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1 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Summary: A significant The Shifting Economics of Global Manufacturing

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1 Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved. Summary: A significant The Shifting Economics of Global Manufacturing

1
Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved.
Summary: A significant reordering of national manufacturing
competitiveness has occurred over the past decade
Striking shifts have taken place
in the competitiveness of the
top 25 export economies during
the past ten years
Manufacturing competitiveness
has become truly global
Of the world's top 10 exporters,
China, the U.S., and South
Korea stand apart from the
pack
Dramatic historical volatility
can be seen in the major
drivers of competitiveness
Manufacturers must have a
global perspective to remain
competitive as the economics
continue to shift
• Rapid changes in wages, labor productivity, energy costs, and exchange rates have driven
dramatic changes in relative manufacturing-cost structures
• These changes have led to four emergent categories of relative competitiveness
– Under Pressure. Traditional low-cost countries whose costs are rising quickly
– Losing Ground. Traditional high-cost countries that are falling further behind
– Holding Steady. A mix of low- and high-cost countries that are maintaining their position
– Rising Stars. Mexico and the United States—improved competitiveness versus all others
• Manufacturing competitiveness is no longer concentrated in a single region or country
• East and South Asian countries joined by North American, western European, and eastern
European countries are at the top of the rankings
• The gap between China and the U.S. in overall manufacturing cost—before transportation—is
less than 5 points today
• South Korea, the next-most-competitive major exporter, is ~2 points more costly than the U.S.
• The rest of the top 10 export economies are ~10 to 25 points disadvantaged to the U.S. and
~15 to 30 points disadvantaged to China
• The past ten years have been marked by high volatility
– Several countries have seen more than ten years of 10% to 20% sustained wage growth
– Productivity has doubled in many countries—while declining in others
– Energy costs—relative to the U.S.—have increased in many countries: 50% to 200%
– Currencies have fluctuated greatly, ranging from –20% to +35% versus the dollar
• Future uncertainty in all of these dimensions demands that manufacturers remain flexible to
stay competitive
• Manufacturers need to develop long-term views and build options into their supply chain as
much as possible

1
Copyright©2014byTheBostonConsultingGroup,Inc.Allrightsreserved.
Summary: A significant reordering of national manufacturing
competitiveness has occurred over the past decade
Striking shifts have taken place
in the competitiveness of the
top 25 export economies during
the past ten years
Manufacturing competitiveness
has become truly global
Of the world's top 10 exporters,
China, the U.S., and South
Korea stand apart from the
pack
Dramatic historical volatility
can be seen in the major
drivers of competitiveness
Manufacturers must have a
global perspective to remain
competitive as the economics
continue to shift
• Rapid changes in wages, labor productivity, energy costs, and exchange rates have driven
dramatic changes in relative manufacturing-cost structures
• These changes have led to four emergent categories of relative competitiveness
– Under Pressure. Traditional low-cost countries whose costs are rising quickly
– Losing Ground. Traditional high-cost countries that are falling further behind
– Holding Steady. A mix of low- and high-cost countries that are maintaining their position
– Rising Stars. Mexico and the United States—improved competitiveness versus all others
• Manufacturing competitiveness is no longer concentrated in a single region or country
• East and South Asian countries joined by North American, western European, and eastern
European countries are at the top of the rankings
• The gap between China and the U.S. in overall manufacturing cost—before transportation—is
less than 5 points today
• South Korea, the next-most-competitive major exporter, is ~2 points more costly than the U.S.
• The rest of the top 10 export economies are ~10 to 25 points disadvantaged to the U.S. and
~15 to 30 points disadvantaged to China
• The past ten years have been marked by high volatility
– Several countries have seen more than ten years of 10% to 20% sustained wage growth
– Productivity has doubled in many countries—while declining in others
– Energy costs—relative to the U.S.—have increased in many countries: 50% to 200%
– Currencies have fluctuated greatly, ranging from –20% to +35% versus the dollar
• Future uncertainty in all of these dimensions demands that manufacturers remain flexible to
stay competitive
• Manufacturers need to develop long-term views and build options into their supply chain as
much as possible

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