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English for technical_students_1002

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English for technical_students_1002

  1. 1. ENGLISH FOR TECHNICAL STUDENTS Dd via’ Borzamy Aa’vz'ser. - Tbny Dudley —El2ans
  2. 2. fl. Eouamu AHrAMMcKMM fl3HK Allil lslulvulllx llH)KEHEPOB Penaicrop n aB'rop npexmcnonmi Ha pyccxom il3b1K6 BJ5. Ppuropon W3.Cl. AH| /IE BTOPOE, MCI"! PABIIEHHOE MOCI-(Ba «Bbictuan umonaa 1994
  3. 3. BBK 81.2 Aura-922 B 81 tbeéepazwuau uezieeaa npoepauma xnueousdamua Paccuu Hepeeon Ha pycctcnii il3bIl( «Me'romHecI<nx yI<a3aHm‘7i mm npeno- nanarenn» n cnosapefi JIM. Kpanuonofi Peuenaeu-r: xadaenpa uHoc'rpaHm. ix‘ X3I>lKOB Mocxoncxofi mcynapc'rneHHoi'1 axanemm an-roMo6u. ru. - HOI‘0 n Tpax-ropi-ioro Mamnuocrpoeuun (aan. xarpenpoii Icaun. qawion. I-iayx, npod). ' TII. Caimuxan) Bonamn I[. B 81 AHrmu“4c1<m‘/ '1 il3bIK mm fiynyumx nH>xeHepoB: Y= Ie6. noco6ue. /Hpe- nucn. B. B. Ppuroposa; Hep. «Meronwiecxnx yrcaaaum‘/1» M cnoeapefi JIM. Kpanuonofi. -2-e n3n. , ucnp. —M. : BbICLLl. l. l]l(. , 1994.-287 c. : MJI. Ha o6J1.: David Bonamy. English for Technical Students 1, 2. Longman ISBN 5-06-003040-7 Kmn-a npenc1~aa: u1e'r cofioii nayxyposnensifi yvteonuii KOMIUICKC, c0cTO)ll. l1Hfi M3 nayx KHMT mm yqatuuxcn n nnyx KHMI‘ rum npenonasatcmi. 06¢ Icuum Baozvrr Gaaosyno JIeI(CM- Ky 11 1"paMMa'nu<y 3 npouaaoncrneuumx cwryauwix, Haueneuuux Ha orrpacorncy HaBblI<OB yc1'Horo o6u1eHwI B ycnosunx npou3no. t1c'rseHHoii Mac'repcKoi'1. Krmra 2 conepnorr Taloxe 're| <c'ru u ynpanrueuml Ha paasn-rue Hasukoa uayqalomeno ‘lT6HWl. Knum JJJIX yqaumxcn socnponaeozurrcx no u3_naHmo qmpusi «Jlonruai-1» (Be. maI<o6pu- Tauwt). Me1'on. mecI<ue yxaaaimx Ma npenona3a're. r1x nepcncneuu Ha pyccxuii aaux c TO- no me uananua. K xazxnofi lemme npunomen aumo-pyccxnii cnonapb 'rexnu-iecxux TCpMlI- non. Ilml crynemon cpcm-mx u abicmtvix Texumeclolx yqefiuux aascncimii, a Taloxe Jinn Texmmeclcmc cneuna. rn. uoc're| "1, mananoumx nay-um. }l3blK caMoc'roa're. m.Ho. I 4602020102 - G13 B 278 - 94 BBK 81.2 AHrJl-922 001 (01) - 94 8 He no)1.lIe)I(I»rr pacnpocrpaueumo 38 llpeJ. l8Jlam Poccluc. Yxpauuu. Behopyccnn u Kaaaxcraua. ISBN 0 582 74885 2 (Benuxoépwranmt) © Longman Group Limited 1984, 1985, ISBN 0 582 74886 0 © 83- Fpumpon. npenuwome» 1994 ISBN 5-06-003040-7 (Poccniicxaa <I>e11epau, m1) © J1-PL Kpanuofia, fl¢P¢B0Ila 010339": 1994_
  4. 4. HPEIIHCJIOBHE K0 FTOPOMY PYCCKOMY PI3IlAHIdIO 3a -Ierupe c nummm mna, npotuczuuux co 3peMeHu 33Ixona 3 c3c'r (1989 r. ) nepnono pyccxom , uanunul Imam llannna Bquauu «English for Technical Students», arm 30 Mnomx omomcmmx saue- -| a1‘c. n3uoe yqeduoc nocofiuc npuoépeno aacnyxccimylo nonynnpnocrb He 1‘0.l'll>l(O dpezm npenou.33a're- ncii u y-iaumxcx npotpeccuonanwo-rcxuuqecxux yqwmiu u cpennux cneuuansnux yqefinux 3a3enc- Hnil, mm xompmx ouo nepnona-iansuo npcnnaanawanocb, Ho Tauoxe u cpeml npenonasarenefi u cry- nelrmn MHODIX 33Icu. mx Texumecxux yqefiuux aascnenuii. [llupoxoe u atpdaexnmnoe ucnonbaosaune noco6mi 3 yucfiuou npouccce Texuuqcciuox 3yao3 o6ycno3w| o Heo6xommoc'r3 He 'ro: I3xo 3 mucus- Huu pyccxono nassamul nocoéun («Aurnuficxuii }l3bll( mm éynyumx nnaxem-, po3»), no -raxncc H 3 ne- pecuarpe wmameuux 3 npcnncnosm oguosuux y-iefiuo-Me'ro1nneci<ux opueirmpon 3 Hanpawlemm ux fionbmeno npnfinmxcmm K nyaoacxmu acnewrau y-¢e6Hom npouecca. Cpcjnl yqefiuo-Mcmxnwccxofi mrrcpa'ryp3I no aarmmcicouy nauxy, sunycxaeuoii usnccmuu aur- Jmiiclum u3na1~e. n3c'r3ou «JIOHFMAH», nocoéue J1. Bonaun «English for Technical Students» sam- Maer oco6oe MCCTO 3 cwly mcoxoii c-renerm em npoqaeccnouanwoii Opl| CH‘l‘Hp0BaHHOc1'lI, 3pe. mn. uHo- cm, ucnenono xapalcrepa n uunaxm-aeckofi aqsqaexnmuécm ncex y'lc5l-ILIX Man-, pua. no3. mm pyccxo- no npenouana-rem: aurnuficxom nauxa, wacro c'ra. nxu3aiomerocu co cxy-mbmn, ycmpesummt, a unor- na :1 npocro npimyuannsmu nun wuuoc'rpau. uu -rom mm nuoro rpauuannecxom nnnemul 'l‘eKCTaMH, auaxoucrno c noco6ueM J1. Bonauu oxaaunaercx npunuoii I-| cO)KlulaHHOcTl>l0 n 3 onpenenenuou cuucne orxpbrrueu. Vxge npu nepnou -rremm nocoéuz Gpocaewcn 3 rnaaa daynxwmuanbnocn, Tex- mnecxaa conep>xa-re. n3uoc'r3 pucynxon u y-4e6H3|x -rexc-ro3 u npoqaeccnonansno-opucinuponannsui xa- paxrep 3ccx -y-Ieéuux Ma1‘cpHaJlOB, nocnenonarcmuo 3e11yumx o6y-aaeuom o-r no. vmoc'ruo nomrmono npocrono K C1‘0Jll> axe non-urruouy cnoxmouy. Tannxe Henpunu-mum: zum npcnonanamml miqc'rpaH- uoro aauxa n3.ruuo'rcn o6ocHo3aHHoc'n. , Tcxnmecxan rpamomocn. u sucoxau mmax-rmecicaa Haem- Luemioc-r3 ncem wmioc'rpam3no-rpadm-lecxom Mawepuana nocoéun, sauuuanoiucno fionec 50% em o6'3eMa u 3 Heuanofi crcnemc cnocoficnylotuem cm 331coKoi’1 y'le6Hoii atbtbcxnnnocm. flocoéue noc-rpoeno Ha CIOJKOTC o6y-«emu Tpex u'Hoc'rpauuc3—6ynyumx pa6o-mx peuorrruux Macrepcmx-npocrefiumu HaBblKaM npou33onc'r3cHHom démeima Ha aurnniicxom nsuxe, Heo6xo; m- MUM xax Mn nommauwl cymecrna nony-Iaemono o'r Mac-repa npon33onc'r3eHHdro aanauwl, Tax 3 mu: odmelwl 3 xone em sunonuenml. Mcxozm H3 Tanono pona ucnenoii yc'raHo3n<u u y-nm.13az anr. no'- asu-moc oxpyxccnuc, 3 ycnoawlx xomopom npoucxonm‘ oéyqenuc, a3'rop c1-pom‘ CBOIO Metonuxy odywemul npax-rmecxn 6e: bnopu Ha ponnoii naux odyqaemono (o-aennnuo, paanuii y xanuoro H3 Tpex) n 6153 xaxoro-: m6o yue'ra cm | <om<pc'n-Iux 3o3Mo>KHoc'reii u oco6eHHoc'mcii. ;Ec'recT3eHHo, ; -no npu mnamm nocofinx 3 Poccnu o| <a3a. noc3 Heooxonuuuia y-m1-u3a'r3. uaucuerme Icon-ru1m= m-a yua- umxcn, K0'l‘0pbIM anpecye-rca nocoéuc, ueneii n aana-i o6y-Jenna uuocrpanuouy nsuxy, a Taioxe o'r- cyrcnue nasnconono oxpyxceuuz, 3 ycnoswux I(O‘l'0p0l'D y-aaumecx pa6o-raio'r c noco6ucM. Harnxnuocu, npoc'ro'ra, mmaxmqecxau 3¢xbeI<'ru3noc'r3 n npoq)eccuoHa. m.Han opuclrmponanuocrs nocofiwl JICJIIIIOT em oco6el-mo npumnusm mm umpoxom xpyra yuaumxca paanmuux 1'exmnccI<ux y-aefinux saaenennfi, 3 my ‘menu, In 3 0C05eHHOC'l'H, TeXHM‘lc'CK|1x 3y3o3, Haxomlumxca Ha Ha-iamuou u cpemmx arranax uayqemm anrxmiicxono nasuca, 11360 TOJIBKO uauuuaioumx em nay-acme «c Hymn». Iloeofinc (em ncpnan -aacn, no ncmcom cny-aa‘e) Taioxe MO)K6T 63111. pexouel-u1o3aHo y-Iaunmca cpemmx cneuuanbubix yIIc6uux aasenermii u npotbeccuonanbuo-Texnmccknx y-nmmu. Yueouue Mare- puanu nocofiwl uzmoaxenu cmm. noxommno u ncuo, a in: yc3ocHu¢ 'rpe6ye'r o-r oéywaemux c1'o. ru. HO6OJ'lblJ. lH: K yMc'r3eHH31x ycwmii, -rro pa6o'ra c noco6ueM MOJKCT 6311-3 pexomennosana name caubm ncmuxsm yueumcau ncpc-Iucnenuux auuie y-Iefinux aaseneuuii. B cny-lac Heoéxommocm pa6o-ra yqauicmcn c noco6ueM Mozxe-r Hocm-3 HOJIHOCTHO caMoc1~on1'e. m.m. u‘i xapaxnep, nocxonbxy Ham-Hue o1'3e'ro3 H iuuoqeii xo 3ccM ynpaxmcumm odccnc-m3ae'r 11oc'ra'ro-mo , uane>KHui‘1 cauoxonrponb. 5
  5. 5. l'lpeno11a3aTen3 nomken o6paTM'r3 ocogoe 3HMMaHMe Ha M8KCMMaJlbH0 aqxpexrunnyio pea. rrM3au, Mio 3 y‘le6HOM npouecce cnenyioruux 3a>Kneii1uMx 11ocToMncT3 nocoéwr: I l'loc. rIeno3aTeJ13Hoe npo3eneHMe 3 )KH3Hb npMHu. Mna npoq)eccMona. n3HoM 0pMeH1‘Hp0BaHHOCTM seem yqefiuono MaTepMa. na noco6Ma, l(OTOp0My a3Top cne;1yeT Kak Ha Ha‘laJlI>HOM, Tax M Ma fionee npon3MHyToM arane oéyuenmr. Hatmnan c camoro nepaono aammur, ytiaumeca IIOJIHOCTHO norpy>u<a- l0Tc)l 3 o6cTaHo3i<y cnoefi éynymeii npo¢eccMoHaJn. Hoii z1enTeJI3Hoc'rM. l'lpenona3a're. n3 MO)l(eT eno- co6c'r3o3a1'3 coanamuo aTofi o6cTaHo3|<M, npunocn Ha aamrrun CO0TB¢TCTBylOu. Me Mnc'rpyMeH'r3i, nna- I<aT3i, pucymm M T. n. l'lpM Ha. JlM'<lMM K3a. nMtpMimpo3aHn3|x nporpaMMMcTo3. KoTop3ie Moryr 3ocnon33o- B-8TbC}l Mmelonumucx llp0[‘paMMaMM-060JlO‘ll(aMIl win 33:30:13 Ha axpan M anMMau. MM (T. e. npuneneuun 3 n3M>IceHMe) pa3JlM‘lHblX y‘le6Hl>lX MaTepMa. vIo3 noco6Mn (HanpMMep, cuen 3a6M3aHMa rsosnn MOJIOTKOM, 3a3Mwm3aHMn rat"u<M H 'r. n.), nocnenuue M0l‘yT 63iT3 TaK)I(c npen3snmem. a c Lmcnnen. 3 C1-pyxrypa M conep>KaHMe noco6Mn MOI‘yT n3nnT3cn npMMepoM nocneno3aTe. n3Hoi pea. riM3au. MM a3TopoM OCHOBHOPO npMHu. Mna IIIIJIZKTMKM-CTp0l‘O noaupoaannoro nepexona OT Oonee npocroro K 6o- Jtee CJ'l0)KHOMy. B pe3yn3TaTe y xamnom yuauierocn non3nneTcn -ry3c1'3o y3epeMnocTM 3 c3oMx cM- nax M aepa 3 nocTM>i<MMocT3 nocraanennofi ue:1M-o3:1anenMe HaBblK8MM oécyncnenun Texuwiecxux 3onpoco3 H8 MHocTpaHuoM a33uce. l'lpenona3aTe. n3 nomxen Bc}l‘{ecKM cnoco6cT3o3aT3 yxpennenuio Ta- xono pona y3epeHHoc1'M y‘lal1.l}{X(‘. )'l M npM no3Mpo3xe nosoro MaTepMa. na He 33ixonMr3 aa npene. n3| Mx peaJI3H3ix 3o3Mo>I<Hoc1'eii. _ u npMH}lTa}l 3 noco6MM Meronuxa noaropeumr crapono H 33ona uoaom Marepnana o6ecne*m3ae'r nen<oc'r3 3anoMMnaHMx 33onMMoii . rieKcMKM M npo-moan. yCBO¢l-M}! 3cei'1 33onMMofi yqeéuoii MHq)opMa- uMM. 3T0 nocTMraeTcn c nomouuno Mnonoxparnoro nosropeimn onimx M Tex me, .r1M6o 3ap3MpyeM31x -nu1o33ix npoM33oncT3emi3ix cMTyauMii. B KENCCTBC Taxoro pona TMno33ix cM-ryau; Mi<‘I Ha H8‘laJ'| |>HOM 3Tane 06y-ienun MCfl0J| b3yl0TC)l cMTyauMn HaMMeHo3aHMx npenMe'ra (What's this called? lt’s called a wheel), onpenenennn paamepoa M l(OJ1Pl‘~lCCTBa npenMeTo3 (The shelf is 1 m long), onncanmi ¢)opM3i npeJ1Me'ra (What shape is it? It's triangular), noncneuml M yrounenua (Which spanner? The long one), yxasanua MecT0l10Jl0)KeHH)l (Where is the saw‘? lt’s in the box), onpenenennn MaTepMa. v|a (What's it made of? It's made of steel), Ol1MCaHM}l c3oi'1eT3 Ma'repMa. r|a (Steel is a tough material), 33u1cHeHMa neMcnpa3HocTeii (What's wrong with the car? The tyre is flat), Mcnpannenwi ouméox (19? No, 90) M 'r. n. I Bucoxan c'renen3 Hal‘J'DlJ1HOC'l‘M, 3pMTeJ13Han npenc'ra3MMocT3 ne'ra. nei'1 xamnom Ilpc11McTa o6- cyxcnenwa M I(a)K110fi yueéuoii cMTyauMM. 31-0 noc'rMraeTcn c nomouuno 33IpaaMTe. rI3H3Ix M, 3a 0‘{Cl-lb He6o. n3mMM HCl(J'll0‘lcllMcM, npo¢>eccMona. n3Ho T0‘lHbIX pMCyHKOB M uepremefi, nenaioumx mo6oi'1 npen- MeT oécyncnenun npenenbno ncn3m, noHnTu3iM M nerxo y3Ha3aeM3m y‘lalLMMMC}l. "MCHHO no arroii npi-r-mue coo6uiaeM3ie npenona3aTe. rieM yuauumcn pyccme ai<3M3a. neHT3i 33onMM3rx anrnuficxux Tep- MHHOB nomxn3i TO‘{HO cooT3eTcT3o3a-r3 Ton TepMMHo. riorMM, c xoropofi yuaruuecn CTaJl_KHBal0Tc)l Ha aamnwix no cneu, Man3H3m npe11Me'raM. Bo 3ccx coMnMTeJI3H3ix cnyuaxrx npeno11a3a'reJ13 M0)KCT o6pa- TM'r3cn x 0nOpHblM McTo-mMI<aM M coc1'a3neHn3iM cneu. Ma. nMc1'aMM c. no3ap; m' rum llp0I(0HCyJ'lb1'Mp0- 3a'r3cn y npenona3aTeJ1eii M co-rpynnnxoa 33inycKaIoLuMx M npottmnupyloumx Icaqienp. I 3|<onom| oc'r3 33eneHMn HOBOPO y-ie6Hono MaTepMa. na, 'r1uaTe. n3H3ii‘i o16op 33onMM3Ix n33n<o33ix enMnMu-cno3, CJI0B0CO‘lCTaHMl7l, I‘paMMaTH‘leCl(HX xoncrpyxuufi. OCHOB| >lBaRCb Ha ne'raJi3HoM 3naxoM- cT3e c npoM33oncT3oM M co 3ceMM aCllCl(TaMM Gynymefi npoM33o)1cT3eHHov'| J1C}lT6J1bHOCTM ywaumxcx, a3'rop o1fiMpae'r M 33onMT 'ro. vI3|<o Te TepMMH31, o6opo'r3I, xoncrpyxwm M rpaMMa'nnecI<Me annenun, Ko'rop3ie J1eMc'r3MTe. n3Ho nouanofisrrcn o6yHaeM3m 3 Mx npaxmnecxofi pa6oTe. BHMMaHue o6yMaeMoro He (Yl‘B.7lCKacTC}l Ha Mexauwiecxoe 3anoMMHanMe He ncerna nommiux M ‘laCTO HeHyM<H3ix any man- Manr-iecxux n3neHMi‘1, onnaxo Heo6xonMM3|e Ha33n<M l'lpaK'l'M‘lcCl(0PO npMMeneHMn Hexoropono MMHM- _: .e_ B Ka‘lCCTBC Ol'I0pHblX TCPMHHOJIOWNCCKHX MCTOWHHKOB M0l'yT 5bl'l’b PCKOMCHIIOBGHBIZ 1) «Kpa'rKMi'I MJunocTpMpo3aHH3u'4 pyccko-aHr. rIMI7IcKM17i c. no3ap3 no Mau1MHoc'rpoeHmo» B. B. lllaapu, «Pyccxnfi naux», M. , 1980 r. H nocnenynoume Mananmi. B coc'ra3 cHa6u<eHHux wunoc1‘pauMx- MM 3795 TCpMMHOB cnosapa 3xonM'r Ben Tepmnnonomn, paccMaTpM3aeMan 3 noco6MM I1". BoHaMM. 2) «BoJ13Lnofi anrno-pyeckuii no. v1MTexHMIiec| <Mfi cJio3ap3», «Pyccimii 33313», M. , 1991 r. B 1lByx 1'oMax 3'roro ¢)yHnaMeHTa. v|3Hom Mananwi CO, l1Cp)I(MTCfl c33nue 20 0000 'repMMHo3, KOTOPHC MOI'yT 63iT3 MC[lOJlb3OBaHbl mm yTo-mermn pycclmx 3KBHBaJIcHTOB. 6
  6. 6. Ma. rr3Hono Ko. rrM-rec1'3a neiicT3MTc. n3Mo neo6xonMM3rx l"paMMa'I'M‘{eCKHX npaswr o'rpa6aT3r3aroTcM 3ec3Ma 1'tuaTeJr3Mo Ma nomrTM3rx M npo¢>eccMoMa. rr3no 6JIH3KMX 06y-raeuomy npMMepax. )Ke. naTeJr3Ho, 3MnMMo, Tu| aTe. n3Ho oueHM3aT3 M o1fiMpaT3 sec» 33onMM3n"1 Ha aansrmxx Marepuan c y-re-roM namneiiureii npaxnmecxofi pa6o1'3r Gynyureno Mrnrcenepa 3 Hay‘lH0-MCCJlC, l.‘lOBaT6J'| l>cl(0M MHcTMTyTe M Ma npoM33on- cT3e, a Taroxe 33nrom-rer-run 3anaMMr”4 no Mndmpuaunornrony o6ecneMeMMro Hayrm, nponenenwr co6cT- 3eMH3rx Hay-m3rx Mcc. rreno3aMM1"1 M 1:11. C1‘pyKTypH0 noco6Me npencTa3.rureT coéoi cTa3urMM yxce TpanMrrMor-rH3rM nml‘ 3apy6e>Kr-roii y-re6- Hofi . lI}fl'CpaTypl>l n3yxypo3Me33m yMe6M3rii rgomnnexc, cocronrunii Ma 113yx KHHI‘ rum y-raumxcrr M n3yx xnur mm npenonaaawrx. Kazxnan r<MMra coc-rorrr M3 40 ypokon c percomennyemofi rurMTe. n3Mo— cT3ro onnono ruraccnoro 3am! -rm: 3 45 MHHy'l‘. Mcxonn M3 cTon3 )Kc Tpanmmonnofi rum 3y3o3cKono yrrednoro npouecca n. nM1e. n3rrocTM ornrono ruraccrrono 3aMnTMn 3 90 Mm-iyr M o63r‘rr-ro flpellyCMaTpHBae- M3rx 17 3aM'Mr'Mi'r 3 omu-I CeMCCTp, npenozia3aTe. n3 M0)KeT cocTa3Mr3 csoii nnan aansmrii, pacc'rMraH- aux Ma pa6oTy c onuoii r<MMrofi (-racT3ro) noco6Mn 3 Te-rel-me onnoro ceMecTpa. B3011 Monono MaTepMa. rra Ma xaxcnom nocJIeny| _ouxeM 3aMM'rMM cTa3MT nepen o6yMaeM3m nnornre nocTynM3re rum en‘) noru-manna M 110cTaT0'-[H0 JICFKO pa3peruMM3re rr33n¢o33re aanaqn, Temmnca KO1‘0- p3rx cpaay BBOLIHT o6y-raemorvo 3 o6cTar-ioaxy ero Gyzryureii MMM<eMepr-roii neMTeJr3r-roc'rM'. I1pM3onMM3re a3TopoM cMTyauMM M0l‘yT 63m. nerxo Mcnon33o3aH3r npenona3aTe. neM 3 Ma-recrae o6pa3u. a ‘rum coaxia- I-{WI 'rMno33rx MM nan-moii cneuMa. rrM3auMM cMryauMoMM3rx Mozreneii. Cp. , Hanpmrep, rmanom 1) M 2). 1) —I’m a mechanic. What’s wrong with the car’! —The tyre is flat. , (Mcxonr-ran cMTyauMoMMaM MoneJ13 anropa. ) 2) --I’m a maintenance engineer. What’s wrong with the landing gear’? -The tyre is flat. _ (CMTyau. Mor-nran Moz| e.n3, coanarman «no oépaauy» npMMeHMTe. n3Mo K a3Mar.1MoHHoi'r cneuMa- : rM3auMM. ) 1 Hepeaa xuuza noco6MM 3 OCHOBHOM opMen1Mpo3aMa Ma 33011 6a3o3oi'r Jrer<cMr<M M 0Tpa6OT| (y Ha- 33u<o3 ycrr-ioro ofiurerrmr no cneuMan3Hoc1'M, Meo6xonMM3rx IUD! noMMMaMMn cyruecrna nony-raeuoro H6CJl0)l(H0l‘0 npoM33o11cT3eMMoro aanar-IMM M nmr oéurerrwr 3 npouecce em 33rno. :nreHMM. Bmopaa knu- ea, noMMMo oTpa6oTrtM Ma33n<o3 o6ureMMM 3 6o. rree cJro>r<M3rx npoMa3oncT3eMM3rx cwryarnurx M 33ona cooT3c_1cT3yrornei'r nerccMxM, conepxorr Taroue 3Ha‘lHTeJ'lLHO 6o. rr31uMfi o63eM Ter<cTo3oro Ma1‘cpMaJla 3 was pa: mMMH3rx MMcTpyxuMM no npumerrenmo HHcTpyMeHTOB M c1-aMr<o3 M 1-. n., npennasnarrer-rM3rx rum o1-pa6orrxM Ma33n<o3 Mayqarouréro '-ITCHWI Texnwrecrmx TCKCTOB cpenneii TpynMocTM. B npM3onMM3re 3 rcogrue xaxqroir Mac'rM c3oz1H3re aurno-pyccr<Me TCpMHHOJl0l‘M‘lcCKMe CJlOBapH 3r<. ruo-reM3r TOJ'II>K0 KOH- Ter<cTyan3M3re anarrenwr pyccxnx 3r<3M3a. rreMTo3 aMr. rrMMcr<Mx TepMMMo3 3 yxa3aMM3rx paanedrax noco- GMM. Bee yIre6M3re Ma'repMan3r noco6MM MocnT Mcxnro-rM1eJr3Ho npoq1eccMoMa: r3Mo-opMenTMpo3ar-rM3u‘i, ¢yHI(l. U10HaJIbHl>li'i XBPGKTCP H O6bl‘IHO Bl<J'll0‘lalOT l'l0CJl¢1l0B8TCJ'lbHOCTb Ilp0H3BO). 'lC‘l'BeHHblX MMHM-C| l'l'ya-i [$111, TeM8TH| (a KOT0pblX MOJKCT 6l>ITb JIMUJL YCJIOBHO Ha3B8Ha l'IpOH3BOJ. 'lCTBCHHOfiI BCC TCXHIFIOCICHC cIo>rce'r3r o6eMx KHMT c3M3aM3r c pa3nM-rr-i3mM acnexramr Tpynoaoii neM1'e. n3Hoc11r 3 pamtax MacTep- . cxoii no peMOHTy MeTa. vuroM3nenMr“r M 63rTo3oM TexMMr<M, MacTepcr<oii no peuonry 63r1~o33rx 3nexTpM- uecruor npM6opo3, a3TopeMoM1-Moi MacTepcr<oFr, a Taroxe c 33rnoJrMeMMeM pa3JrMMM3Ix pa6oT no pe- MOHTy )l(HJlHll| a. I1pM pa6oTe c noco6MeM 3 yc. r1o3Mnx r<oMr<pe1-Mom y-retiuono npouecca npenona3aTe. uM MMocTpaM- Mono Ma3n<a HCCOMHCHHO o6pa'rnT 3MMMaMMe Ma cyurecT3eHnyro paarruuy Meuury cronsunmn nepen a3TopoM aana-raMM M flp¢llyCMOTpcHHblMH CO0TBCTCTByl0l11.HMH neiicT3yrouumM nporparmaun ue. nnMM Mayaermn Mrrocrparrnoro n33n<a 3 ore-rec1-3eMM3rx y-re6M3rx aanenenmrx. lrlcxorur M3 3103': paarmuu M y'rMT3r3aa KOHl(pcTHble oco6eHHoc'rM peanbnoro y-reénom npouecca 3 rconxpernou yrrelsnou 3a3ene-. MMM, npenona3aTeJ13 33r6epeT Tar<Me ¢>opM3r npar<'rM-recrcoir pa6oT3r c noco6MeM, K0'I‘Opblc naz1yT eMy B03MO>l(HOCTb Mawryaumu o6pa3oM Mcnon33o3aT3 l. 'l0CTOHHCTBa noco6MM M nomrocT3ro pea. nM3o3aT3 em mmaxnnrecxnii noTeHuMa: r. Mcxorur M3 paccMo1~peMM3rx 33rLue coo6pa>r<eMMM M yirm-3r3an noTpe6Moc'rM M B03M0)l(HOC11l y're& 7
  7. 7. HON) npouecca B OTCWCCTBCHHBIX yCJ'lOBK5lX, pyccxoe HZIIIBHHC xomnnexca BHCCCI-[bl ‘CJICIIYIOLLMC H3- MCHCHMII H l. 'lOl'lOJ'lHCHIDl3 I Komnnexc, cocroxumii Ma n3yx ximr rum yuauierocn M nnyx xin-xr zuvi npcnonaaarewi, '3uxo- nm 3 onnom TOMC c TBep11blM nep'en. ne-rom npu nonnom coxpaiieuvm 3cex c-rpyx1-ypnux H Me1~o; nNe- cxnx ocodemiocreii opuninana. I B pauxax c'rpyx1-yp yweonux Marepnanos nocoémi npn3ona1'ca coo1-3e1-c1'3yioume xoirrexcry pyccxue 3x3u3aneH1‘u BBO, l1}{Ml>lX n: n.ixo3i. ix enmmu. I "pHBOInlMblC 3 xoiiue nep3oii u 31-opofi Iiacreii nocoémi c3onHi. Ie 6a3o3ue c. no3api-1' cHa5>xe- nu Tpaucxpunuuefi u coo'r3e1-cnyiouiumu xomexcry pyccxuwi nepe3onaMu TCPMHHOB, c. no3 u c. no3o- coqeramii. 3 «Meronwiecxue yxaaauwi mm npenonasaremt» (1 u 2), BKJIl0‘Ial0ll. lHc paanmuono pona nonc- Hemui cpopmymiponox 3a11aHi-iii x yl'lpa>I(HeHM5|M, pexomennaimu no opraimaauuu u npo3eneHmo 3am! - 'nm ll xi-me BCl'l0M0l‘a'l'eJlbHble Marepuansi, nepesenenu Ha pyccxun naux. Pafioraiouiufi c noco6HeM_ npcnoz1a3aTem. miocipamioro )l3blKa Hecomieimo 38MC'l‘H1', Inn npu3o- mmuil 3 nocooun cnoaapi. 1epmmo3 o-rpaaxaer nexcuxy; xapaxrepnyio mu: Tpynonoii ne; rre. m.Hoc'm 3unycximxa o're<iec'r3euHono npoq)eccuona. m.Ho-Texnwiccxono y-iwumia WIM cpezuieno cneuuanbnono y-iediiono aa3eneHmi miun. 3 Tot‘? creneim, 3 xaxoii cpa3Hu'rem. Ho uefionbuiax u noe1-om-iuo coxpau1a- ioiuanca noun py<n-tom Tpyna Ha co3peMeHHoM npennpmmm euie MO)| (cT c-urrarscn npenc'ra3.muouiei‘i 3cio Tpyi1o3yIo nenrenuiocrs iiauieno cpenuero cneiummcra mm xnaxmdmuuponauuom patio-iero. B c. no3ape nocoomi o'rcy'rc'r3yio'r Taxue l. lcHTpaJlbHble rum 3cefi Tpynonoii nenrenbuocm co3peMenHono cneimmmcra c. no3a, xax computer/ xomnuorep, c-ieriio-peuiaiouiee yc1‘poi‘ic1-3o, machine tool/ cranox, _ automation/ a3-rouaniaauwi n 1.11. Opuemauua nocoéml Ha Hc50JIbl. l]yl0 PCMOHTI-Iylo Macrepcxyio, a He Ha co3peMeHI-toe a31'oM_a1'u- auponaimoe npennpmrme, ocnauieimoe c1-anxaun c ‘IMCJIOBHM nporpammism ynpannemiem u co6cT- nennsm BbI'l| ICJIH'l'eJlbHl>lM l. lcHTp0M, npu3ozurr x pmiy orpanu-ieuufi xax Tepmnionom-iecxom, Tax H 1‘eMa1-u-iccxono xapaxrepa. K -mcny Taxux uanepaxex MO)l(HO oruec-m, nanpimep, o1-cy'rc1'3ue 3 noco- 6m 3ceno xoumiexca noiumiii u Tepuuuos, 0THOc}ll. lMXCil 5 nocuenosarenmocru onepauufi M npou3- noncrnemiux npouecco3, cimsannux c npoexmposaimem, pa3pa6oTKoi'i, ;1o3onxoi'i x ccpufiuuu npon3- BOIICTBOM uzuienun (Taxux, xax, uanpuuep, computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided production M 1:11.). 0l1HaKO, cum c Taxono pona npo6e. nam1 u ynymeimauu euie MO)l(HO npuuupmbcn, HCXOIUI H3 oéuieno npmiwma ynpouieimx u o6ecne-icuwi 6e3yc. no3uoii llOH}lTl-l0- cm 3cex y-ieonux Marepuanon, To c BCTpe'lal0ll[HMllC}l 3 noco6un o'rne. m.nuMu QICTOHHOCTIMM, a miorna u ouiuoxauu Mllplfrbcll He c. nenycT, it own IIOJDICHLI ucnpanmincn npenonanarcnem 3 npouec- ce camix 3ami11u‘i. Tax, nanptmep, na llpMBOJ. 'lHMI>lX 3 nocoouu pucyuxax, noncwuoumx Tepmui pliers, -Iac1'o H305pa)KalOTC1l pa3.'IH‘lHblc no nueunieuy smiy u llp0M3B0l1cTBcHHOMy naaua-ienuio nnc1'pyMcn- Tbl. Cyan no npunommomy 3 scpxnefi ‘laC1'H c. 34 pucynxy, non c. no3ou pliers a31'op nommac1' flat pliers, 1'. e. l1Jl0cK0l'y6I. l,I>I. Onnaxo ua npuscneunoro Ha Toii ixe crpamnie 3 Hmxneu nenou yrny pu- cynxa cnenyer, vlT0 imeiorcn 3 may combination pliers, 'r. e. yHu3epca. ru. Hi. |e xneum. flepeaepuyn crpammy, -nrrarcm. oouapyixuaaer, ‘ITO c. no3o pliers Tax>xe ucno. rn.3ye'rcn nmi o6o3Ha-ieiuul inic'rpy- Mcirra, Ha33i3aeMono pincers, 1'. e. xyane-male xneum. Buuuarenbnbiii y-iauuiicx 1'ax>xe 3aMe11rr, -no I-in c. 195 n3o6pa>xeHa cuena pacnwioaxu nocxu c nquouuno uupxynxpnoii mum, nonmrroii Han c'no- nom I-Ia‘Bblc0'l'y, nenaiouieii pacmuionxy ue3o3Mo: xHofi, Tax xax nocxa ynpercn 3 oci. nxnu. Oanaxouxnumci. c nocrynnsmn onopnbmu uc1~o-nmxauu Ha pyccxou u anrmiiicxou }l3l>ll(aX u, npu ueooxommocm, nony-m3 xoflcynbraumo cneiummc-ro3, npenona3a1~eJu. mioc1-pamiono 1l3l>lKa 331- xciurr, nanptmep, -rro -repmm pliers MMCCT 3 anrnuficxou )I3bll(c umpoxi-iii cnex-rp sua-iemdi n M0- ixer 63111» ncnonwonan um: o6o3na<ie1-um: paanu-im. |x HHcTpyMeH1‘0B, ucnonbayeuux mm 3ax3a1'a u ynepaxaumi npeime'ro3. K C0)KaJlcl-IMIO, -raxixe awicmrrcx, -rro 'ro-inbiii ‘pyccxuii ax3u3a. neH'r arroro ' floncanuu JIOHOJIHCHMCM x imyxromuouy anrno-pyccxomy ll0J'lM1'¢XHH'lcCKOMy c. no3apio MO)l(cT c. ny>xu'n. «V-ieonbiii anmo-pyccxnii c. no3ap3-cnpa3o-nmx mm MaumHoc1'pou're. neii» B. H. Brameaa u E. l0. Ilonmamncxofi («Bucuian iuxona», M. , 1991). Cnosapi. conepmrr 2,5 TBIC. nexcmiecxux emi- Huu u Mo>xe'r 63:11. pexoMeHno3aH tum xnaccnoii pa6o'r3i y-iauiuxcsi c nauuuu nocoouem. 8.
  8. 8. B l Tepmu-Ia oTcyTcT3yeT, nocxonsxy imeioumficn Tepmm «umnuun HOCHT x3Ho 6uTo3oii xapaicrep u I-tcnonsayercn mm o6o: n-ia'ienwI o6uiei-r: i3ecTi-tux ycTpoi'icT3 mu: aaaunxn 3onoc tum xomcn caxapa. Kax anriiuiicxuii, Tax H pyccxuii cneuuaJ1ncT, aaxaauaaa cooT3e'rcT3yIoumii HHc'l'pyMeH'l' Ma 3blflOJI- ueuwi xoi-ixperi-iofi npon: i3onc'r3ei-moii sonepauufl, ncerna yxazxer, -110 may Hyzxuu imenno flat pliers/ nnocxoryfiuu, round pliers/ xpyrnoryouu, combination pliers/ yi-mnepcanbnue xneimi, 13150‘ pin- ccrs/ xyauetn-iue iuieun-I. Y-nrrbiaax, ‘ITO 05l>I‘lHO cpeim yqaumxcn ncerna Haxonncn Hecxonsxo Veno- 3ex, nocTaTo-mo xopouio 3Hal(0MblX «c Taxono pona micrpyueurami, npenona3aTe. n3 -nomxen "63rn. Tepmniononriecxn 'l‘0‘lHblM, ncerna aafinaronpeuenno Bwicwm To-n-iuii cuucn Tepmmon u Ten ca- MUM npenynpezxnasi B03M0)KHl>lc Henopasyuemm Ha aammmx. Jlpynm npuuepou Tepmma c umpoxum cnexTpoM 31-Ia-ieimfi M0)l(e'l' c. ny)xuT3 spanner/ raeiuiuii xmoq. Hpu 33one amm Tepmma Ha aanxmax npenona3aTeJu. nomxen yxa3aT3, ‘no 3101' Tepmoi ac- n yeTca 'l'0Jll>I<0 3 Beamxoopnrai-mu n uMeeT necma urnpoxnfi cnexTp xonxpeniux aria-iemifi, y$:3HJ| eM3ix oxunm wm , u3ymi croaunmu nepen 'l'epMMHOM JICBNMH onpenenemomu. B CIIIA, oTxy- na nocrynaer Gonbuiaa qacn. Texnmecxofi JlH'l‘epaTypbl Ha anrmiiicxou asuxe, ucnon33yeTcn Tepmu-I wrench c auariomunuu 3Ha-ieimen. Texnutiecxiiii cneu. ua. nucT 3 CIIIA, Bc. rmxo6puTamm mm Poccm. nonsayxcs Taxono pona Tepmmou, ncema yrotnuier eno 3Ha-ieime c nououuno cooT3eTcT3yiomeno nesono onpenenenmi, Hanpuuepz " adjustable, or monkey wrench/ paa3om-iofi rae-nmii | Ull0‘l alligator wrench/ Tpyfinui, mm aJumraTopHui‘1 raeqnuii xmoq box wrench/ Topucwfi, sum Haxumioii raeunuii xmo-i chuck wrench/ naTpoin-ibifi lUIl0‘l construction wrench/ Goiibuioii Moi-iTa>xn3ii'1 rae-muii xmoq, «MOHTlIp0Bl(a» diagonal wrench/ tu3cncxui‘i rae-ii-mi’: |Ull0‘{ u 'l'. J1-. Bcero cnuuie 30 Tepmnio3. Hpu 33one xaxom-13160 Tepmma Ha aamn-uax npenonana-re. rn> nomxen ncerna yxa3u3aT3, ‘no rna3ir3m nocTomic'r3oM Tepmma xnmierca om-io3Ha-iHocT3, Cllm-ICTBCHHOCTB eno 3H8‘-ICHHII. Tax, na- npimep, iuui Tom '<I’l‘06bl 3aTaHy'r3 c3ep. vIo 3 narpoiie cnepm-mbnono cranxa, cneuuarmcry l'l0l-la. ll05lfl'- on He 3oo6ure raeqnufi lUll0‘l, a xoi-ixpeTHuii cneuuanbuuii H1lC‘l‘pyMeHT, uaasinaeusili chuck wrench/ narpoimuii xmoq. flpu 33one Tepmma spanner, win wrench/ raeimui lUll0‘l cnenycT o6pa- Tim. nmmaime y-iaun-ixcx Ha 1'-o, -rm tbopua H Tunopasnep 3'roro inicrpyuei-iTa nomxnu cooT3eTcT- 303a-n. qaopme u Tunopaauepy raiixu/ nut, min pa60Tbl c xorropofi 3101‘ uncTpyMein' u npennaanatieu. Hu qaopna, mi Tunopasuep raetiuono xmo-ia, u3o6pa>xeHi-ioro, nanpsmep, Ha pucynxe, HPHBCIICHHOM Ha c. 23. He coo'r3e'rc1'3yioT qropue M Tmiopasmepy raiixn; uaoopaixenuoii Ha Toii axe crpaiuiue, no- cxonsxy Ha pucynxe moopazxena iuecrurpamian miixa miono 6o. n3uJem Tnnopaauepa, ‘ICM Tunopa3- Mop xmoqa, mm 6om~a, uaofipamenuux Ha TOM >xe pncynxe. Maofipaixei-ui3u‘i axe H3 pucynxe racq- ubiii | Ul| O‘l 3 neiicT3urem. noc'ru npenuasna-ieu nmi paooru c HOcTaHl1ap‘l'HblMH uerupexrpannsiuu (xnanpa-mbmu) raiixami, xax, *3npoqeM, u xmoim, u3o6pa>xeim3ie Ha c. 34 u 40. V Heuanonaucnbm OGCTOXTOJIBCTBOM, Ha xoTopoe cnenyeT o6pai. ua11. nmmai-me o6y'~laeMblX npu 33one Hotoro Tepmma, nnmiercn Ham-me auepnxancxono 3x3ii3aJIeHrra, 063:-mo oonee umpoxo pac- npocrpaueiiuono Ha npaxmxe. Tax, Hanpimep, y Tepmina anti-clockwise smeeren auamrrensuo 6oJIee imipoxo pacnpoc'rpaneimui'{ auepnxaucxuii 3x3u3a. neHT counter-clockwise Hfl'.11. ‘ Paccuorpeunue nuuie ynyiueima u HenocTaTxu Moryr 63iT3 nenco ucnpanneuu camm npenon‘a- 3aTe. neM 3 xone aaiurmii u 3 u. e.rioM mi 3 xoeii Mepe‘ He yuamuor 0‘leBHllHblX n Heocnopmuux no- CTOIII-lC'l‘B amm noco6ux. 3ana-ia'xa>xnono paéorraiomeno c noco6ueM npenona3aTeJui 3alUll0'-IBCTCJI 3 TOM, ‘lT06l>l J1OJl)KH| >lM 06pa30M u c Maxcuuanbnoii nonbaoii iuul yqe6nono npouecca 3111 i1ocToHHc'r3a peanmonarb. B pe3y. n3Ta-re nepesoua Meronu-iecxnx yxaaamiii zuui npenonanaremi u 3HeceHwi cu- aannux c sum nononnxri-. n3H3ix uamenenufi 3 y‘ie6H3iev Marepuanu, pyccxuii napuairr nocofiwi npn- o6pe. n pan nonomunensuux l(3‘lCCTB u 3o3Mo>xHocTefi, l(0’l‘0pl>| e cyiuecT3eHno pacunrpnlor Me1'Ol1H'lO- cure it mmaxTu-iecxue B03MO)I(l-IOCTII nocoomt, a Tax»/ ce -xpyr Jmu, xoTop3ie Moryr ycneumo c mm pa6o1'aT3. Tax, noco6ueM ycneumo nonb3yeTcn u 6y1ie'r no. tI33o3aT3cn unipoxnii xpyr mm 1'cXHll‘l¢- cxoii opueHTa1mu, xoTop3ie no TOM mm H'Hl>IM llp| l‘{HHaM Ha‘lMHal0T my-ieiine aimmiicxom nauxa c Hyne3om ypomm. Bucoxasi Harman-ioc'n. u nomiTHocT3 3cex y‘le5Hl>| X MaTepua. no3, oTcyTcT3ue xa- xrix-Jmfio I-iaMexo3 Ha nayxooopaaue nenaior ary ximry udeanbnuac noco6ueM no ca. noo6pa3oaauuro ll npu nay-iemm Sl3I>Il(B 3 ycnosuxx oTcy1:cT3mi xaxoii-Jiuoo npaxrwiecxoii IIOMOIIM co cmpoubt npe- nona3aTe. na. MeToxm-iecxue u n'miaxTu-iecx'ue Oc06¢HHOCTH nocooux Taxixe nenam en‘) ocooei-mo 9
  9. 9. npnmnnsm mm HHnH3HJ1yaJ13Hoii pa6oTi. i npcnona3a1*e. mi c oTcTaioumMH ytiaummuca, xoTopan 063:-mo (H He scerna 3tpdaexTH3Ho) npo3onHTcn 3o acex amcuiux H cperiuux y'lC5Hl>lX 3a3eg1eHHHx. B ~3alUll0‘leHHe c. nenyeT oTMeTHTi. , ‘I10 pafioia y‘idIl0'U«t‘fi naaxe c TaxHM 8e'lMK(lJIel1.HbIM H nei'icT- 3eHHbm cpc£| cTBoM 06y-ieHHn, KOT0pblM BHC acaxoro coMHeHH; i H3.rmeTcsi noco6He ll. BoHaMH, He no;1MeHaIeT, a nononHaieT pa6oTy 06y-iaemnx c 5aI10BhlMH y-ie6HHxaMH H opHniHa. vi3Hi. mH 'I‘cXHH‘leCKM- MM TCKCTRMH [IO CIlCllM3JlbHOCTH. BTOPOC H3£l8HVle IIOCOGHJI IIBJUICTCJI Ht: TOJILKO l'lpVII'3|laHl4CM CPO O‘l6BM£lHblX M H€OCl'I0pHMI>lX HO- cToHHcT3, H0 H 3aaxHbm 1uaroM 3 Hanpa3neHHH flOBbll1leHMil 9rhqvexTH3HocTH npodaeccHoHa. vi3Ho-opHeH- THpo3aHHoro H3yHeHHal HHocTpaHHoro nasixa 3 BbILll. lM)( H cpc.1HHx Texnwiecxux y‘le5HblX 3a3eneHHnx PoccHH. B. B. fpucopoe A3Top npenHc. no3Ha1 H nepe3o11~iHx 5JlaE1.azl; IpaIl iipoip Ell) . l1o. 'w: aTOBcKyi0, B. J)lBU. I_yI0 Ha cefix Tpyn l'lp0‘leCTb xHHry npH nonroTo3xe 2~m pyI. ‘u<"-NJ Ha. -xmnii n l1blCK'43aBlllyI0 pain nomeanux xpHrH- ‘ICCKHX same-iaHHi7i.
  10. 10. CONTENTS / COIlEP)I(AH'I/ IE Students’ Book 1/ Kinira mun cryneirroa 1 Quit Oge/ you ; 1. What do you know? /‘ho Mb! yaxe auaeu? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 16 2. What's it called? /Kax arro Haausaercn? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 18 3. What's wrong‘? /'-ho cJiy~iH. noci. ? . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 19 4. Where is it? /Fire Haxomncx npenMeT? ... ’ 21 ggit 'I‘wo/ Enox 3 1. What do you know? /‘ITO Mu yaxe aHaeM? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 23 2. How high is it? /Kaxaa sucora? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 24 3. It's only a meter high. /Ee 33icoTa scem 1 M . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 26 4. What shape is it? /Kaxoll oHa qaopmi? . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 28 Llnitlhrse/ §u9Js_3 1. What do you know? /‘ho Mu yaxe aHaeH? .. ... .. . . 30 2. How many? /Cxnnsxo? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 32 3. A pair of pliers. /Hnocxoryouu. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 34 4. Where are they? /Fire 3TH npenueni? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 35 Llnit_Em/ melts 1. What do you know? /‘ho Mu yaxe aHaeM? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 37 2. There's a fire! /rloaxap! (3ampaHHe) . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 38 3. There are no spanners. /Her raev-msix xmoueil. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 40 4. How many are there? /Cxonbxo TBM npenMeTo3? . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 42 gm; Eive/ Barox 5 1. What do you know? /‘-[To Mbl yaxe anaem? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 44 2. It has a guard. /OH (3eHTwurrop) orpaaxneH peu. te-rxofi. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 45 3. Thev have no covers. /OHH (3ux. mo-«ia-reJiH) He aaxpu-ru. .. ... ... ... ... ... .. . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 47 4. How many does it have? /Cxonsxo neranefi axomrr 3 ycrpoficrao? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 49 ox 6 1. What do you know? /‘{To Mbl yaxe aHaeM? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 51 2. Thirteen or thirty? /I‘pHHaz1uaT3 HJIH TpW1l. l.aTb'.7 . ... . . . 52 3. The length is 1 m. /Ilamna (numxa) 1 M. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 54 4. Add, subtract, multiply. divide. /l'lpH6a3H'r3, OTHXTB, yMHoaxH'r3. pa3ne. m«rr3. . ... ... . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . ... . . . 56 Unit Seveg/ Bnox 7 1. What do you know? /'-{To Mbl yaxe aHaeM? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 58 2. Press that pedal. /Haaxmi Ha arry nenam. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . .‘ . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 60 3. Bring me the hammer. /I'lpHHecH MHe MOJIOTOl(. ... 62 4. Don’t touch it. /He Tporafit . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 63 11
  11. 11. Unit Eight] flex 8 1. What do you lmow? /‘-lTo Mb! yaxe 3HaeM? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 2. Which one? /Kaxofi‘? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 3. The one at the top. /I‘oT, xoTop3u“i pacnoaioaxen 3i. uue . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 4. The one with the long handle. /I‘o-r, xoTopi. tfi c 1mHHHo5“i pyuxoii . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. I Unit Nine / Bnox 9 1. What do you know? /‘ITO Mbl yaxe 3HaeM? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 2. What‘s it made of? /I/ l3 ‘lel'D oH cnenan? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 3. Use a wooden one. /l‘lom.3yi'ic; i nepe3aHHoH noaxxofi! .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 4. The handle of the hammer. /Pyxo; iTxa Mono-rxa . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . Unit Ten/ Bnox 10 1. What do you knouf? /‘ho Mbl yaxe 3HaeM? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 2. How much gravel? How many bricks? /Cxonbxo rpa3Ha? Cxoaisxo xupnwia? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 3. It's rigid. You can’t bend it. /OH axec'rxHi7i. Ero Hensaa COl'HyTb. 4. Why is it made of plastic? /Hoqemy oH cne. riaH H3 n. riacTHxa‘? .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . Revision Unit/ l'Io3TopHTe. ru. Hi>iii paagen . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . MeTo, nHIIecxHe yxasanmi min npenonanaremz (1) B3eneHHe . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. .3 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . Meronmecxne yxaaai-ma x Bnoxam 1 — 10.. ... Bnox 1 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. Bnox 2 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . .. . ... ... ... ... . . . Enox 3 Bnox 4 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. Bnox 5 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . ._. .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. Bnox 6 ‘ -- Bnox 7 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . Bnox 8 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. Bnox 10 . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ., .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . .‘ . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. I1o3TopHTe. n3H3iii paanen . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . Cnoaapb TeXHIH‘lcC|0l’X TepMHHo3.. .. ‘ aaasze 101 105 108 1 11 114 116 118 120 122 124 126
  12. 12. ENGLISH FOR TECHNICAL STUDENTS 1
  13. 13. Students’ Book 1
  14. 14. Hello! I'm Alan. 5! I'm also a studen E 1 Complete this: 2 Make sentences about yourself: "He is also a ' Hello! I'm Ron. 0 a student. -. , ‘'y' u - Ron is a Alan is an He is also a Kamal is a He is also a Hello! I’m I’m a (or I’m an
  15. 15. Unit one 1 What do you know? 1 What are these? Example: (a) — car I (3) / k (b) (C) (d) (5) % J house / car / wa1l, / pipe / bicycle 2 Name the parts: Example: 1 — window (roof / window / tyre / door / wheel) 3 What are these tools called? Example: (a) —— knife 1 (E ( (b) ’* /003% “J33 saw/ ladder / hammer / screw / screwdriver / pencil / ruler / knife 16 ' -. .
  16. 16. .4 What are these called? Example: 1 — box switch / ‘socket / chair / table. / drawer / box / fan / lamp / shelf 5 Match the words with the pictures: Example: 1 l a long pencil , 1 2 a wide ruler 3 a small bicycle 6 7 8 4 a low table 9 5 a short pencil 10 a long pencil — picture (d) a broken ladder a big bicycle a high table a narrow ruler a bent ladder (3) (h)
  17. 17. 2 ‘What's it called? ’ — Alan, Kamal and Ron Kamal often repairs ’ have a car. This is it. the car. 6 Repeat: A: What‘s this called in English? 3: It's called a'wheel. 7 Complete these: Example: (a) This is called a car. (d) This is called a l This is - (b) (6) This is called a _____. This mfl (0 This is ___. ’ This 8 Look at the pictures in Exercise 7. Ask and answer: Example: (a) A: What's this called in English‘? 3: lt’s called a car. 18
  18. 18. 9 Make sentences: Look at this. It's called a Example: (a) Look at this. It's called a bicycle. (b) Look at that. It's called a house. (c) Look at this. It's called a wheel. 10 Ask and answer: Look at that. It's called a Example: (a) A: Look at this. What's it called? 8: It’s called a bicycle. 3 ‘What's wrong? ‘ i1 Repeat: AI What’s wrong with the car? B: The tyre is flat. What‘s wrong with The tyre is flat.
  19. 19. 12 Make sentences: Example. ‘ (a) The pipe is long. (a) (8) pipe/ short wall/ high: . N - (c) (D? E (D . | E E3 ( house/ small ii’ I D tyre/ arrow 13 Match the sentences with the pictures: ' Example: 1 The ruler is broken — picture (b) l The ruler is broken. 5 The screwdriver is bent. 2 The hammer is broken. 6 The saw is broken. 3 The screwdriver is broken. 7 The window is broken. 8 The saw is bent. 4 The tyre is flat. 14 Make questions and answers from the pictures in Exercise 13: Example: (a) A: What’s wrong with the tyre? 82 It’s flat. 20 , -,. ..~. .., ,—. “.. . “. ._ _. _.. ,.. . . , e. ... ... _ _
  20. 20. 4 ‘Where is it? ’ Kamal, Ron . and Alan Ron and Alan often repair live together in this house. the house. 15 Repeat: A: Where’s the screwdriver? B: lt’s on the table. lb Make sentences: T“°SW“°“ is « - -- (d) El (f) I I p - P EE '3 above the beside the window window under the table (6) _ (g) E E] below the between the window window and . the door , Example: (ad) The screwdriver is on the table. _‘ ‘
  21. 21. 1? Are these true or false? Correct the false sentences: Example: (a) FALSE —- The screwdriver is on the shelf. (3) The Screw (g) The screw is under driver is the b°x' under the shelf. (b) The door is (h) The fan is between the socket and the table. ' between the lamp — G and the table. The fan is above the door. The ruler is (i) in the drawer. 9. —® The switch is (j) / (c) (d) B l . The pencil is on below the table. the chair. (0 l “W B The socket -is on the table. The saw is on above the the shelf. window. B The box is on (k) the table. The socket is (l) 18 Make questions and answers. Draw the objects: Example: (a) A: Where’s the tyre? 3: It’s under the table. (e) shelf / below / window (f) chair / beside / table (g) ladder / between / door / window (h) saw / under / chair (a) tyre / under / table (b) pencil / in / drawer (c) hammer / on / shelf (d) switch / above / door 22 . 3 r
  22. 22. u nit two 1 What do you know? 1 What are these tools called? (a) (c) (d) (e) setsquare / spanner‘ / bolt / nut / nail 2 What are these shapes? (a) M0 (c) 5 (d) a square / a circle / a triangle / a rectangle 3 What are these? well / road / bridge / wire / rope / coin / clock / truck / book / plug / blackboard
  23. 23. 2 ‘How high is it? ’ Ron is making a new door. Alan is helping him; metres high. -' 4 Repeat: A: How wide is the'door? B: lt’s one metre wide. A: And how high is it? B: lt’s two metres high. 5 Make sentences: Example: (a) The door is one metre wide. (a) (d) E 4 (3) I f é I T 4 1500 ‘ “J K? ‘ i “"“ NOTE: m = metre Write Say mm: millimetre 2m. . . - . two metres km = kilometre I__ . .. __ . __ . _ 24
  24. 24. 6 Study this: 1‘ high l 7 Make questions and answers: - Example: (a) A: How long is the wall? . B: It’s ten metres long. A: And how high is it? 13: It’s two metres high.
  25. 25. 1) (l) j ( 500 m - Lfl § 10mm (10 - , cabinet . |<~ I 1"‘ >I 8 Make sentences from the pictures in Exercise 7: Example: (a) The wall is ten metres long and two metres high. 9 Measure these objects in your classroom and make sentences: (a) door (c) box (e) window (b) ruler (d) blackboard (f) cabinet 3 ‘It's only a metre high. ’ The wall is 5 metres long. But the wire is only 1‘ metre long. 10 Repeat: A: The wall is 5 metres long. B: But the wire is only 1 metre long. 25
  26. 26. 11 Make sentences: Example: (a) The wall is 4m long, but the wire is only 2m long. (a) (d) T 5m 1 <_ 2m- _) wall/ wire I ’ (b) (6) wood x _ 3 9:. » 9 T . i“ i20>I 4m § mm 1/ ' wood/ screw truck/ bridge (C) wood/ nail 12 Make questions and answers: Example. ‘ (a) A: How long is the wall? B‘: It's 4m long. A: And how long is the wire? B: It’s only 2m long. A: That’s too short. 13 Make questions and answers: Example: (a-) A: What’s wrong? ' B: The wall is 4m long, but the wire is only 2m long. 27
  27. 27. 4 ‘What shape is it? ’ Kamal is repairing a hole in the car. 14 Repeat: A: What shape is the hole? B: It’s triangular. 15 Read this: We The door is rectangular The plug is triangular The window is square The wheel is circular The wheel is round 16 Make sentences: Example: (a) This ruler is rectangular.
  28. 28. / 17 Make questions and answers about the pictures in Exercisl; '16: Example: (a) A: What shape is the ruler? B: lt’s rectangular. 18 Describe these objects: ' Example: ‘(a)’ The window is rectangular: It is six metres / long and three metres high. (3) . (d) (b) (e) saw blade ’ J1 (F) _ 19 Describe objects in your classroom in the same way: (a) blackboard H g (e) ruler (b) window - (0 Clock (c) ‘door ' (tg) switch (d)’ setsquare (h_) watch
  29. 29. Unit three 1 What do you know? 1 What are these tools called? chisel / file / scissors / vice / pincers / bench / pliers 2 What are these called? “" gee ‘d’ -4% ‘g’ . e9 fl S . - g 0 (c) ' (f) bottle / goggles / bulb / woman / glasses / man / battery / factory 30
  30. 30. 3 Give the plurals of these words: (bl (c) vice (f) house (i) tyre (1) -man (0) woman. (d) box (g) bench (j) battery (m) knife (p) factory (e) car (h) roof (k) saw (n) switch (q) shelf 4 Match words and numbers: Example: eleven -» ll
  31. 31. Z . ‘How many? ’ Alan is buying some things in a shop. (a) pencils . . . . . . . . (b) knives . . . . . . . . (c) switches . . . . . . (d) bulbs ‘ . . . . . . . . (e) nails . . . . . . . . . . 1 (f) screws . . . . . . . . (g) batteries . . . . . . (h) nuts . . . . . . . . . . (i) bolts . . . . . . . . . . (j) files . . . . . . . . . . 5 Make questions and answers from the list above: Example: (a) A: How many pencils? ‘ B: Four. " 6 Count these objects: Example: (a) A: How many tyres? . B: One-two-three-four—five-six. Six tyres.
  32. 32. iii Q}; 7 Count these: - Example: (a) A: How man nuts? B: One-tw - . . . etc. ‘ Fifteen nuts.
  33. 33. 3 ‘A pair of pliers. ’ What are these called? These are pliers. This is a pair of ‘pliers. 8 Repeat: A: What are these called? ’ B: They’re called pliers. 9 Make sentences: a set of a packet spanners of nails Example: (a) These are pliers. This is a pair of pliers. (a) pliers (e) glasses (i) rulers (m) screws (b) pincers (f) spanners 0) tools (n) nuts and bolts (c) scissors (g) screwdrivers . (k) matches (d) goggles (h) chisels (l) nails 34
  34. 34. 10 Make a list: Examples: (a) one pair of goggles (b) three pairs of pliers . (a (b they‘re in the box. 11 Repeat: A: Where are the nails? B: I think they're in the box. A: No. They're in the drawer. 12 Read these: The switches are to the left of the window. 2* The switches are to the right of the window.
  35. 35. 13' Complete the sentences: ___: T M. - —j- —j —-1 —_j . j— Example: (a) The chisels are to the right of the files. (a) __ - to the right of the (f) __ between the table and files. the bench. (b) __ above the chisels. (g) ___ below the shelves. (c) _. ____ under the table. (h) _j to the right of the (d) ___ on the bench. bench. (e) __ to the left of the (. i) __ to the left of the chisels. shelves. 14 Make questions and answers about the picture above: Example: (a) RON: Where are the vices? KAMAL: I think they're in the boxes. ALAN: No. They're on the bench. (a) vice / in / box _(e) chair / between / bench / ladder (b) chisel / below / saw (f) shelf / above / bench (c) file / right / chisel (g) box / on / bench (d) saw / right / chisel (h) ladder / left / table 36
  36. 36. Unit four 1 What do you know? 1 What are these? SAFETY rat: -rice fire / boot / glove / machine / guard / goggles / helmet / toolboard / match 2 Match words and numbers: 3 Read out these numbers: 100 125 1002 10,000 1,000,000 l0l 238 1031 100,000 1,500,000 1 13 1000 1583 800,000 37
  37. 37. 2 ‘There's a fire! ’ Alan is in the workshop. He is giving a warning. Look out! There's a cable on the floor. _ R Be careful! There are bricks on the shelf. 4 Repeat: A: Look out! There's a cable on the floor. Be careful! There are bricks on the shelf. 5 Read this: 1 There is a vice on the bench. 2 There are hammers on the table. 3 There is a pair of pliers on the tool- board. I‘ V 6 Make sentences: Example: 1 There are screw- drivers on the bench.
  38. 38. 7 Draw the picture: In the picture there's a toolboard, a bench and a table. 'The bench is below the toolboard and the table is to the right of the bench. There is a hammer on the bench. There are spanners on the table. There is a pair of pliers on the toolboard. There is a cable on the floor between the table and the bench. There are bricks under the table. 8 Make warnings: (8) Look out! Be careful! -IKEVB ' O ' " nails] road hole/ ground‘ bottles/ box bricks/ ground
  39. 39. 8 ‘There are no spanners. ’ Kamal is in the workshop And there arejno spanners. There's no hammer in the box. 9 Repeat: A: There's no hammerlin the box. B: And there are no spanners. 10 Are these true or false? Correct the false sentences: (Note: Look at the picture on page 24, Exercise 6) Example: (a) FALSE — There's NO vice on the bench. (a) There's a vice on the bench. (b) There are files on the toolboard. (c)‘ There are ‘no tyres on the table. (d)‘ There are switches on the wall. (e) There's no battery on the table. (0 There's a saw under the table. 11 Make sentences: Examples: (a) There are no pliers on the board. (d) There are two pairs of pincers on the board.
  40. 40. 12 Match the sentences and the pictures: WORKSHOP] , ‘ WORKSHOP 2: Example: (a) There are no vices on the bench — 9 (a) There are no vices on the bench. (b) There are goggles on the wall. (c) There's no , guard on the machine. (d) There are vices on the—bench. (c) There are tools on the board. (0 There is no helmet on the wall. (g) There are no goggles on the wall. . (b) There are gloves on theshelf. , (i) There are no tools on the board. (j) There's a guard on the machine. (k) There are tools on the floor. (1) There's a helmet on the. wall. (m) There are no gloves on the shelf. 13 Answer this question: Which workshop is safe? 41
  41. 41. 4 ‘How many are there? ‘ How many nuts are there in the box? 14 Repeat: A: How many nuts are there in the box? B: There are about 20. 15 Read this: 16 Make questions and answers: Examples: (a) A: How many screws are there in the packet? B: There are exactly five. (b) A: How many matches are there in the packet? 3: There are about 50. match, ’ box boots / table Page/ b00k 42,
  42. 42. brick / wall hole] toolboard 17 Answer these questions: Examples: (a) There are' 80. (c) There are about (a) How many pages are there in this book? (b) How many windows are there in your classroom? (c) How many windows are there in your school or college? (d) How many people are there in your classroom? (c) How many people are there in your school or college? (D How many books are there in your classroom? (g) How many books are there inyour school or college? (h) How many tools are there in your workshop? (i). How many people are there in your town or village? _ (j) l-low many people are there in your country?
  43. 43. unnfwe 1 What do you know? 1 What are these called? (a) Parts of the body tooth / arm / teeth / leg / head (b) Parts of objects in a workshop teeth / arm / point / blade / leg / handle / rung / head 44
  44. 44. 2 What are these? cassette player/ radio / calculator / button / key / switch / knob , 2' ‘It has a guard. ’ Alan is checking the fans in the house. This fan is safe. It has a guard. 3 Repeat: A: This fan is safe. It has a guard.
  45. 45. 4 Match, and make full sentences: Example: (a) — (3): A car has'four wheels. (a) A car has. . . . (l) . . . four legs. (b) A table has . . . (2) . . . two legs. (c) A hammer has. . . (3) . . . four wheels. (d) A man has. . . (4) . . . walls, windows, ’ doors and a roof. (e) A house has . . . (5) . . . a handle and a blade. (f) A chisel has . . . . (6) . . . a handle and a head. (g) A pair of scissors has . . . (7) . . . two handles and two blades. (h) A_knife has . . . (8) . . . a ‘handle and a blade. 5 What are these parts called? Example: (a): I handle 6 Match the sentences with the pictures in Exercise 5: Example: 1 This tool has a blade and two handles — picture (0 This tool has a blade and two handles. This tool has a handle and a blade. This tool has a head and a handle. This object has two arms and four legs. This too] has a handle and two blades. This tool has two handles and two blades. O| JI&UJlJi—I
  46. 46. 3 'They have no covers. ’ Alan is checking the fans and switches. These switches are dangerous. They have no covers. This fan is dangerous. It has no guard. 7 Repeat: A: This fan is dangerous. It has no giiard. . These switches are dangerous. They have no covers. 8 Study these: Alan and Ron l . V have one watch El . ‘ _ ‘ each. OR cover Alan and Ron E E9‘) _ , have two watches % ~ . ' altogether 9 Make questions and answers: Example: (a) A: What's wrong with the car? B: It has no wheels. -(a) (C) (6) (g) ‘ car/ wheels wire/ plug house/ windows door/ handle (b) (d) (f) (h) 1‘ . . ' fan/ guard ' lamp/ bulb knife/ blade chair/ legs 47
  47. 47. 10 Complete the sentences: I Examples: (a) These ladders have 12 rungs all together. (b) These tables have no legs. (a) These ladders have all together. (b) These tables ___, _ legs. (c) These saws ___j two handles ' (d) These fans ____ three guards . (e) These hammers ____ no (0 These chairs T eight legs . (g) These knives . (h) These men ___ two (i) These fans ____ six blades _____. 11 Make sentences: Examples: (a) These fans are safe. They have guards. (b) These switches are dangerous. They have no covers. ( ) (C) (6) ( / fans/ guard ( ) A a I. ’ r~. ‘i (d) {-31 switches/ covers 48 plug/ cover machine/ guard (f) (h)
  48. 48. ' l 4 ‘How many does it have? ‘ 12 Repeat: A: How many keys does it have? B: It has 23. 13 Make questions and answers Example: (a) A: How many teethidoes this wheel have? B: It has 8 teeth. (a) p (d). (g) tooth/ wheel handle/ saw blade/ fan ( (e) I (h) fig rung/ ladder screw/ switch ‘ b| ade/ knife (c) . . (f )‘ ' ' door/ cabinet 4 tooth/ saw polint/ pencil 49
  49. 49. 14 Make questions and answers: Example: 1 A: How many switches does the cassette _ player. have? B: It has 3.
  50. 50. Unit six 1 What do you know? 1 Match the words with the numbers: l I . l I/ «<9 _ _ width diameter ‘ height 0 T volume ‘ thickness area length G depth’ (= ABKBCXCE) 2 Complete this: Example: (a) length (a) length (b) width (C) height (d) depth (e) thickness long
  51. 51. 2 ‘Thirteen or thirty? ’ Ron is showing Alan how to mark out wood. Alan makes a mistake. Ron . corrects him. 3 Repeat: A: Mark nineteen millimetres. No. It's nineteen. I Say these numbers like this: 13 thirteen 30 thirty 4 Study this: 5 Read these out: 13 l5 l7_ 19 170 ll9 I16 30 50 70 90 I14 140 1,18 14 16 18 I60 I30 ll7 ll5 40 60 80 l 13 190 I80 150 52 ' l
  52. 52. Make questions and answers: Example: (a) A: Is it nineteen? 13: No. It’s ninety. (a) A: 19? 13: I91 90 (b) A: 50? B: X 15 (C) A: 13? 13: X 30 Study this: Write it like this: 4.653 4.653 1.01 Read these out: (a) 18.05 (b) 6016 (c) 4.14 (d) 17.125 (e) 90,019 (r) 80.018 (d)- A: 80? (g) A: 16? 13: B9 18 B: 16 60 (e) A: 14? (h) A: 30? B: M 40 13: 30 13 (f) A: 70? (i) A: 40? B: X '17 B: ilfl 14 Say it like this: four thousand, six hundred and fifty- three four point six five three one point oh one or one point zero one (g) 2301.5 (11) 230.15 (1) 23.015 (1) 2.3015 (k) 0.23015 (1) 0.023015 Dictation. Your teacher will say some numbers. Write them down. S3
  53. 53. 3 ‘The length is 1m. ‘ The length of the box is two metres. _ The width is one metre. The height is one metre. But the space is only one by one by one metre. 10 Repeat: A: The length of the box is two metres. The width is one metre. The height is one metre. 3: But the space is only one by oneby one metre. 11 Study this: Write it like this: Say it like this: 4m x 5m x 6m four by five by six metres. 12 Read these out: Example: (d) Two metres by three metres by four metres. V (a) 2m (d) 5mm (g) lkm (b) 2m x 3m (e) 5mm x 6mm (h) lkm x 3km (c) 2m x 3m x 4m (f) 5mm x 6mm x 8mm (i) lkm >< 2km x 3km 13 Make sentences: Example: (a) The door is one by two metres. (3) _ (C) (6) T 3mm 20 m 2m *’ I Ir ""‘5°° mm ‘""" $ 800 4/8 1L 15mm mm “I 300mm I! ‘ lm9| ‘ (b) (d) (f) w T 200mm 600mm .2 / ' J‘ l¢—40Omm. ,lar300 mm 400mm 300 mm
  54. 54. 14 Make sentences: Example: (a) The height of the door is 2.05m and the width is 0.8m. 15 Study this: Write it like this: Say it like this: 20ml twenty square metres - 60m-" sixty cubic metres 16 Look at the pictures in Exercise 13 above. Make sentences: Example: (a) The area of the door is 2m’. (a) area (d) volume (b) area (e) volume (c) volume (f) volume 17 Measure objects in your classroom (or guess their measurements). Make sentences: Example: (g) The length of the room is about l2m. The width is about 7m. The height is about Sm. So the volume of the room is about 420m’. d k d 2:) . ::1.‘. ‘;‘; . E2. .33; (c) blackboard (h) drawer (in table) (d) cabinet (i) eraser (e) window (j) box SS
  55. 55. 4 ‘Add, subtract, multiply, divide. ‘ Alan is helping Ron with his calculator. II Please add 15.15 and 30.1 90 minus 45.25 is Subtract that from A . <4’ 5 '_1;Z-: -;. - : 89.5 divided ' " by 5 is 17.9 18 Repeat: A: Please add 15.15 and 30.1 A: Now multiply 44.75 by 2 B: 15.15 plus 30.1 is 45.25 B: 44.75 times 2 is 89.5 A: Subtract that from 90 A: .And divide that by 5 B: 90 minus 45.25 is 44.75 B: 89.5 divided by 5 is 17.9 19 Read out these sums. Give the answers: Example: (a) 13.3 plus 60.17 is 73.3 (a)l3.13+60.17 =7 - (e) 16.55-14 7 (1) 7017-4004 =7 (b) 40.02-20.02 =7 (1) 20.08x3 =7 (1) l6+2.l25 =7 (e) l8.18+9 =7 (g) 15+3 =7 (k) 5+2.5 =7 (d) 70x4 =7 (11) 14.14+3.03 =7 (1) l3.3x3 =7 20 Read out these problems. Solve them: Example. ‘ (a) 98.4x 5= 492 492+12= 41 (a) Multiply 9814 by 5 and divide the answer by 12 (b) Add 33.5 to 26.35 and subtract 45.8 from the answer (c) Divide 40.5 by 5, and multiply the answer by 8 (d) Add 235.08 to 51.73, and subtract the answer from 326.2 _ (e) Subtract 54.93 from 85.01. Add 2.27. Subtract the answer from 61.9 56
  56. 56. 21 How do we calculate these? Make instructions: Example: (a) 1 Multiply 0.5 by 1.5 (0.5 x 1.5=0.75) 2 . Now multiply 0.75 by 1 ‘ (0.75 x l=0. 75) 3 The volume of the box is 0.75m3 ' (d) Height of (C) ' , 0.1m volume=2lm’ BC= ? 22 Solve this problem: How thick is the frame? Read out your calculations: Example: (a) 1 58 x ______‘ 2 184} M 3 _____+ j= T 4 The thickness of the frame is , ___mm. frame J ' l<————— 184mm, -. -—-—-—>I tank = 7 . . 7
  57. 57. Unit seven 1 What do you know? 1 What are these called? belt / tank / bin I pedal / lever 2 Match the pictures with the sentences (a) / , (d) "W-. . l The tank is % empty. 2 The rope is light. (13) £7 WV 3 T-he door is (C) 1 I closed. 4 The door is 3 What are these actions? open. 5 The rope is loose. 6- The tank is full.
  58. 58. to loosen / to open / to empty / to tighten / to close / to fill 4 What are these actions? to saw / to pull / to press / to hammer / _ to push / to chisel 5 Complete this: 6 What are these actions? a) ''I I 5 a 4 u : ,,i =7 b) OFF C) i} 9 d) DOWN _ _ to switch off / to pick up / to put down / to switch on 59
  59. 59. 2 ‘Press that pedal. ‘ Kamal is showing Alan how to drive the car. ' ' Press that peda I ‘ A v-* we .6}‘ if A . 7 Repeat: A: Press that pedal. ) 8 What are Kamal, Alan and Ron saying? Examples: (a) Press the pedal. . (d_) Pick the hammer up. d) Pick the hammer up. a) Press the
  60. 60. 9 Study this: 10 Match these sentences in the same way: Example: (a) — (5): RON: The tank is empty. ALAN: Please fill it. (a). (b) (c) (d) (e) (D (8) (h)' (i) U) The tank is empty. The door is open. The belt is tight. The windows are closed. Thescrews are loose. The bin is full. The bottles are empty. The light is on, The saw is on the floor. ‘The box is closed. (1) Please loosen ii. (2) Please open them. (3) Please empty it. (4) Please pick it up. (5) Please fill it. (6) Please open it. (7) Please. tighten them. (8) Please switch it off. (9) Please close it. (10) Please fill them.
  61. 61. 3 ‘Bring me the hammer. ‘ Ron is repairing a cabinet. I. Alan, please give , Here you me the pliers. ' ‘ , Here you are. mal. could . you bring me the hammer. please? 11 Repeat: (a) Please bring me the hammer. - (b) Could you give me the pliers please. 12 Ask for objects in the classroom. Use ‘BRING’ and ‘GIVE’: Example: (a) A: Could you give me the pen, please? B: Here you are. A: Thanks. (a) pen (d) ruler (8) bag (b) pencil (e) setsquare (h) chair (c) eraser (f) book * (1) box 62 ,
  62. 62. 13 What is Ron saying? Example: 1 Please give me the nails, Alan. 2 Could you bring me the ruler, please, Kamal? 14 Repeat: A: Don't touch it! It's live! 15 Match the pictures, the warnings and the reasons: Example: Picture 1 — (4) — (F): Don‘t touch the wire. its live.
  63. 63. l WARNING (a) They’re broken. (b) There's a nail in it. (c) There are bricks on it. (d) There’s no bulb in it. (e) lt’s bent. (f) ‘lt’s live. (1) Don’t switch the lamp on. (2) Don’t saw that wood. (3) Don’t hammer that nail. (4) Don’t touch the wire. (5) Don’t pull‘ these goggles on. (6) Don’t pull that board. 16 Match the instructions with the numbers in the picture. Example: (a) Don’t smoke here — picture 5 (a) Don’t smoke here. (b) Put that down. (c) Put these on. (d) Pick these up. (e) Switch it on. (1') Take that oil". (g) Push that in. (h) Pull that down. take the helmet oil" put the helmet on
  64. 64. 1 1 l 1 Unit eight, 1 ‘ What do you know? 1 Match the pictures with the sentences: The rag is wet. The water is cold. The rag is dry. The file isfine. The pipe is straight. The car is shiny. The water is hot. The file is coarse. The car is‘ dull. The pipe is bent. ’ 2 Match the sentences with_the numbers in the picture: - 1 (a) The switch is below the window. lJI. §b)I)l-—- {—- $O%l3 (b) The switch is to the left of the window. E (c) The switch is above the window. - n Q (d) The switch is to the right of the window. 0 3 What are these actions called? 9 n (at)? ?? (M/ )@N 4 to turn / to cut 4 i What are these colours called in your language? (a) black (c) red (e) blue (g) brown (b) white (d) green (1') yellow (ll) grey 3 3a K. 334 ‘
  65. 65. 2 ‘Which one? ’ Please give me the spanner. 5 Repeat: A: Please give me the spanner. B: Which one? ~ A: The large one. 6 What does ‘ONE’ mean here? (a) A: Please give me (b) A: Please bring me (c) A: Please use the the spanner. the bottle. knife. B: Which ONE‘? ll: Which ONE‘? ll: Which ONE‘? A: The large ONE. A: The empty ONE. A: The long ONE. 7 Make questions and answers: Example: (a) A: Could you press the pedal, please‘? or Please press the pedal. B: Which one‘? A: The large one. 1 T T. 66% if 5:
  66. 66. 8 Match the sentences with the numbers in the pictures. Example: (a) I need the short clean spanner — number 3. (a) I need the short clean spanner. Could you give it to me. please? (b) Switch on the machine. Press the small square button. ‘ (c) Please use the wide coarsefile for this job. (d) Use the water from the tank. The’ large hot one. (e) Could you clean the car. please‘? Use the large wet rag. (f) Please push the plug into the socket. The large square one. (g) Could you give me the long bent pipe, please‘? (h) Push that lever. The short white one. (i) Dry the window. Use the large dry rag. (j) Pull the long white lever. (k) Please repair the short broken pipe. ‘ (l) I want to clean that spanner. The short dirty one. (m) Please empty the small hot tank. ' (n) Could you press the large round button. please‘? (0) To finish the job, use thefile. The u't'de_/ ine one. (p) Take the plug out and put it into the small square socket. (q) The FAST/ SLOW button is the large square one. (r) The large round socket has 240 volts. (s) Put the small dry rag into the water. (t) The stop button is the small round one.
  67. 67. 3 ‘The one at the top. ‘ Alan is repairing the lights. Now press ‘- ‘ ‘ the switch " at the top. . -I lit -. 9 Repeat: A: Press the switch. 8: Which one? A: Theone at the bottom. Now press the switch at the top. 10 Study this: AT THE TOP '4 ON ON IMPORTANT THE THE Look again at LEFT RIGHT page 51, Exercise 2. AT THE BOTTOM 11 Match the words with the numbers: Example: (a) on the left — picture 4 (a) on the left of the (e) on the right of the wall wall (b) at the top of the (f) to the right of the wall window (c) above the window (g) at the bottom of (d) to the left of ‘ the wall i= % the window (h) below the window 7
  68. 68. 12 Match the sentences with the numbers in the pictures: Example: (3.) Please press the switch to the right of the window — number 4 @l6 (a) There’s no light in here. Please press the switch to the right of the window. (b) Please pull the lever below the wheel. (c) Could you press the ON button, please. That’s the button on the right. (d) _Turn the knob to the left of the dial. (e) Could you press the switch above the window, please. (f) Use the socket at the bottom. It has ll0 volts. (g) Press the button at the top. (h) Use the socket on the left. (i) Could you now turn the knob to the right of the dial, please. (j) Now pull the lever above the wheel} ' (k) Press the switch to the left of the window. (I) Now please put the plug into the socket on the right. (m). Please use the socket at the top of the wall. . (n) Now press the OFF button. That‘s the button on the left. (0) And now press the button at the bottom. (p) Please press the switch below the window. 13 Make dialogues: Example: A: Please press the switch. 3: Which one? A: The one to the right of the window. 69
  69. 69. 4 ‘The one with the long handle. ’ Give me the one with the long handle. please. 14 Repeat: A: Give me the one with the long handle, please. is Study this: The screwdriver The screwdriver The screwdriver with the long with the round without the handle. handle. handle: _ 16 Complete these: Example: (a) Use the knife with the short handle. a. handle. head. it . _ Give me _j_ (fl fig Use ___. blades. teeth. Fill pipe. __ holes. 9 Use __ (e) Please pull ______
  70. 70. 17 Make dialogues: Example: (a) A: Please give me the knife. 3: Which one? A: The one with the short handle. 18 Describe these objects: Examples: (a) l The short black (b) l The short narrow lever with the file without the square head. handle. (a) 19 Complete these passages. Example: (a) There are two hammers on the wall. One has a long handle and the other has a short one. Please give me the one with the long handle. (a) There are two hammers on the wall. One ___. a long handle and the other _____ a short one. Please give me the one ____ the long handle. (b) There _____ two boxes under the table. One ____ a lid and the other ___. .. no lid. Could you bring me ___ ____ without lid, please. (c) There ___. .. two ___. __ ___. scissors on the shelf. One ___. short blades and ___. ___ ______ long blades. I need . ____ __ ___ the short blades. (d) There _____ four _____ __ pliers on the toolboard. Two plastic handles, and the ___. ___. rubber handles. Please bring me ___. __j_ T the rubber handles. (e) ______. _____ four levers on the machine. One ____ short and white and _j_ a square head. One ___. long and black and a round head. The other two _____ short and white and round heads. Please push ___ short white round heads.
  71. 71. Unit nine :1 What do you know? I What are these materials called? wood phat glass rubber metal film 2 What are these metals called in your language? (a) steel (b) iron (c) copper
  72. 72. 2 ‘What's it made of? ’ Alan, what's this wire It’s made of copper and plastic. 3 Repeat: A: Alan, what’s this wire made of? , 3: It’s made of copper and plastic. 4 Study this: These tyres are made of rubber ‘ l 5 Make questions and answers: Example: (a) A: What’s this setsquare made of? B: lt’s made of plastic. (~d-) _/ steel rubbe
  73. 73. 6 Study this: ' ‘Wires are normally made of copper. ’ This means that most (= more than 50%) wires are made of copper. 7 Ask and ‘answer: Example: (a) A: What are wires made of? .3: They're normally made of copper and plastic. (Note: .if you disagree with B, say: ‘I think . . . ’ Example: I think they’re normally made of copper and rubber. ) (a) wires (0 bridges (b) chisels (g) bottles (c) tyres (h) files (d) rulers (i) pipes (e) glasses (1') vices 8 What are these objects’? (a) This tool is normally made of plastic and steel. It has a handle and a blade. (b) This object is made of copper. It is long and thin. (c) This object is normally rectangular. It is made of glass. (d) This object is normally made of plastic. It is triangular. (c) This object is circular and is made of rubber and steel. (0 This tool is normally made of wood and steel. ‘ It has a handle and a head. Choose the objects from this list: setsquare / knife_/ window / hammer / pipe / tyre / scissors
  74. 74. 3 ‘Use a wooden one. ’ Alan is cooking. _ Don’t use the metal spoon. ' Use the wooden 9 Repeat: A2 _Don't use the metal spoon. Use the wooden one. 10 Study this: This spoon is made of metal. —> This is a metal spoon. BUT! This spoon is made of wood. -+ This is a wooden spoon. 11 Change these sentences: Example: (a) This spoon is made of metal. (b) This is a wooden ruler. (a) This is a metal spoon. (b) This ruler is made of wood. (c) This is a steel bridge. (d) This pipe is made of copper. (c) This is a glass bottle. (f) This handle is made of rubber. « (g) This is a plastic setsquare. (h) This vice is made of iron.
  75. 75. 12 Make sentences: Examples: (a) SPOON — metal x Don’t use the metal spoon. Use the wooden one. wood J (b) GOGGLES — glass x Don’t use the glass goggles. Useflthe plastic ones. plastic J (a) SPOON — metal x (f) PIPE — copper x wood J plastic J (b) GOGGLES — glass x (g)' PLUG — rubber x plastic J plastic J (c) BIN —— metal x (h) SCISSORS — plastic ‘x plastic J metal J (d) RULER — wood x ' (i) TANK — metal x steel J plastic J (c) BOTTLE — glass x (j) NAILS — iron x plastic J steel J 13 Are these true (T) or false (F)? Correct the false ones: Example: (a) —- TRUE. The bin on the left is made of metal and the one on the right is made of plastic. Use the plastic one. ‘ (b) The ruler at the top is made of wood and the‘ one at the bottom is made of steel. Use the wooden one. » (c) The bottle on the left is made of glass ti and the one on the right is made of plastic. Use the glass one. (C) %‘ ¥ glass p i las (d) and the one at the bottom is made of C.0PP€f - plastic. Use the plastic one. (e) The goggles on the left are made of plastic and the ones on the right are made of glass. Use the plastic ones. (f) The plug on the left is made of plastic and the one onthe right is made of ( rubber. Use the plastic one. rubber plastic 75 (d) The pipe at the top is made of copper
  76. 76. 4 ‘The handle of the hammer. ’ The handle of this hammer is made of steel. 14 Repeat: A: The handle of this hammer is made of steel. , . 15 Make sentences: Examples: (a) The teeth of this wheel are made of steel. (d) The handle of this hammer is made of wood and the head is made of steel. _g wheel (a) WHEEL‘ (d) HAMMER (8) DOOR teetlcli teeth — steel , handle - wood handle — plastic (ma ° °f (b) CHAIR head ‘ Steel (h) SWITCH steel) , arms — metal (e) KNIFE cover — plastic (C) LADDER handle " plastic PEN rungs — steel blade “ Steel point — steel (0 CHISEL handle - wood blade — steel 16 Read these sentences and make tables like the ones above. Example: (a) TANK sides — steel cover — plastic (a) The sides of this tank are made of steel and the cover is made of plastic. (b) The walls of this house _are made of brick and plaster and the roof is made of concrete. (c) The blades of this fan are made of plastic and the guard is made of steel. (d) The sides of this box are made of wood and the ‘lid is made of steel. (e) The blades of this knife are made of steel and the handle is made of plastic.
  77. 77. 17 Copy this diagram into your notebook and complete the labels: __l. _————l cc-ooooooo oooooooooo ". '3:_. ~oooooono- -'- é)_—__ _Pii lflfil) This tank has two pipes and a cover. The tank is made of plastic. The cover is made of wood. The pipe at the top is made of plastic. The pipe at , the bottom is made of copper. ‘ “des 18 Copy this diagram intoyour notebook. Complete the labels. - Make a description: 000000900 (' (copper) ) Begin: ‘This tank has . . . ’
  78. 78. Unit ten 1 What do you know? 1 What are these materials called? oil / paper / water / paint / sand / cement / concrete / gravel / stone / petrol ‘ 2 What are these called? (a) tin / sack / tile / bucket / brick 3 What are these actions! to break / to bend / to send / to burn / to scratch
  79. 79. 4 Read these out: (a) lkg J(d) 3.5kgn (g) l.05l ' (b) 20kg (e) 131 (h) 171 (c) 51 (f) 30kg (i) 70kg 5 Write these in numbers and letters Example: (a) nineteen kilos — 19kg (a) nineteen kilos (f) eighteen square (b) seventy litres metres (c) fifteen cubic metres (g) one millimetre (d) eighty square (h) ninety metres millimetres (i) a kilo (e) thirteen kilometres (j) thirty litres 2 ‘How much gravel? How many bricks? ‘ Ron is buying some materials from a shop. Please send me some 6‘ Repeat: A: Please send me some bricks. B: How many? A: About 500. Please send me some gravel. B: How much? ‘ A: About 30 kilos.
  80. 80. 7 Study this: . -‘:1-‘. % a- Plank of wood 8 Make phrases: Example: (a) a. bucket of gravel on a sack of gravel on 10 kilos of gravel. (a) gravel (e) paint (i) oil (b) wood (f) glass (j) water (c) sand (g) paper (d) steel (h) cement Use these words: sheet / ‘sack / pane / bucket / tin / plank / kilo / litre I 9 Make dialogues: Examples: (a) A: Please send me some bricks. B: How many? A: About 500. . (b) A: Please send me some sand. 3:. How much? A: About 30 kilos. (a) bricks . . . about 500. (f) cement . . . 2 sacks. (b) sand . . . about 30kg. (3) wood . . . _ 20 planks. (c) gravel . . . about 40kg. (h) glass . . . 4 panes. (d) paper . . . 400 sheets. (i) red paint . . . 5 tins. (e) long nails . . . 4 packets. (j) oil . . . l0l.
  81. 81. 10 Answer these questions: CONCRETE To make 1m’ of concrete, (a) I-low much cement do you use? (b) How much gravel do you use? (c) How much sand do you use? You have I sack of cement — (d) I-low many sacks of sand do you add? (c) How many sacks of gravel do you add? .3 ’lt's rigid. You can't bend it. ’ This V lastic is. exible. 11 Repeat: A: This plastic is flexible. You can bend it. But this plastic is rigid. You can't bend it.
  82. 82. 12 Study this: This material This material This material This material is hard is tough is flexible is combustible l I K . : _o / 6 This material This material This material This material is is soft is brittle is rigid non-combustible 13 Make sentences about the pictures in Exercise 11: Example: (a) This material is hard. You cannot cut it. y 14 Name at least three materials for each sentence: Example: (a) Paper, wood and oil. (a) You can burn it. (c) It is non-combustible. (b) It is brittle. (D You can bend it easily. (c) You cannot scratch it easily. (g) It is very hard. (d) It is very tough. (h) It is rigid. 15 Answer these questions and give reasons. Examples: (a) No, you can't. Glass is‘ a hard material. (d) Yes, you can. Rubber is a flexible material. (a) Can you scratch a pane of glass easily? (b) Can you break steel easily? (c) Can you bend a plank of wood easily? (d) Can you bend a rubber tyre easily? beam (e) Can you burn a stone block easily? fi (made of (0 Can you break a_ pane of glass easily? concretfil (g) Can you bend a concrete beam easily? (h) Canyou scratch a plank of wood with a knife easily? (i) Can you burn a sheet of paper easily? (j) Can you bend iron easily? (made of stone)
  83. 83. 4 ‘Why is it made of plastic? ’ Why are these made Because plastic is a tough material. 16 Repeat: A2 Why are these made of plastic? 3: Because plastic is a tough material. 17 Copy this table into your notebook and complete it: I a flexible 5 —— ‘ 5 e) “
  84. 84. 18 Make questions and answers from the table: Example: (a) A: Why are bridges made of steel? V 3: Because steel is a tough material. You can’t break it easily. 19 Answer these questions Example: (a) Because rubber is a flexible material. ' You can bend it easily. (a) Why are bridges not made of rubber? ’ (b) Why are goggles not made of glass? (c) Why are tyres not made of iron? (d) Why are vices not made of plastic? (e) Why are buildings not made of paper? (1') Why are files not made of rubber? (g) Why are helmets not made of glass? (h) Why, are matches not made of stone? 20 Make descriptions: Example: (21) The rungs of this ladder are made of steel, because steel is a tough material.
  85. 85. Revision unit 1 Complete the labels: Example: 1 fan 2 Answer these questions: Example: (a) They’re called bases. Vfl (a) What are these called? -"""""' (b) How high is the fan? (c) How wide is the base of the fan? : ----‘' (d) What shape is the plug?
  86. 86. (e) What shape is the socket? . (i) What shape is the base? (g) What is the length of the wire‘? (h) How many buttons does the fan have? (i) How many blades does the fan have? (j) Where is the ON/ OFF button? (Answer: ‘left‘) (k) Where is the FAST/ SLOW button? (Answer: ‘right') (I) What are the blades made of‘? (m)_ What is the base made of? (n) Is the plug in the socket? (0) Why are the blades made of steel? 3 Complete this: Example: ‘In this diagram, there is a fan. . . . In this diagram, ___. .. __. __ a fan. The fan _____ three blades . and a guard. The blades ______ __'_. __. __i. steel. There ___ two buttons on ____ base ____ T fan. The button on the _____ is the ON/ OFF button, and the one ___ T __ is the FAST/ SLOW button. The fan :1 a wire and a plug. _. _. __ T socket on ____ wall. The plug is ___. ..__ _____ the socket. 4 Make a similar description of this diagram: Begin: ‘In this diagram, there is a fan. The fan has a7
  87. 87. 5 6 88 Make questions about the diagram in Exercise 4: Example: (a) How high is the fan? (a) ___, _? lt’s (ism high. (b) ____‘_‘_? It’s about 2.5m long. (c) ___? It’s circular. (d) __. __, ? They’re made of plastic. - (e) ? lt’s above the FAST/ SLOW button: (f) ? Because plastic is a tough material. (g) ______? It’s below the ON/ OFF button. (h) _. ___? They’re called blades. (i) ? It’s 0.3m wide. (j) : _? It has two. (k) ___? They're square. (1) _____? It has four. (m) _______? It's in the socket. Put these instructions into the best sequence: — open the guard of the fan — switch the fan on r — tighten the screw behind the fan blades — caution: do not touch the blades of the fan — switch the fan off — put the plug into the socket — pull the plug out — closesthe guard of the fan
  88. 88. 7 Match the warnings with the numbers in the picture: Example: (a) Be careful! There’s some water under the wire — number 6 (a) Be careful! There’s some water under the wire. (b) Don’t run here! ‘ (c) Look out! There’s some oil on the floor. (d) Don’t touch the blades! (e) Be careful! -T he guard is open. Close it. (0 Tighten those screws. They’re loose. 8 Make more warnings: . _ Example: 7 Stop! There’s alknife on the shelf! l
  89. 89. METO, lIH‘l. ECKI/ IE YKASAHIIISI IUD! IIPEIIOIIABATEJISI (1) BBGZICI-M6 1. 3Al1-‘'-WI OBY‘-IE1-IMF! 'Hacroamee ytreonoe noco6ne «English for Technical Students 1» npennasuaaeno nnn yrrautuxca cpennnx CI'lel. -IHaJ'lbl-iblx y‘-ICGI-iblx aaaenennii, mueionmx 3neMenrap- nine nasbucn ananennn anrnuitcium fl3bll(0M. Em Moziuro KCl'lOJ'Ib30Ba'l'b a pafiorre c ream ytranumncsi, i(O'l'Opble panbrne He ll3y‘-121111 am-nnitcxoro asbnca mm no= mr nonnocruo yrpamnn nonyuennbre panee nasbrxn. I-laanavieime xi-mm - IIOMO‘-lb y‘-laI. l.| KMC5! -rexnmecimx ytummu H3y"-iH'l'b OCI-I035! anrmmcxoro aabnca, iieo6xo'nn- Mme rm min nocnenyiouieit pa6o'rb1 no nbr6pannoit cneuuanbnocrn. 111151 announc- mrx ynpaziu-iemm noco6usi He nyziuro npenaapnrenbnoro naytrenmi rpaumamxn asbuca. 06y‘-Jeane crponrcn Ha orrpa6o'rxe'1ura'renbno orofipannbrx aupaaxermit, yc- aona no-ropue, ytraumecn cMory'r o6i. uarbca Ha airrnnitcicom asbnce a npenenax rema- THICK, xompaa Heoéxomma n mrrepeciiannn HHX c roqxn sperms nx Gynymeit npo- qaeccnonanbnoit nearenbiiocm. ' I. l.iar 3a uranom iurnra nonaonn-r ytiauiemca x TOM)’ Momenry, xorna on nav-innaer CBO50IlH0rl1OJ1b30BaTbCil anrnnitcxum fi3bI! (0M xax cpencraom ofimeuna a cwryaunax, mnmmux nnn ero nocnenyiomeit npocpeccnoiranbnoit nesrrenbnocm. I'locne am- nomremin scex ynpaxcnemm aaroit iumre y-iamuflca cMo: i<e1- aynnponarb (norm- M811: Ha cnyx) n can cocrannnrb necnoaicnr-ire onncairun npenmei-on, nncrpymem-on n Mexannamon. On -rax>i<e naytin-rcn no6nna-rbcn or co6ecemrm<a cocrannennx anam- rw-nrux oniicamrn, aananan eMy rum aroro cooraercrnyiomne nonpoebr. 3m onuca- irna n BOI‘ip0Cbl l'l0KpbIBal0'l‘ cnenyioumit xpyr rem: —- unenrnqauxaumr n i-iaabnaamre npenmeroaz What’s this called? — It’s called a wheel. Kax amo uasuaaemcx? —3mo uasblaaenicx “a wheel”. ‘ — 0503113‘-lei-I116 xommecrsa ii paamepoa: The shelf is 1 m long, 250 mm wide and 5 mm thick.1I. /tuna no. /mu I M, iuupuua -250 MM, maauiuua -5 MM. - onncamre cpopmbr npenueroa: What shape is it? — It’s triangular. Kaxozi cpopmu npeamem 7 - Tpeyzo/ ibuoii. —y'm'-nreirne H paabacnenue: Which spanner? —The long one. Kaxoii zae-mbui K. /no-i 7 —flAumiui7. — yicaaamie M€C'l‘0l'IOJl0)K€Hllil: Where’s the saw? — It’s in the box. Fae nuna ? —-B xuquxe. — onpeneneime Marepnana ii ncrov-muxa: What’s it made of‘? — It's made of steel. ‘ H3 '-I820 smo cae/ iano? —3mo cae/ muo us cmrmu. —onncanne caoitcra Marepuanoa: Steel is a tough material. Cmaab --meepduii Mamepuaa. 90 . su-4. . .._. .
  90. 90. —- onncanne noapexcuennnz What’s wrong with the car? — The tyre is flat. '-Imo cay- -iwiocb _ c Maiuuuozi ? - Ce. /ta uama. — ncnpannenne oum6ox: 19? — No, 90. 19? —Hem, 90. Yqamimcsi CMO)l<eT aynnpoaarb n caM cocrannsrrb npocrbienncrpyxunn (nanp. : Push that lever. Switch on the light. Haaacmu ua amom pu-iaz. Biono-iu ceem. ), npe- nynpexnennn (Don’t touch that. He mpozafi! ) n yicaabraarb n I10!-lflMa'l'b l'lpfl‘ifll-lb], nbrabraaiomne HC06XOJ1HMOCTb 3 arnx nnc-rpyicunnx n npenynpexnenmix (Don’t run. There’s oil on the floor. He 6ezai2. Ha no/ iy Mac/20.). B Knnre 1 net crpomro pa3rpa- nnqenmi Mezxny cpenc-rnawi sbrpaixenna, xapaxrepnbmn nna ycrnon H nncbMen- non peqn. 2. COIl. EP)KAHME 0153"-IE}-II/ Iii Habncosoit Marepnan, na i<oropoM nocrpoeno oéytienne 3 31-011 xnnre, BIUXIO‘-laeT o6u. teyno'rpe6nr'enbnyio nexcnxy n rpaMMa'rni<y, oroépannyio c y‘-ICTOM mi-repecoa n no'rpe6nocren ytramnxcn rexnwiecicnx ytmnnm. Yaxocneunanbnan repmnnoiromn B xaxoit-nn6o rexnuqecxoili o6.nac'rn ne axmoqanacb, onnaxo cnoiaapb oro6pan una- -renbno n Mo, >i<er 5bITb ucnonbsonan yuaummnca rexnuxyuoa n npocpeccnonanbno- rexnnnecnnx ytmnnm Juo6oii cneunanbnocm. Ocnoanofi aannconon Marepuan ano- nwrca n cnryauimx, 3 xoropaxx neitc-rnyior rpn MOJ'l0£[bIX qenosexa, cneu. nann3npyio- mnecn B anexrporexnnxe, peMon're anromofinneit n c-rponremec-rae. 370 noanomie-r narnnnno noxaaarb, xaxnm o6_pa3oM fl3bIl< ncnonbayerca B npoqieccuonanbncn nea- -renbnocrn, i< xoropon roroaa-r ce65i yliamnecn. I/ [Merino n 3TOM CMBICIIC noco6ne opuen-mpoaano na ytiaumxcn rexnwiecxnx cneunamanoc-reii. Onnaxo am cnryaunn onenn rrpocrbr it He aarparnaaior cneundwiecxnx ima xaxon-nn6o npocpeccnn Bnnoa . nea'renbnoc'm. Hanpimep, onun n3 nepconaaiceiit ‘mam BbIl<J'll0'~iaTeJIb B nohae, npy- noili 3aMenne'r cnycrnamyio many a aa'roMo6nne, rpernit pemonrnpyer nnepb. Hpenonanarenio, nonbayiouiemyca y‘-{C51-lbIM noco6neM, ne Hy)KHa cneunamai-ran rexnnqecicaa rionroroaxa. B rex ynpaxcnennax, rne 'rpe6yiorca nexo-ropbie 'rexnnqe- cxne ananna, acn neoéxonimaa nnqaopuaumi npnaenena 3 «Meronwiecxnx yi<a3a- nmrx rum npenonanarenn». 3. oPrAHH3Aumi M HPOBEJIEHME 3AHHTnfi (a) Hpozpamma Kypca Onnon n3 naxcneitmux ocofiennocreit nocoéua annnercn rinarenbnaa oprann3a- tum y= re6noro Marepnana. I-{mice nepeqncnenbi ee ocnonnbrenpnnunnbr: —5l3nu<osoit Marepnan orfinpanca c y‘-ICTOM em noneanocrn nnn ytiamnxcn Kan B nepnon ofiyqenmi, Tax is n nocnenyromen pa6o're. 3'ro snaqnr, uro, xorn fi3bIl< ruin- rn nec. no>i<eI~i, on 0‘iCi-lb -rnnwien rum 0flHCbIBaeMbIX cirryaunn 3 peanbnoit xcnann n 1 mm 'rexi-iwrecraix nocoénili no coorne'rc'rnyion. tnM cneunanbnocrnm. — Oroépannbie asbrxonbie ennnnubr (cnosa, cnonocohierannn, rpaMMa'rwreci<ne . xoncrpyxunn) nnonsrrcn B crporo norn-recxofi nocnenonarenhnocrn: or nensnec-rnoro K naaec-rnoMy, or npocroro x cno>i<noMy, finaronapa Remy ofiecneqnaaercn axruanoe ananenne il3bI1<0M. Tax, CKGJKCM, npennomenne Inna The pipe is long Tpy6a 6/umnax npenmecrnyer 6onee cno>i<noMy npennoncenino The pipe is 10 metres lo mg 11/tuna mpy6u 10 M. — Baonnmufi aabrxoaon Marepnan csnsan c cnryaummu, 3 xoropbrx ytiamnitcn CMO)KeT em npaxrwiecxn npnmensrrb (tpynxunonanbnbm rronxon). Hanpnmep, no- 91
  91. 91. nonbno pano (ynce 13 Bnoxe 3) o6opo'r There is/ are-. .. HMeemc1z, ecms, uaxodumca. .. anonnrcn nivieere c n51pa>1<en1111M11 MeCTOIIOJ'I0>KCl-lldil (c npennoramn) 11 13b1pa>1cen11n- M11 'r11na Look out! Bepezucbl. (0cmopooacno! ), 1110 noanonner ynamemycn c'rpo11'r5 npenyrlpentnaioinne n1.1c1<a3b1aa1-11111 rnna Look out! There are nails on the floor. 0cmo- pooicuo! Ha noxiy zaosdu. Taxono pona coennnenne q>opM51 11 tpynxnnn xapaicrepno nnn acero noco611n. (6 ) Pacxoa epeMeuu Knnra nocrpoena no npnnnnny, -rro «nonemnory 11 -racro» — 31-0 nynmnili cnoco6 oprannaannn 3an11:rn1t nnn 11a1111na1ou111x. Plnrepec ynarnnxcn 1< 3an_nr11111v1 651crpo ocna6e1aae'r, 11 anannn c-ranonnrcn nenpo-1n51M11, »ec11n 1<a>1<n511t ypo1< conepzxnr cJ1n1111<oM M1-ioro 11351110130110 Marepnana 111111 npaicmnecxnx aananuii. Knnra coc'ro11'r 113 10 6J1o1<o13, 1ca>1<n51il1 113 1<o'rop51x conep>1<11'r 4 paanena. B xonne 1<n11m 11Mee'rcn no- noJ1n11're115nb11i 611011 na nonropenne npoiinennoro Marepnana. Ka>1<. u51i11 paanen npencraanner co6ofi ypo1<, Marepnan xoroporo conep>1<11'r onny. n3511<oay1o rpynnocrb, IIOJIJ'IC)l(3.1l. ly! O ycaoennio. Ta1<11M o6pa3oM, 1<n11ra conepnurr 40 1<opo'r1<11x 3q)q>e1<'r11n- n51x ypoicoa, na 1<a>1<nb11i 113 1<orop51x 'rpa'r11-rcn 13 cpennem 45 Mnnyr (ynep>1<111aa'r1, nnnmai-111e ynamnxcn 11 reqenne 6o11ee nponon>1<11're115noro nepnona npemenn 651110 61.1 cnoncno). Pasymeercn, npono11>1<n'ren5noc'r5 ypoxa Mo>1<e'r 61.115 yaennqena, no ye- Morpennio npenonana-renn, no onnoro qaca 111111 6o115u1e. Ha 1<a>1<noM ypo1<e pe1<o- Mennyercn naynarb Ma-repnan 1~on51<o onnono pasnena, no ecn11 pacnncanne yne61~1o- ro aaaenennn npennonaraer cnnoenn51e aannrnn, T0 na 1<a>1<noM sannrnn 113ynae'rcn Ma-rep11a. n nnyx paanenon, )l<€JIaTCJ'lbl-I0 c ne6o1151.unM nepepbinom. 4. METOJIHKA OBY‘-IEHI/ Ifl Jlpyran Bancnan oco6e111-1oc'rb 1-1ac'ron111e11o noco611n - em Me'ron11-1ec1<a_n ocnoaa. Borr OCI-[OBI-lble ee xapa1<'rep11c-r111<11: - Kancnan nabrnonan en111-111na yne6n111<a naonnrcn 13 13113ya115noM 1<on1e1<cre, ne- 11a1o11.1eM nonn'rn51M ee 31-iaqenne 11 11c1<111o11a1o111eM_1-1eo6xon11h1oc-r5 o6pa111en11n 1< ponnomy n3n11<y yna11111xcn.3ro aoace ne oanaqaer, ‘-ITO Mb! ne pe1<oMe1-1nyeM 111111 3a- npemaem non53oaa'r1:cn ponn51M 113111110111 ynamnxcn na 3an11'r11s1x. Hao6opo'r, pon- nomy n3b11<y ornonnrcn 0‘-{Ci-lb 1sa>1<nan po115 13 MCTOIIHKC o6ynen11n, 1<a1< 6yner pa35nc- neno 1-111>1<e. Penn 11ner 0 rom, 11-10 emu 11penonaaa'ren5 npennotmraer 13non1rrb, n31.1- xoaon Marepnan, ne o6pa11;ancb 1< ponnomy n3511<y ynanrnxcn, '10 on Moxer ne11a1'5 3'1-o, Il0JIb3yiiCb 1-1ac'1onn111M noco611eM. - Xorn icancnan naonnman n3511<o1aan en11n1111a o6pa6ar51aae'rcn na 60115111011 1<o- nnqecrae ynpancnennn, 13 r1oco61111 ner trncro Mexann-iecxnx ynpa>1<nen~111‘«t, 1<o'ropn1e ynamnncn Mor 651 nbinonnnrb, ne 3anyM51nanc5 nan cM51cnoM caonx 1351c1<a3b1na- 111111. Kazicnan nabricosan ennnnna noco611n 11Mee'r nnonne onpeneneni-roe xonxpemoe 3H8‘-lei-[K6, icoropoe nomxno 61=1r5'onno311a111-1o nonn-ro 11 npenonaiaa-renem 11 yna11111- M11cn. Onnosnannocrb nor-111Ma1-111:1 o6ecnet11113ae'rcn 1-1aJ111-111eM pncynxoa 11 cxeM, 11c- K1110‘-! a10I1lflM B03M0>KHOC'l‘b neronnoro 111111 nenpasnnbnoro not-111Man11n. -11:11: -roro 11106111 ynepzxarb nnrepec ynamnxcn, KCIIOJ'lb3yIOTC5l ynpaxcnennn paarrntinbix 'r11no13. C11c'reMa ynpa>1<ne1-11111 oéecnennaaer . l.‘[0CTa'l'0‘-ll-Iy1O nparcrnicy 13 np11o6pere11n11 1<a1< a1<'r1113n1.1x, ran 11 pe11en'r11Bnb1x 11a13b11<oB ananennn n31.11<oM. C11- crema nicnronaer ynpancnei-111a-nnanom, ynpa>1<nen11n na co1aMe111enne. pncyn1<o13 11 nonunceit 1< 1-111M, na paairnuenne 11epn51x 11 nenepn51x n1.1c1<a351aan111t, na J1ononne- nne npennozicei-11111 (111111 aanonnenne nponycxon), na cocraanenne npennoxcennfi, 92
  92. 92. Ol'IIdCbIBaIOU. [PlX pncynxn, 11 1-1e1<0'110p0e xonnnecrso ynpancnennfi na 'rpancq30pMa- 111110. (Bonee n0np06noe onncanne rnnon ynpancnennii CM. Ha c.95.) — B noc0611n npononnrcn npnnnnn onepencarourero pasnnrnn 11a13511<o11 ycrnofi pe'-111 no cpannennio c nncbMenn51Mn (6o11ee 1-1er1<o 13b1pa>i<ennb1fi so nropofi rcnnre). B 31011 icnnre ycrnbie 11 nncbmennbre ynpamnennn ne pa3rpan111-11113a10'rcn. Bce 3ana- nnn 1c ynpa>i<nen11nM cqaopmynnpoaanbi 'ra1<11M 06pa3oM, 1110 npenonaaarenb, no eno- eMy ycMo'rpen111o, MO)KCT npen11o>1<11‘r5 nx yt1a11111Mcn 13 1<a-recrne ycrnbix 111111 unch- Mennbrx. 5. CI‘PYKTY PA BJIOKA Paaden 1 “mo Mu yaxe suam? Ilpoaepxa ananna cnosapn Pasden 4 Baenenne Iperben 11oao1“1 113s11<o13o1'1 en111-1111151 + Paade/1 2 Baenenne Baenenne nepaoii no3o1'1 ' aropoii 11013011 A nsuiconoii en11n111n.1 na511<oao1‘1 en111111111i1 Paadea 3 + + l'lpa1<'. r1111ec1<11e ynpaxaienna I‘lpa1<'r1111ec1c11e . ynpa>1<nen1111 Hpa1<'r1111ec1<11e ynpanarenna Kaxcnbrii 6n01< nmeer remy (111111 nec1<o11b1<0 -rem) 11 rpm OCHOBI-{hie fi3blKOBbIC enn- nnnbr (cnoaa, cnosocoqerannn, 1<oncrpy1<n1111, 060po'r1=1), 1<o-ropbre naonnrrcn na Mare- pnane 'l'eMbI. Hanp11Mep, 'reMa Bnoxa 7 «I/ incrpyxunn 11 abrnonnenne 11x», 11 13 pa3ne- 11ax 2, 3, 4 ynaxnnxcn 05)"-ia1OT nononcnrenbnon 11 orpnnarenbnofi cpopMaM n013e1111- 'l'8JIbHOI‘O naroronennn rnaronoia (cp. Press that pedal Haoicmu Ha amy neaa. /lb, Bring me the hammerflpunecu . MH€. .MO. /iOmOK, Don’t touch itHe mpozaii (3mo)). Paanen 1 1<a>1<nono 61101<a conepncnr HOBblC cnosa ncex paanenoa 61101<a, 1<o'r0p1.1e anonnrcn B nnne ynpanarennn na npoaepxy nonnmannn (O5bI‘-[HO nyncno I'IpaBHJ'lbHO coornecm cnoaa 111111 npen110>1<enm1 c pncynxamn). Ec1111 ytiaumecn 3na1o'r npn1ae- J16!-ii-{hie c1101:-. a, TO nepsnm ypox 6no1<a nocanmaercn 11x nonropennio. E01111 3na11e- nnn cnoa nesnaxombr ynarnnmcn, -10 01111 Baonnrcn 1<a1< 1-lOBbiC. B paanenax 2, 3, 4 1<a1i<n0r0 61101<a naonnrcn 11 3a1<pen11n10'rcn n0a1_:1e 5l3bll<0Bb16 ennnnnbi 611o1<a. B 1<a>1<noM paanene 113ytiae-rcn -ro111.1<0 onna noaan nabrxoaan en11nn- na (cnoaoco-reranne, 1<onc'rpy1<111111,rpa1»1Mar1111ec1<0e n1311en11e). Bce noabie nabzxonbie ennnnnbr saonnrcn B ansyamsnom 1<onre1<c're 11 3a1<pen11n- 1o'rcn ny'reM abrnonnennn npa1<'rnt1ec1<11x ynpa>i<nen111t. ' Peicomennyercn cnenyronian Meronnxa pa6orb1 nan M_a-rep11a11oM 6no1<a. a HJIAHHPOBAHHE YPOKA Ypox I / 1. Hon-mpenne paanenoa npenbrnyrnnx ypo1<0n, ne06x0n11Mb1x 111111 ycnoennn no- 93
  93. 93. none Ma-zepnana. Hanpimep, npezicne -1:11 np11cryn11-1-5 x naynennio Marepnana E110- xa 6 (on conepzicn-r a51pa:1<ennn 111111 onncannn paamepon npenMe'r013 -r11na The length is 1 metreflxuua cocmaazviem 1 M), cnenyer l'lOBTOpH'l'b qapaabi c rem me snai-1en11eM 113 EJ101111 2. B ynpaaicnennnx na non-ropenne _ne nyncno cnosa Bbil'l0JIl-Iil'l‘b npeoxnne ynpaacnenna. Coc-raa5-re cami HOBHC ynpa: i<ne1-11111, ncnonbayn n0a'r0p11eM51e 11:11.1- xoabie en11n11r.11.1. 2. Pa6o'ra nan Marepnanom paanena 1 «‘-I110 Mbl yaxe snaem? » nposonn-1-ca c11eny1o- 1111111 o6pa3oM: (a) l‘Ipen110>1<11're y=1au111Mcn Bbil'IOJ'lHHTb ynpancnenne n11c5Me1-1110. (Kan npaa11- 110, y-1a1.11nMcn ny>1<n0 acero nn1115 nannca-1-5 nec1<01151<o cnos. ) (6) Yc-1-no nposepbre 11x orae-151 11 nbincnnre, xanne cnoaa euie ne3na1<0M1:1y=1a- 11111Mcn. ' (11) Baenn-re 1-1e113aec-rn51e y11a11111Mc11 cnosa. Ecnn M0)KI-IO, npnnecnre 13 ioxacc pe- anbnbie npenme-1-1.1 (nanp11Mep, 11ncrpyMen'r1:1) n naabiaanre 11x, n01<aa51aa11 npenMe- 1-111. Han1111111-re cnona na nocice. B51ne1111-re necxonbxo Mnny-r na ypoxe nnn caMoc'r0- nrenbnoro 3ay=111aan11n cnoa. 3a'reM npennozicnre y=1au111Mc11 cnoaa s51no11n‘n1-5 yn- paznnenne 11 -rerpannx. (r) l. Ie115 pa6o'rh1 nan l'l¢pBbiM pa3neJ10M :1a1<111o11ae'rcn 11 TOM, 11106111 y‘-1a11111ecn anann snanennn acex cnoa, npeinne ‘-[CM 1-1a-inerca pa6o'ra nan Marepnanom c11eny1o- 1111111 paanenoa. Ypoxu 2-4 1. Baeaeuue naesix aswcosux eaiiuiiii (a) O6cy>1<ne1-111e cnryannn, 113o6pa>1<e1-inoii na pncynicax. l'Ipenona3a're115 nomicen y6ennr5cn s TOM, 1110 ynamneca nonnoc-11.10 nor-muaior 3'ry cnryannio. 06cy>1<ne1-me M0)l<e'1' (n Mb! pe1<0MennyeM 310) 1111111 1-1a poni-10M n3511<e y-1a1.1.111xc11, noc1<0111a1<y em 1.te115 ne o6y'1e1-me nabixy, a 06cy>i<nen11e 1<0n'rc1<c1-a, s l<O'l'0pOM ssonnrca 11 113yna1o'r- ca nabiicoabre ennnnnhi. Ha 06cy:1<nen11e rparwrcn acero nec1<on51<0 Mnnyr ypoxa. (6) Baenenne 11 noaropenne npen110>1<en1m-o6pa311o11 na p11cyn1_<ax. >Ke11a-re11bn0 secrn ary. -iac-11. ypoxa no-anrnnncxn, 1<p0Me nocnennero nyn1<-ra. Pe1<oMe11ny- e-rcn cnenyioman Me-ronnica asenennn Marepnana: — nonpocnre y'-1a1.1111xc11 npeicparn-11. pa3I‘0B0pbl - 1-1ec1<0n1.1<0 pas Mennenno 11 -1er1<0 npoqrnre c11011a na pncynxax — nonpocnre ytianinxca I‘iOB'l'OpH'I‘b c11011a nec1<01151<o pas , -ec1111 rexcr na p11cy1-11<ax 11Mee-1 cpopmy nnanoia, npen.11o>1<11're y‘-1aI. l.1HMCil ne- c1<o1151<0 pas HOBTOPHTB em a napax ‘ — c0c'ra35re/ co6c'r13ennb1e np11Mep51 no o6pa311y np1113enenn51x na p11cyn1<ax. Ide- nonbayilre 3na1<0My10 y‘-1an111Mcn 11e1<c111<y — aanafire y1-1a11111Mcn nec1<01151<o nonpocoa na ponn0M s13511<e, 1110651 npoaepnrb r10n11Man11e naenennoro Marepnana. Ilponepxa nonncna 3an11Mar5 Bcero HecKOJibK0 M11ny'r. ~ He ny:1<n0 n111<a1<11x np0c'rpann51x o6'5ncnen111i rpaMMa'r111<11. Ec1111 y y-1a- LLIHXCH BOSHHKZIOT B0l'IpOCbI, HERO OTBCTHTB na HHX, HO npemr, OTBOIIHMOC na 0TB€- 1'51, name crporo orpannnnrb. 2. 3axpen.4euue uoeozo Mamepua. /ta 3a1cpen11en11e Ma-rep11a11a o6ecr1e'~111nae'rcn cncremofi ynpa>1<nen11i7i. l'Iepe1111c11nM ocnoanbie rnnbr ynpaaicnennfiz 94

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