• The audiences have a large impact on
the print industry
• They control the success or failure of a
• A magazine/newspaper doesn’t depend
on the quality, it depends on it’s
• There is an entire industry based on
finding out every detail about a
Defining how big the audience is for a
• NRS and ABC are the biggest companies
devoted to finding out figures and
audience numbers for print and digital
months, seven days a week.
• As an overview of what the NRS does:
• Asks about online behaviour/ personal
• Short interviews at your own home.
• Get to find out how large the audience is
• Can adapt when the audience changes
• Better understanding of the audience
• A large amount of people could not take
part in the survey.
• Receive bad comments from a lot of
How Could PB Media use this?
Contact one of the companies (NRS or ABC)
and ask them to develop an online survey or
interviews for them.
Used to find out the requirements, interests and
needs of individual audience members such
Where they live
This information is collected using techniques such
From face-to-face interviews the interviewer
receives a more personal and true statement.
Questionnaires are quick and easy.
Makes it easier to meet the requirements of
People could lie in their answers.
People might not like to be approached for
Hard to form a focus group.
Audience profiles give specific details
about different types of people buying
certain products. Including:
• Class etc.
• Magazines such as Q use audience
profiles to sell advertising space and
present their statistics In front of their
• Companies who appeal to similar
audience profiles often approach others.
These statistics show, on average how many
people buy this magazine, what age they
are, their readership specific and many more
facts that will help choose what goes in to the
Easier to find out the relevant information about
Easier to produce products that please the
Easier to avoid stereotypes.
The NRS use 6 categories:
These are marked down as grades, starting from A
and finishing at E.
• Grade – A – Upper Middle Class (4%)
• Grade – B – Middle Class (23%)
• Grade – C1 – Lower Middle Class (29%)
• Grade – C2 – Skilled Working Class (21%)
• Grade – D – Working Class (15%)
• Grade – E – Lower Level of Subsistence (8%)
• Also, according to the NRS only 2% of the UK is
respectively upper class, whilst the rest of the
population is grouped in to ABC1 and C2DE.
• The NRS social grades were developed 50 years
ago and are now widespread across the UK.
NRS Social Grades
Developed by the NRS to distinguish the
differences between readers using social
Information received from this is then used
for market research.
Overall status of a household depends on
the occupation of the head of the
The population is separated in to two main
social groups, one including: Upper Middle
Class, Middle Class and Lower Middle Class.
The other group includes: Skilled Working
Class, Working Class and Unemployed.
Lifestyle or Psychographics
There are 7 different types of categories for
•Belonger – Family oriented, e.g. Iceland
•Emulator/Wanna be – Wants to achieve but
can’t quite get there e.g. Go Compare
•Socially Conscious Type A – Are very aware of
how their actions effect the world e.g. Sony’s
•Socially Conscious Type B – Don’t care for how
their actions impact the world/anything e.g. The
•Balanced/Totally Integrated – People who
strive to achieve when it comes to saving the
Earth e.g. McDonalds.
•Needs Driven- People who shop/buy on
impulse – buy items they don’t really need e.g.
Postcode or Geodemographics
Collects information from the national
neighbourhoods and compare how similar
some households are to others.
Important information is obtained such as:
the amount a household earns, their class
Enables advertising to the correct
Also used to direct mail to certain
Looks at retired couples, young families
and young adults
Extremely important to any media product.
Uses the idea that: similar ages have similar likes
Using this idea it will appeal to most of the targeted
audience – may not appeal to some.
Two main types of gender structures – male
Men and women want different things
Some magazines push one gender away from
the other to make specific gender magazines
These tend to be smaller groups with more specific
needs such as:
Doctor Who magazines
Adventure Time magazines
Hinweis der Redaktion
After each sentence, elaborate!
Every year on average anyone of the age of 15+ gets interviewed about readership. Last about 20-30 minutes
Examples: Likes: Interests e.g. for a fan of a certain TV series i.e. Doctor Who in The Radio Times. Dislikes: Mocking a celebrity in i.e. OK! Magazine.
Elaborate on some such as: how they use audience profiles to sell advertising space.
Percentages taken from a survey by the NRS in 2008 these percentages amount to the population. ABC1 – mix of upper middle class, middle class and lower middle class. Skilled working class, working class and unemployed (C2DE). NRS also works with the NPA newspaper publishers association and the PPA periodical papers association.
ABC1 = upper, middle and lower middle.C2DE = Skilled, working and unemployed.