, David Gersten, Kathleen Gibson, Paul Gregory,
Axel Groß, Marit Haase, Rainer Hartmann, Simone Heinze, Harald Hofmann, Christian Hoffmann, Mareike Höhler, Swee Hong Ong, Claudia Horbert, Kevin Houser, Sabine
Hürrig, Ashok Iyer, Davina Jackson, Thomas Jantscher, Jan Jennings, Noah Kalina, Bernhard Knaus, Thomas Kotzur, Simone Kraft, Michael Kröger, Agnes Krüger, Thomas
Krumm, William Lam, Karin Lehmann, Dieter Leistner, Sascha Lense, Andres Lepik, Maren Leudesdorff, David Levenson, Hao Luoxi, Margaret Maile, Stephen Margulies,
Estudio Mariscal, Thomas Mayer, Diana Möllenbeck, Veronika Monheim, Stephane Muratet, Birgit Nelissen, Dietrich Neumann, Jin-Wie Nie, Carolin Oelsner, Werner
Osterhaus, Konstantinos Papamichael, Jens Passoth, Enrique Peiniger, Karl-Heinz Petzinka, Derek Porter, Vanessa Quirk, Ursula Raffelt, Riklef Rambow, Mark Rea, Christoph
Reinhart, Peter Richter, Christian Richters, Alexander Ring, Thomas Römhild, Alexander Rümmele, Lukas Schaller, Christoph Schierz, Jeff Schnabel, Nona Schulte-Roemer, Kai
Schuster, Susanne Seitinger, Jochen Siegemund, Tom Sillack, David Singer, Charles Stone, Tan Szue Hann, Mariko Takagi, Maria Thompson, Clemens Tropp, Dzmitry Tsishkou,
Philippe Ulmann, Henk van der Geest, Jennifer Veitch, Marc Wathieu, Bernd Weber, Roger Weber, Joachim Wessel, Frank Widemann, Andrea Wilkerson, Lin Yi, Stephan Zielke,
Anne Ziesenitz Institutions Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Aarhus University, Akademie für Kommunikationsdesign Köln, Bauhaus University Weimar, Bochum
University of Applied Sciences, Bremen University of Applied Sciences, Brown University, California Lighting Technology Center, Center for Economics and Neuroscience,
China Central Academy of Fine Arts Beijing, Chung Yuan Christian University, Coburg University of Applied Sciences, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Cornell University,
Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences, Darmstadt University of Technology, Dortmund University, Dresden University of Technology, École polytechnique fédérale de
Lausanne, Eindhoven University of Technology, Forschungsstelle Automobilwirtschaft, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Illuminating Engineering Society of North
America, Ilmenau University of Technology, International Association of Lighting Designers , Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology
Thonburi, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Manipal University Dubai, Marta Herford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT
Media Lab , Münster University of Applied Sciences, Nürtingen-Geislingen University of Applied Science, Parsons The New School for Design, Pennsylvania State University,
Peter Behrens School of Architecture, Portland State University, Princeton University, Professional Lighting Designers' Association, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,
Shanghai Illuminating Engineering Society, Singapore Institute of Architects, Sydney University of Technology, Technical University of Munich, Temasek Design School,
Tongji University, Université catholique de Louvain, University of Applied Sciences Bochum, University of Applied Sciences Cologne, University of Applied Sciences Mainz,
University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart, University of Göttingen, University of Sheffield, University of Siegen, University of Technology Sydney, University of Wuppertal,
Wismar University of Technology, Business and Design, Yale University Companies Aldi Nord, Allmann Sattler Wappner, Apple, Aral, Arc Light Design, ArchDaily, archithese,
ATP Architekten und Ingenieure, Audi, Barthel & Maus, Bernhard Knaus Fine Art, BMW, Citti, Commerzbank, CUA Architekten, Daimler, Dexia, Dial, Diesel, Dinse Feest Zurl
Architekten, Edeka, EHI Retail Institute, Electric Gobo, Engelhardt/Sellin Architekturfotografie, ERCO, Esprit, Europcar, Fisher Marantz Stone, Focus Lighting, Ford, Galleria
Department Store, Hagen Stier Architektur + Fotografie, Hertz, Hollister, Horten, ION Orchard, Jason Bruges Studio, KiK, Kohn Pedersen Fox, Kramm & Strigl, La Rinascente,
Lanzillotta Translations, Leonardo, Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, Louis Vuitton, Mazda, Mini, Motel One, MPREIS, Mr. Wash, Niessing Manufaktur, Nordic Light Hotel,
Nordsee GmbH, Office for Visual Interaction, One Lux Studio, Opel, Pimkie, Pimsler Hoss Architects, Porsche, realities:united, RKW Architektur + Städtebau, Saab, Saturn,
Selux, Sixt, Speirs + Major, Street One, Swarovski, Tchibo, Telekom, Tom Tailor, UN Studio, Viceroy Hotel Group, Vobis, Volkswagen, W Hotel, Zara, Zeilgalerie
for the invaluable support
Thank you
42
Image credits
43
1: La Rinascente, Mailand, 2007, © Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, Chris Gascoigne; photo: Chris Gascoigne. 3: American Eagle; photo: Schielke. 4: Huntington Beach,
2013; photo: Schielke. Eye, Wikimedia Commons; photo: Rotfloleb. American Eagle. photo: Schielke. 5: Citroen: Wikimedia Commons; photo: Unknown. Tankstellen,
1998-2001. Photo: Ralf Peters. © Bernhard Knaus Fine Art. Adidas, 2008; photo: Schielke. 6: Aldi Nord, 2006, Wikimedia Common; photo: Kira Nerys. Edeka. Ingolstadt,
2007, ATP Architekten und Ingenieure; photo: Engelhardt/Sellin Architekturfotografie, München. La Rinascente, Mailand, 2007, © Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, Chris
Gascoigne; photo: Chris Gascoigne. 7-8, 28: Multifunctional room, © ERCO, Author: Axel Groß. 10: Beijing, 2013; photo: Schielke. 11: Piktograms, © ERCO. Author: Simone
Heinze / ERCO. 13, 17, 18, 29: Neutral interior space, © ERCO; photo: Alexander Ring / ERCO. 13: Department store, © ERCO; Author: Axel Groß. Sixt, Berlin, 2008; photo:
Schielke. Porsche Museum, Stuttgart, 2009; photo: Schielke. 14-15: Lighting simulation; © ERCO; Author: Axel Groß. 16, 18-29: Piktograms, © ERCO. Author: Simone
Heinze / ERCO. 17: Survey; photo: Schielke. 18: Display screen iMac, © Apple. Image editing: Schielke. 20-24: Fashion retail stores; Author: Maren Leudesdorff / KTH
Stockholm. 27: KiK Rostock, 2012. © Citti-Park. Zara. Barcelona, © ERCO; photo: Thomas Mayer. Saturn, Apple, Lüdenscheid, 2007; photo: Schielke. Apple Store Tysons
Corner, McLean/VA, 2001, © Apple. 28: Material simulation, © ERCO, Author: Christian Hofmann. 30: BMW Hamburg, 2010, © Dinse Feest Zurl Architekten; photo: Hagen
Stier Architektur + Fotografie. 31: Volkswagen Kassel, 2001, © Barthel & Maus GmbH; photo: Barthel & Maus GmbH. 32-35: Mannequins; photo: Schielke. 36: Zara,
München, 2007, © ERCO; photo: Frank Widemann. 37: MPreis, Telfs, 2001, © MPreis; photo: Thomas Jantscher. 38: Brain, © istockphoto; image: Yakobchuk. 39: Lego
store, Dubai; photo: Schielke

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Corporate Lighting: Architectural lighting for brand communication

  • 1. Corporate Lighting: Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication Thomas Schielke Doctoral thesis from Darmstadt University of Technology 1
  • 2. 1 Introduction 1.1 Relevance 1.2 Research questions 1.3 Methods 1.4 Thesis structure 2 Architecture 2.1 Corporate identity 2.2 Semiotics in architecture 2.3 History of corporate architecture 2.4 Typologies of corporate architecture 3 Light and visual image 3.1 Characteristics of light 3.2 Perception of light and space 3.3 Lighting concepts 3.4 History of architectural lighting 2 4 Lighting technology and types of lighting 4.1 Light sources 4.2 Lighting control 4.3 Types of lighting 4.4 Ecological and economical factors 5 Analysis 5.1 Theoretical background and hypothesis for experiments 5.2 Methodology 5.3 Evaluation criteria 5.4 Experiments in neutral interior space 5.5 Experiments for interior spaces with different functions 5.6 Experiments for exterior spaces with different functions 5.7 Case studies interior spaces 5.8 Case studies exterior spaces 5.9 Design guidelines 6 Findings 6.1 Findings 6.2 General experimental critique 6.3 Design guidelines in practice 6.4 Relevance of findings 7 Summary 7.1 Findings 7.2 Outlook 8 Index 8.1 Literature index 8.2 Image index 8.3 Table index 9 Appendix 9.1 Results and analysis of experiments 9.2 Images 9.3 Tables Corporate Lighting: Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication
  • 3. Context Methods Analysis Critique Outlook 3 Corporate Lighting: Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication
  • 5. Context 5 Name Citroën Paris, 1925 Colour corporate design Esso Germany, 1998 Geometry of logo adidas Berlin, 2008 Illumination of architecture as a message from brands
  • 6. Context 6 Luminaire arrangement Aldi Nord Dortmund, 2006 Luminous intensity distribution Edeka Ingolstadt, 2007 Light spectrum La Rinascente Milan, 2007 30° 30° 60° 60° 3000 cd
  • 7. Architectural lighting and perception psychology Richard Kelly, 1952: - Focal glow - Ambient luminescence - Play of brilliants > Lighting changes perception of environment > Basis for designing experiments Context 7
  • 8. Stage lighting for creating atmosphere Stanley McCandless, 1958: - Visibility - Revealing form - Good composition - Atmosphere > Lighting for story telling 8 Context
  • 9. Corporate Identity Corporate Design Corporate Architecture Corporate Lighting Marketing: Corporate communication - Brands communicate their identity for differentiation - Visual elements contribute to building an identity > Usage of design guidelines for lighting to install corporate identity 9 Context
  • 10. Marketing analysis - Sociology: Social milieus as model for life style of target groups - Marketing: Personality to describe characteristic brand attributes > Examining the effects of lighting in regard to communication models in marketing 10 Context
  • 11. Research questions Corporate visual image 4. Investment costs 1. Perception of light 2. Types of lighting 3. Coloured lighting Price perception 11 Context
  • 12. Stimulus - Space - Light Response - Attribution Independent variables - Lighting - Environment - Visual perception - Individual differences - Cultural context Dependent variables - Light - Social milieu - Brand personality Model Methods Process - Psychobiological 12
  • 13. Pro - Controllable variables - Close to reality Contra - High costs for using variations - Fixed site Pro - Controllable variables - Flexibility - Online survey Contra - No 3D perception of space Pro - Close to reality Contra - Environmental effects - Variables non- controllable Pro - Close to reality Contra - Representativeness Experiments Real space Case studies Real space Survey Real space Methods Simulation 13 Methods
  • 14. Light Types of lighting Coloured lighting Dynamic lighting Light Types of lighting Coloured lighting Experiments Real space Variables, independant Simulation 14 Methods
  • 15. Light Types of lighting Coloured lighting Space Material Architecture Variables, independant Simulation 15 Methods
  • 16. Social milieu Becker & Nowak, 1982 Pro - repeated implementation Contra - no spatial pattern Pro - widely spread Contra - inner consistancy Pro - tested for architecture Contra - not yet widely spread Brightness Variables, dependant Colour temperature Contrast Chromaticity Price Style Temperament Competence Attractiveness Naturalness Brand personality Aaker, 1997; Raffelt, 2012 16 Light Tiller & Rea, 1992 Methods
  • 17. Experiments - 16 experiments - 210 light scenes - 30% real space, 70% simulations - 56% white light scenes, 46% coloured light scenes Probands - On average n = 30 per stimulus, min. 14, max. 99 - Mean age: 26 - 59% women, 41% men Overview experiments 17 Evaluation - Max. 8 scenes per test group - Evaluation after each light scene - Likert scale, 7 points - 2 items per Index Methods
  • 18. - Conformity for 7-8 of 10 indexes between reality and simulation - Difference mainly applies to colour, but hardly brand image - Option: Colour calibration > Image techniques provide valid basis for brand indexes Validity Display screen ≠ Colour temperature ≠ Chromaticity Video projector ≠ Colour temperature ≠ Chromaticity ≠ Naturalness Reality 18 Methods
  • 19. Analysis: Experiments 19 Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality+ Price Style Temperament Competence Attractiveness Naturalness General lighting Wall washing Accent lighting with projection Accent lighting
  • 20. 20 Wall washing Accent lighting with projection Accent lightingGeneral lighting + Analysis: Experiment #8 Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality
  • 21. 21 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0 + 3,8 4,3 4,7 4,8 Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality Analysis: Experiment #8
  • 22. 22 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0 + 3,8 4,3 4,7 4,8 Friedman test: No significant results Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality Analysis: Experiment #8
  • 23. 23 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0 + 3,8 4,3 4,7 4,8 5,7 5,5 5,0 Friedman test: Significant results Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality Analysis: Experiment #8
  • 25. 25 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 6,0 + 3,8 4,3 4,7 4,8 5,7 5,5 5,0 3,7 3,8 Types of lighting Social milieu Brand personality Analysis: Experiment #8
  • 26. Space neutral Interiors Space neutral Interiors Limitations: Based on 95% accordance of significant results. Significant results not for all experiments. Low speed used for dynamics. Social milieu Price Style Brand personality Temp. Comp. Attract. Naturl. General 26 +Types of lighting Analysis: Experiments #1-16
  • 27. Types of lighting - Conformity of results from light lab and interior application experiments with interior case studies Analysis: Case studies Supermarket Fashion retail Computer stores 27
  • 28. Influence environment - Wall materials, furniture and neighbouring buildings partially change corporate image factors - Limitation: Limited number of variables > Environment has partially influence on corporate image Analysis: Experiments Wall materials Furniture 28
  • 29. Investment costs and price perception - Hight investment costs do not necessarily result in a higher price perception - Planning enables high price perception without maximum budget > Value of lighting also includes value for brand communication Analysis: Experiments 29 0 500 1000 1500 Total cost per year EUR/a 6,0 5,5 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 Price perception
  • 30. Design guidelines in practice - Automotive industry - 7 of 10 automotive companies use design guidelines for lighting - Survey: In Germany active automotive companies with 3800 showrooms. 2009: 66% share of new car registrations > Widely spread usage of design guidelines for light in automotive segment Analysis: Survey 30
  • 31. Design guidelines in practice - Automotive industry Relevance for corporate design in general: Logo/Brand name Material of the interior Furniture Light Colour concepts Decoration objects Building type/Construction Visual displays Music 31 7,0 6,1 5,7 5,4 5,4 5,0 4,7 3,9 3,7 Analysis: Survey
  • 32. Evaluation of findings - New interpretation of lighting as a message - Closing research gap between light, architecture and marketing - High relevance for brand communication - Valuable basis for various brand concepts Critique 32
  • 33. Method Pro - Broad focus - In relation to existing models - Proof of causal relations between light and brand - Results mainly base on multiple experiments - Close to reality due to realistic simulations and case studies 33 Critique
  • 34. Method Contra - Simulations allow limited spatial perception - Nocalibrationofprobandsbefore tests for evaluation criteria - Coloured lighting was used with a limited number of variables - Few causal effects for brand values based on light perception factors 34 Critique
  • 35. Design guidelines for lighting in practice - Implementation is dependant on organisation: Owned showroom versus franchise - Finance programs: Promotions, sanctions - Budget assignment: Architecture versus interior design 35 Critique
  • 36. 1. Method - Field tests for more practice orientation as well as interactions - Increasing the test group for older age group and international comparisons - Inclusion of long term effects - Optimisation for reliability regarding index style - Testing more exteriors Outlook 36
  • 37. 2. Lighting design und technology - Stronger consideration of daylight - Integration of sensors for dynamic lighting concepts 37 Outlook
  • 38. 3. Interdisciplinary Stronger cooperation with other disciplines: - Environmental psychology: Information models (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) - Semiotics: Matrix (Bense & Walther, 1973) - Medicine: Studies of neuronal effects 38 Outlook
  • 39. 39 Corporate Lighting: Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication Thomas Schielke Doctoral thesis from Darmstadt University of Technology. 4.3.2014
  • 40. 40 Corporate Lighting: Methods and techniques of architectural lighting for brand communication Online access to complete doctoral thesis: http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/id/eprint/3466 Contact for correspondence: www.arclighting.de Thomas Schielke Doctoral thesis from Darmstadt University of Technology
  • 41. - Lighting changes corporate visual image - Accentuation for modern and temperament image - Blue wallwashing increases price image, competence, attractiveness and naturalness - Accentuation or wallwashing results in higher temperament and attractiveness - Combined luminous intensity distributions lead to modernised and temperamental images - Coloured light results in a modernised and temperamental image - Dynamic saturated colours result in cheaper, less temperamental and less competent images - Lighting alters price perception - Interaction with materials and neighbourhood - Design guidelines for lighting - Semiotics for analysing interdependencies - Sustainability concept 41 Executive summary
  • 42. People Phillip Anzalone, Borisuit Apiparn, Edward Bartholomew, Helmut Bien, Frieder Blickle, Erik Bohr, Peter Boyce, Howard Brandston, Susanne Brenninkmeijer, Louis Brill, Jason Bruges, Jean-Luc Capron, Jimmy Chorssen, Jens Christoffersen, Acharawan Chutarat, James Crowley, Christopher Cuttle, Mike Day, Hannelore Deubzer, Johann Eisele, Agneta Ejhed, Jan Ejhed, ERCO colleagues, Oscar Falk, Family, Steve Fotios, Friends, Bernadette Fülscher, Chris Gascoigne, David Gersten, Kathleen Gibson, Paul Gregory, Axel Groß, Marit Haase, Rainer Hartmann, Simone Heinze, Harald Hofmann, Christian Hoffmann, Mareike Höhler, Swee Hong Ong, Claudia Horbert, Kevin Houser, Sabine Hürrig, Ashok Iyer, Davina Jackson, Thomas Jantscher, Jan Jennings, Noah Kalina, Bernhard Knaus, Thomas Kotzur, Simone Kraft, Michael Kröger, Agnes Krüger, Thomas Krumm, William Lam, Karin Lehmann, Dieter Leistner, Sascha Lense, Andres Lepik, Maren Leudesdorff, David Levenson, Hao Luoxi, Margaret Maile, Stephen Margulies, Estudio Mariscal, Thomas Mayer, Diana Möllenbeck, Veronika Monheim, Stephane Muratet, Birgit Nelissen, Dietrich Neumann, Jin-Wie Nie, Carolin Oelsner, Werner Osterhaus, Konstantinos Papamichael, Jens Passoth, Enrique Peiniger, Karl-Heinz Petzinka, Derek Porter, Vanessa Quirk, Ursula Raffelt, Riklef Rambow, Mark Rea, Christoph Reinhart, Peter Richter, Christian Richters, Alexander Ring, Thomas Römhild, Alexander Rümmele, Lukas Schaller, Christoph Schierz, Jeff Schnabel, Nona Schulte-Roemer, Kai Schuster, Susanne Seitinger, Jochen Siegemund, Tom Sillack, David Singer, Charles Stone, Tan Szue Hann, Mariko Takagi, Maria Thompson, Clemens Tropp, Dzmitry Tsishkou, Philippe Ulmann, Henk van der Geest, Jennifer Veitch, Marc Wathieu, Bernd Weber, Roger Weber, Joachim Wessel, Frank Widemann, Andrea Wilkerson, Lin Yi, Stephan Zielke, Anne Ziesenitz Institutions Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Aarhus University, Akademie für Kommunikationsdesign Köln, Bauhaus University Weimar, Bochum University of Applied Sciences, Bremen University of Applied Sciences, Brown University, California Lighting Technology Center, Center for Economics and Neuroscience, China Central Academy of Fine Arts Beijing, Chung Yuan Christian University, Coburg University of Applied Sciences, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Cornell University, Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences, Darmstadt University of Technology, Dortmund University, Dresden University of Technology, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Eindhoven University of Technology, Forschungsstelle Automobilwirtschaft, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, Ilmenau University of Technology, International Association of Lighting Designers , Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Manipal University Dubai, Marta Herford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT Media Lab , Münster University of Applied Sciences, Nürtingen-Geislingen University of Applied Science, Parsons The New School for Design, Pennsylvania State University, Peter Behrens School of Architecture, Portland State University, Princeton University, Professional Lighting Designers' Association, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Shanghai Illuminating Engineering Society, Singapore Institute of Architects, Sydney University of Technology, Technical University of Munich, Temasek Design School, Tongji University, Université catholique de Louvain, University of Applied Sciences Bochum, University of Applied Sciences Cologne, University of Applied Sciences Mainz, University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart, University of Göttingen, University of Sheffield, University of Siegen, University of Technology Sydney, University of Wuppertal, Wismar University of Technology, Business and Design, Yale University Companies Aldi Nord, Allmann Sattler Wappner, Apple, Aral, Arc Light Design, ArchDaily, archithese, ATP Architekten und Ingenieure, Audi, Barthel & Maus, Bernhard Knaus Fine Art, BMW, Citti, Commerzbank, CUA Architekten, Daimler, Dexia, Dial, Diesel, Dinse Feest Zurl Architekten, Edeka, EHI Retail Institute, Electric Gobo, Engelhardt/Sellin Architekturfotografie, ERCO, Esprit, Europcar, Fisher Marantz Stone, Focus Lighting, Ford, Galleria Department Store, Hagen Stier Architektur + Fotografie, Hertz, Hollister, Horten, ION Orchard, Jason Bruges Studio, KiK, Kohn Pedersen Fox, Kramm & Strigl, La Rinascente, Lanzillotta Translations, Leonardo, Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, Louis Vuitton, Mazda, Mini, Motel One, MPREIS, Mr. Wash, Niessing Manufaktur, Nordic Light Hotel, Nordsee GmbH, Office for Visual Interaction, One Lux Studio, Opel, Pimkie, Pimsler Hoss Architects, Porsche, realities:united, RKW Architektur + Städtebau, Saab, Saturn, Selux, Sixt, Speirs + Major, Street One, Swarovski, Tchibo, Telekom, Tom Tailor, UN Studio, Viceroy Hotel Group, Vobis, Volkswagen, W Hotel, Zara, Zeilgalerie for the invaluable support Thank you 42
  • 43. Image credits 43 1: La Rinascente, Mailand, 2007, © Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, Chris Gascoigne; photo: Chris Gascoigne. 3: American Eagle; photo: Schielke. 4: Huntington Beach, 2013; photo: Schielke. Eye, Wikimedia Commons; photo: Rotfloleb. American Eagle. photo: Schielke. 5: Citroen: Wikimedia Commons; photo: Unknown. Tankstellen, 1998-2001. Photo: Ralf Peters. © Bernhard Knaus Fine Art. Adidas, 2008; photo: Schielke. 6: Aldi Nord, 2006, Wikimedia Common; photo: Kira Nerys. Edeka. Ingolstadt, 2007, ATP Architekten und Ingenieure; photo: Engelhardt/Sellin Architekturfotografie, München. La Rinascente, Mailand, 2007, © Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, Chris Gascoigne; photo: Chris Gascoigne. 7-8, 28: Multifunctional room, © ERCO, Author: Axel Groß. 10: Beijing, 2013; photo: Schielke. 11: Piktograms, © ERCO. Author: Simone Heinze / ERCO. 13, 17, 18, 29: Neutral interior space, © ERCO; photo: Alexander Ring / ERCO. 13: Department store, © ERCO; Author: Axel Groß. Sixt, Berlin, 2008; photo: Schielke. Porsche Museum, Stuttgart, 2009; photo: Schielke. 14-15: Lighting simulation; © ERCO; Author: Axel Groß. 16, 18-29: Piktograms, © ERCO. Author: Simone Heinze / ERCO. 17: Survey; photo: Schielke. 18: Display screen iMac, © Apple. Image editing: Schielke. 20-24: Fashion retail stores; Author: Maren Leudesdorff / KTH Stockholm. 27: KiK Rostock, 2012. © Citti-Park. Zara. Barcelona, © ERCO; photo: Thomas Mayer. Saturn, Apple, Lüdenscheid, 2007; photo: Schielke. Apple Store Tysons Corner, McLean/VA, 2001, © Apple. 28: Material simulation, © ERCO, Author: Christian Hofmann. 30: BMW Hamburg, 2010, © Dinse Feest Zurl Architekten; photo: Hagen Stier Architektur + Fotografie. 31: Volkswagen Kassel, 2001, © Barthel & Maus GmbH; photo: Barthel & Maus GmbH. 32-35: Mannequins; photo: Schielke. 36: Zara, München, 2007, © ERCO; photo: Frank Widemann. 37: MPreis, Telfs, 2001, © MPreis; photo: Thomas Jantscher. 38: Brain, © istockphoto; image: Yakobchuk. 39: Lego store, Dubai; photo: Schielke