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Power to x

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Combustion Engines Finland

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Power to x

  1. 1. P2X(2P) Teemu Turunen-Saaresti LUT University 21.3.2019 EnergyWeek - Engine Technology Seminar 1
  2. 2.  What is P2X? and Why?  P2X technologies Content 221.3.2019 EnergyWeek - Engine Technology Seminar
  3. 3.  Varying production of renewable energy need methods to energy storage  Climate change − Need for renewable energy systems − Rapid changes need to be done  P2X(2P) − Enables energy storage − Strong solution for rapid change needed What and Why? 321.3.2019 EnergyWeek - Engine Technology Seminar
  4. 4. Different options for energy storage 421.3.2019 EnergyWeek - Engine Technology Seminar The World Energy Council Germany: INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF A POWER-TO-X ROADMAP (2019) https://www.weltenergierat.de/ptxstudie/
  5. 5. Power-to-Fuels-to-Power cycle 521.3.2019 EnergyWeek - Engine Technology Seminar
  6. 6. Power-to-fuels and chemicals 621.3.2019 EnergyWeek - Engine Technology Seminar Methane (CH4)  Can be used as a transport fuel and seasonal storage (gaseous form or liquefied)  Simplicity - the synthesis process can produce pure methane  Strong greenhouse gas, non-toxic Methanol (CH3OH)  Liquid fuel at standard conditions, easy to store and can be used as drop-in fuel  Important role as feedstock in chemical industry, e.g. route to plastics with methanol-to-olefins (MTO) synthesis  Toxic and corrosive Dimethyl ether (C2H6O)  Synthesis from methanol with e.g. silica alumina catalyst  Direct replacement to diesel, high cetane number ~60 (diesel ~50), non-toxic, not greenhouse gas  Gaseous at standard conditions, can be stored as liquid form at 0.5 MPa, (@20 C, ρ=0.67 kg/l, LHV = 28.5 MJ/kg ) Ammonia (NH3)  Fertilizer and feedstock for chemical industry, toxic, flammable gas  Can be used also as energy storage and fuel (energy denisity ~11.5 MJ/l)  Air as a source of nitrogen (78 % of N2) available everywhere Fischer-Tropsch products (CnH2n+2)  Produces different hydrocarbon chains (CnH2n+2) where n is typically 10-20.  With hydrocracking these can be further refined to direct replacements of fossil fuels  Starting point is syngas, it has to be first produced with reverse-water-shift-gas reactor from H2 and CO2 Hydrogen (H2)  Can be used in fuel cells or as a mixture with methane in combustion engines  Energy efficient to make, just water electrolysis needed  Non-toxic, not greenhouse gas, storage may be problematic (e.g. pressurized, liquefied, etc.)
  7. 7.  Water electrolysis: − Waste heat at temperature level 70-80°C  Methanation: CO2 + 4H2 → CH2 + H2O − Nickel catalyst, 6-7 bar, ~300 °C − Produces high temperature water steam, can be used e.g. for the CO2 capture − met ≈ 70-80 %  Power-to-gas efficiency ≈ 60 % Power-to-Methane (CH4) 721.3.2019 EnergyWeek - Engine Technology Seminar
  8. 8.  Water electrolysis: el ≈ 80 % (HHV)  Waste heat at temperature level 70- 80°C  Methanol synthesis: CO2 + 3H2 → CH3OH + H2O − Copper and zinc-based catalyst, 150-200°C, 50-100 bar − Distillation needed to separate methanol from water, the steam produced by the synthesis can be used for this purpose  Methanol-DME synthesis: − Silica-alumina catalyst  Power-to-Methanol/DME efficiency ≈ 50-55 % Power-to-Methanol/DME 821.3.2019 EnergyWeek - Engine Technology Seminar
  9. 9.  Heat pumps − High efficiency for high temperatures − Based on high speed technology  Substitute fossil fuels in a district heating − Can be also used for energy storage and control Power-to-heat 921.3.2019 EnergyWeek - Engine Technology Seminar
  10. 10.  Fully renewable energy system can be realized using P2X2P − Engines plays role being efficient power unit − Existing infra can be used efficiently  Solves deficits of renewable energy (wind and solar) − Enables wider portion of wind and solar in grid without using fossil fuels (grid balancing) Conclusions 1021.3.2019 EnergyWeek - Engine Technology Seminar