CLINICAL TRIALS.pptx

DRUG DISCOVERY AND
CLINICAL EVALUATION OF
NEW DRUGS
BY
ASAWE TEJASWINI L
DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY
ASSIASTANT PROFESSOR
SIDHHIS INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY
THANE
DRUG DISCOVERY AND
CLINICAL EVALUATION OF
NEW DRUGS
CONTENT
DRUG DISCOVRY PROCESS
PRECLINICAL STUDIES
CLINICLE TRIALS
Drug discovery process, involves identification of a drug
chemical therapeutically useful in treating and management of
a disease condition.
 Typically, researchers find out new drugs through new
visions into a disease process that permit investigator to design
a medicine to stopover or contrary the effects of the disease.
 The process of drug discovery includes the identification of
drug candidates, synthesis, characterization, screening, and
assays for therapeutic efficacy.
When a molecule avails its satisfactory results in these
investigations, it will commence the process of drug
development subsequent to clinical trials.
Drug discovery and development is an expensive process due
to the high budgets of R&D and clinical trials.
It takes almost 12-15 years to develop a single new drug
molecule from the time it is discovered when it is available in
market for treating patients.
The average cost for research and development for each
efficacious drug is likely to be $900 million to $2 billion.
This figure includes the cost of the thousands of failures: For
every 5,000-10,000 compounds that enter the investigation and
development pipeline, ultimately only one attains approval.
The Success requires immense resources the best scientific
and logical minds, highly sophisticated laboratory and
technology; and multifaceted project management.
It also takes persistence and good fortune.
Eventually, the process of drug discovery brings hope, faith
and relief to billions of patients.
CLINICAL TRIALS.pptx
Stages of drug discovery and
development include:
Stages of drug discovery and development
include:
Target identification
Lead discovery
Medicinal chemistry
In- vitro studies
In Vivo studies (pre-clinical)
Preclinical research
Clinical trials
New Drug Application
Approval
1.Target Identification
 This is initial phase of the drug discovery pipeline.
 Before you can develop a drug , there needs to be The
identification of specific target to design drug .
 The targets can be genes, epigenetic , proteins , RNA, or
anything involved in disease pathogenesis.
 An ideal target should be efficacious, safe, meet clinical
and commercial requirements.
 The techniques used for target identification may be based
on principles of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics,
biophysics.
2.Lead discovery
 Chemical compound designed to interact with
specified targets are synthesized and isolated.
 This step involves combinatorial chemistry ,
assay development to screen selected
compound .
 The assay depending upon target and
function.
3. Medicinal chemistry
 This phase involves developing a library of
compounds and their analogs towards a target
and conducting structure-activity-relationship
(SAR) studies.
4.In- vitro studies-
 In- vitro studies investigate drug
affinity towards its target and
selectivity.
 Cell culture system relevant to the
disease in question are used .
 Mechanism of action of the compound
is questioned.
5.In Vivo studies (pre-clinical)
 When lead compounds have been
optimized and characterized to an
acceptable level, in vivo studies are
undertaken.
 The mice and rats are used for this
studies.
 This studies helps to identify the drug
metabolism and clearance, immune
response, ability of drug to get into
circulation and reach target sites.
Preclinical Testing
 Pre-clinical research in drug development process involves evaluation of
drug‘s safety and efficacy in animal species that conclude to prospective
human outcome.
 The pre-clinical trials also have to acquire approval by corresponding
regulatory authorities.
 The regulatory authorities must ensure that trials are conducted in safe and
ethical way and would give approval for only those drugs which are confirm
to be safe and effective.
 ICH has established a basic guideline for technical necessities of acceptable
preclinical drug development.
 The pre-clinical trials can be conducted in two ways: General pharmacology
and Toxicology.
 Pharmacology deals with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic
parameters of drug.
 It is essential to explore unwanted pharmacological effects in suitable animal
models and monitoring them in toxicological studies
 Pharmacokinetic studies are very important to make known the safety and
efficacy parameters in terms of absorption, distribution, metabolism and
excretion.
Clinical Research
 Clinical trials are conducted in people (volunteer)and intended to
answer specific questions about the safety and efficacy of drugs,
vaccines, other therapies, or new methods of using current
treatments.
 Clinical trials follow a specific study protocol that is designed by the
researcher or investigator or manufacturer.
 As the developers design the clinical study, they will consider what
they want to complete for each of the different Clinical Research
Phases and starts the Investigational New Drug Process (IND), a
process they must go through before clinical research begins.
 Before a clinical trial begins, researchers review prior information
about the drug to develop research questions and objectives.
 Then, they decide:
 Selection criteria for participants
 Number of people take part of the study
 Duration of study
 Dose and route of administration of dosage form
 Assessment of parameters
 Data collection and analysi
CLINICAL
RESEARCH
CLINICAL TRIALS.pptx
Phase 0 clinical trial
 Phase 0 implicates investigative, first-in-
human (FIH) trials that are conducted
according to FDA guidelines.
 Phase 0 trials termed as human micro
dose studies, they have single sub-
therapeutic doses given to 10 to 15
volunteers and give pharmacokinetic data
or help with imaging specific targets
without exerting pharmacological actions.
Phase 1: Safety and dosage
 Phase I trials are the first tests of a drug with a lesser number of healthy
human volunteers.
 clinical trials test a new biomedical intervention in a small group of people
(e.g., 20- 80) for the first time to evaluate safety (e.g., to determine a safe
dosage range, and to identify side effects).
 Researchers adjust dosage regimen based on animal study data to find out
what dose of a drug can tolerate the body and what are its acute side
effects.
 As a Phase 1 trial continues, researchers find out research mechanism of
action, the side effects with increase in dosage, and information about
effectiveness.
 This is imperative to the design of Phase 2 studies.
 Almost 70% of drugs travel to the next phase.
Phase 2: Efficacy and side effects
Phase II : clinical trials study the biomedical or behavioral
intervention in a larger group of people (several hundred) to
determine efficacy and to further evaluate its safety.
 These trials aren‘t sufficient to confirm whether the drug will be
therapeutic.
 Phase 2 studies provide with additional safety data to the
researchers.
 Researchers use these data to refine research questions, develop
research methods, and design new Phase 3 research protocols.
 Around 33% of drugs travel to the next phase.
 Most prominently, Phase II clinical studies aid to found therapeutic
doses for the large-scale Phase III studies.
Phase 3: Efficacy and adverse drug reactions monitoring
 Phase III studies investigate the efficacy of the biomedical or behavioral
intervention in large groups of human subjects (from several hundred to
several thousand) & monitor adverse effects.
 Researchers plan Phase 3 studies to prove whether a product deals an
action benefit to a specific people or not.
 These studies comprise 300 to 3,000 volunteers.
 Phase 3 studies deliver most of the safety data.
 The previous study might not able to detect less common side effects.
 But phase 3 studies are conducted on large no. of volunteers and longer in
duration, the results are more probable to detect long-term or uncommon
side effects.
 Around 25-30% of drugs travel to the next phase of clinical research.
 If a drug developer has data from its previous tests, preclinical and clinical
trials that a drug is safe and effective for its intended use, then the industry
can file an application to market the medicine.
 The FDA review team comprehensively inspects all submitted data on the
drug and makes a conclusion to approve or not to approve it
New Drug Application
 A New Drug Application (NDA) expresses the full story of a drug
molecule.
 Its purpose is to verify that a drug is safe and effective for its proposed use
in the people studied.
 A drug developer must include all about a drug starting from preclinical
data to Phase 3 trial detain the NDA.
 Developers must include reports on all studies, data, and analysis.
 Beside with clinical trial outcomes, developers must include:
 Proposed labeling
 Safety updates
 Drug abuse information
 Patent information
FDA Review
 Once FDA obtains a complete NDA then FDA team of review
may require about 6 to 10 months to take a pronouncement
on whether to approve the NDA.
 If Once FDA obtains a incomplete NDA then FDA team of
review refuse the NDA.
 If FDA governs that a drug has been revealed to be safe and
effective for its proposed use, it is then essential to work with
the developer for upgrade prescribing information. This is
denoted as ―labeling.
 Labeling precisely defines the basis for approval and
direction how to use the drug.
 Although, remaining issues required to be fixed before the
drug to be approved for marketing. In other cases, FDA have
need of additional studies.
 At this situation, the developer can choose whether to
continue further development or not.
 If a developer distresses with an FDA decision, there are
tools for official appeal.
Phase 4: Post-Market Drug Safety
Monitoring
 Phase 4 trials are conducted when the drug or device has been approved by
FDA.
 These trials are also recognized as post-marketing surveillance involving
pharmacovigilance and continuing technical support after approval.
 There are numerous observational strategies and assessment patterns used
in Phase 4trials to evaluate the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety of an
involvement in real-world settings.
 Phase IV studies may be required by regulatory authorities (e.g. change in
labeling, risk management/minimization action plan) or may be undertaken
by the sponsoring company for competitive purposes or other reasons.
 Therefore, the true illustration of a drug‘s safety essentially requires over
the months and even years that mark up a drug‘s lifespan in the market.
 FDA reviews reports of complications with prescription and OTC drugs,
and can decide to add precautions to the dosage or practice information, as
well as other events for more serious adverse drug reactions.
CLINICAL TRIALS.pptx
CLINICAL TRIALS.pptx
Pharmacovigilance
 Pharmacovigilance is defined as, "the science and activities relating
to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of
adverse effects or any other medicine-related problem".
The principal aims of pharmacovigilance programme are as
follows:
 To improve patient care and safety in relation to the use of
medicines, and all medical and para-medical interventions.
 To improve public health and safety in relation to the use of
medicines.
 To contribute to the assessment of benefit, harm, effectiveness and
risk of medicines, encouraging their safe, rational and more effective
(including cost effective) use.
 To promote understanding, education and clinical training in
pharmacovigilance and its effective communication to health
professionals and the public.
Several stake holders are involved
in monitoring safety of medicines.
 Some of them are listed below:
• Government
• Pharmaceutical industries
• Hospitals and academia
• Medical and pharmaceutical associations
• Poisons and medicines information centers
• Health professionals like doctors, pharmacists, nurses
• Patients
• Consumers
• The media
• World Health Organization (WHO)
Pharmacovigilance in India
 The scope and objectives of the Pharmacovigilance are
indicated below:
 To create a nation-wide system for patient safety reporting.
 To identify and analyze new signals from the reported cases.
 To analyze the benefit-risk ratio of marketed medications.
 To generate evidence-based information on safety of medicines.
 To support regulatory agencies in the decision-making process on use of
medications.
 To communicate the safety information on use of medicines to various
stake holders to minimize the risk.
 To emerge as a national center of excellence for pharmacovigilance
activities.
 To collaborate with other national centers for the exchange of information
and data management.
 To provide training and consultancy support to other national
pharmacovigilance centers across globe.
 To identify and analyze new ADR signal from the reported cases.
 To promote rational use of medicines.
CLINICAL TRIALS.pptx
1 von 28

Recomendados

Drug discovery & clinical evaluation of new drugs von
Drug discovery & clinical evaluation of new drugsDrug discovery & clinical evaluation of new drugs
Drug discovery & clinical evaluation of new drugsHeena Parveen
4.5K views24 Folien
Various process of drug development von
Various process of drug developmentVarious process of drug development
Various process of drug developmentAyanpal33
252 views13 Folien
Regulatory requirements for drug approval - industrial pharmacy II von
Regulatory requirements for drug approval - industrial pharmacy IIRegulatory requirements for drug approval - industrial pharmacy II
Regulatory requirements for drug approval - industrial pharmacy IIJafarali Masi
8.3K views10 Folien
Drug development process von
Drug development process Drug development process
Drug development process Zobayer Hossain
1.6K views11 Folien
Stages of drug development by Dr Joseph Oyepata Simeon (Ph.D) von
Stages of drug development by Dr Joseph Oyepata Simeon (Ph.D)Stages of drug development by Dr Joseph Oyepata Simeon (Ph.D)
Stages of drug development by Dr Joseph Oyepata Simeon (Ph.D)oyepata
128 views7 Folien
Clinical trials von
Clinical trialsClinical trials
Clinical trialsRam Kumar Reddy
197 views5 Folien

Más contenido relacionado

Similar a CLINICAL TRIALS.pptx

Overview regulatory environment in usa,europe,india von
Overview regulatory environment in usa,europe,indiaOverview regulatory environment in usa,europe,india
Overview regulatory environment in usa,europe,indiashabana parveen
3.2K views24 Folien
Drug Development Process von
Drug Development ProcessDrug Development Process
Drug Development ProcessINDERGOHRI
77 views24 Folien
Lecture # 03 New Drug Approval and Development Process, von
Lecture # 03 New Drug Approval and Development Process,Lecture # 03 New Drug Approval and Development Process,
Lecture # 03 New Drug Approval and Development Process,PakistanPharmaCareerDoor
2.8K views40 Folien
Clinical study emphasizing on phases of clinical trials. von
Clinical study emphasizing on phases of clinical trials.Clinical study emphasizing on phases of clinical trials.
Clinical study emphasizing on phases of clinical trials.Radhika Soni
3 views16 Folien
Drug discovery infoghraph von
Drug discovery infoghraphDrug discovery infoghraph
Drug discovery infoghraphAmit mishra
68 views1 Folie
All you have to know about drugs von
All you have to know about drugsAll you have to know about drugs
All you have to know about drugsgoogle
7 views1 Folie

Similar a CLINICAL TRIALS.pptx(20)

Overview regulatory environment in usa,europe,india von shabana parveen
Overview regulatory environment in usa,europe,indiaOverview regulatory environment in usa,europe,india
Overview regulatory environment in usa,europe,india
shabana parveen3.2K views
Drug Development Process von INDERGOHRI
Drug Development ProcessDrug Development Process
Drug Development Process
INDERGOHRI77 views
Clinical study emphasizing on phases of clinical trials. von Radhika Soni
Clinical study emphasizing on phases of clinical trials.Clinical study emphasizing on phases of clinical trials.
Clinical study emphasizing on phases of clinical trials.
Radhika Soni3 views
Drug discovery infoghraph von Amit mishra
Drug discovery infoghraphDrug discovery infoghraph
Drug discovery infoghraph
Amit mishra68 views
All you have to know about drugs von google
All you have to know about drugsAll you have to know about drugs
All you have to know about drugs
google7 views
To study new drug registration process in u.s von Manoj Dagwar
To study new drug registration process in u.sTo study new drug registration process in u.s
To study new drug registration process in u.s
Manoj Dagwar662 views
principle of drug delivery von Deepali69
principle of drug deliveryprinciple of drug delivery
principle of drug delivery
Deepali692 views
DRUG DEVELPOMENT & DISCOVERY- CLINICAL TRIALS von shubhaasharma
DRUG DEVELPOMENT & DISCOVERY- CLINICAL TRIALSDRUG DEVELPOMENT & DISCOVERY- CLINICAL TRIALS
DRUG DEVELPOMENT & DISCOVERY- CLINICAL TRIALS
shubhaasharma510 views
Preparation of Clinical Trial Protocol of India. von Aakashdeep Raval
Preparation of Clinical Trial Protocol of India.Preparation of Clinical Trial Protocol of India.
Preparation of Clinical Trial Protocol of India.
Aakashdeep Raval13.4K views
Regulatory requirements for drug approval von Namdeo Shinde
Regulatory requirements for drug approval Regulatory requirements for drug approval
Regulatory requirements for drug approval
Namdeo Shinde26.4K views
Drug discovery and development process von Vishnupriya K
Drug discovery and development processDrug discovery and development process
Drug discovery and development process
Vishnupriya K1.9K views
regulatory requirements for drug approval ( IP-2 / UNIT -3 ) von JAYACHANDRA AKUTHOTA
regulatory requirements for drug approval ( IP-2  / UNIT -3 )regulatory requirements for drug approval ( IP-2  / UNIT -3 )
regulatory requirements for drug approval ( IP-2 / UNIT -3 )
Clinical trials ppt. Dr. Zubair Ali von Dr. Zubair Ali
Clinical trials ppt. Dr. Zubair AliClinical trials ppt. Dr. Zubair Ali
Clinical trials ppt. Dr. Zubair Ali
Dr. Zubair Ali3.4K views
Drug development process von PawanDhamala1
Drug development processDrug development process
Drug development process
PawanDhamala12.4K views
Features of clinical trials von DRASHTI PATEL
Features of clinical trialsFeatures of clinical trials
Features of clinical trials
DRASHTI PATEL4.9K views

Más de TejaswiniAsawa

GA & Pre A.pptx von
GA & Pre A.pptxGA & Pre A.pptx
GA & Pre A.pptxTejaswiniAsawa
13 views30 Folien
ADR.pptx von
ADR.pptxADR.pptx
ADR.pptxTejaswiniAsawa
12 views21 Folien
Drug interaction.pptx von
Drug interaction.pptxDrug interaction.pptx
Drug interaction.pptxTejaswiniAsawa
8 views16 Folien
Pharmacodynamics.pptx von
Pharmacodynamics.pptxPharmacodynamics.pptx
Pharmacodynamics.pptxTejaswiniAsawa
13 views15 Folien
Production Of Pharamaceuticals (1).pptx von
Production Of Pharamaceuticals (1).pptxProduction Of Pharamaceuticals (1).pptx
Production Of Pharamaceuticals (1).pptxTejaswiniAsawa
9 views27 Folien
Microbial Biotransformation.pptx von
Microbial Biotransformation.pptxMicrobial Biotransformation.pptx
Microbial Biotransformation.pptxTejaswiniAsawa
758 views24 Folien

Último

Nidanarthakara Roga.pptx von
Nidanarthakara Roga.pptxNidanarthakara Roga.pptx
Nidanarthakara Roga.pptxAkshay Shetty
47 views23 Folien
Complications & Solutions in Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery.pptx von
Complications & Solutions in Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery.pptxComplications & Solutions in Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery.pptx
Complications & Solutions in Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery.pptxVarunraju9
132 views21 Folien
Myocardial Infarction Nursing.pptx von
Myocardial Infarction Nursing.pptxMyocardial Infarction Nursing.pptx
Myocardial Infarction Nursing.pptxAsraf Hussain
17 views73 Folien
vitamin E.pptx von
vitamin E.pptxvitamin E.pptx
vitamin E.pptxajithkilpart
13 views14 Folien
Quit Smoking Revolution.pdf von
Quit Smoking Revolution.pdfQuit Smoking Revolution.pdf
Quit Smoking Revolution.pdfGio Ferrandino
21 views56 Folien
Peptic ulcer.pdf von
Peptic ulcer.pdfPeptic ulcer.pdf
Peptic ulcer.pdfUVAS
15 views64 Folien

Último(20)

Complications & Solutions in Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery.pptx von Varunraju9
Complications & Solutions in Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery.pptxComplications & Solutions in Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery.pptx
Complications & Solutions in Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery.pptx
Varunraju9132 views
Myocardial Infarction Nursing.pptx von Asraf Hussain
Myocardial Infarction Nursing.pptxMyocardial Infarction Nursing.pptx
Myocardial Infarction Nursing.pptx
Asraf Hussain17 views
Peptic ulcer.pdf von UVAS
Peptic ulcer.pdfPeptic ulcer.pdf
Peptic ulcer.pdf
UVAS15 views
DEBATE IN CA BLADDER TMT VS CYSTECTOMY von Kanhu Charan
DEBATE IN CA BLADDER TMT VS CYSTECTOMYDEBATE IN CA BLADDER TMT VS CYSTECTOMY
DEBATE IN CA BLADDER TMT VS CYSTECTOMY
Kanhu Charan51 views
PATIENTCOUNSELLING in.pptx von skShashi1
PATIENTCOUNSELLING  in.pptxPATIENTCOUNSELLING  in.pptx
PATIENTCOUNSELLING in.pptx
skShashi129 views
Asthalin Inhaler (Generic Albuterol Sulfate Inhaler) von The Swiss Pharmacy
Asthalin Inhaler (Generic Albuterol Sulfate Inhaler) Asthalin Inhaler (Generic Albuterol Sulfate Inhaler)
Asthalin Inhaler (Generic Albuterol Sulfate Inhaler)
DRUG REPUROSING SEMINAR.pptx von Riya Gagnani
DRUG REPUROSING SEMINAR.pptxDRUG REPUROSING SEMINAR.pptx
DRUG REPUROSING SEMINAR.pptx
Riya Gagnani9 views
CMC(CHEMISTRY,MANUFACTURING AND CONTROL).pptx von JubinNath2
CMC(CHEMISTRY,MANUFACTURING AND CONTROL).pptxCMC(CHEMISTRY,MANUFACTURING AND CONTROL).pptx
CMC(CHEMISTRY,MANUFACTURING AND CONTROL).pptx
JubinNath29 views

CLINICAL TRIALS.pptx

  • 1. DRUG DISCOVERY AND CLINICAL EVALUATION OF NEW DRUGS BY ASAWE TEJASWINI L DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY ASSIASTANT PROFESSOR SIDHHIS INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY THANE
  • 2. DRUG DISCOVERY AND CLINICAL EVALUATION OF NEW DRUGS CONTENT DRUG DISCOVRY PROCESS PRECLINICAL STUDIES CLINICLE TRIALS
  • 3. Drug discovery process, involves identification of a drug chemical therapeutically useful in treating and management of a disease condition.  Typically, researchers find out new drugs through new visions into a disease process that permit investigator to design a medicine to stopover or contrary the effects of the disease.  The process of drug discovery includes the identification of drug candidates, synthesis, characterization, screening, and assays for therapeutic efficacy. When a molecule avails its satisfactory results in these investigations, it will commence the process of drug development subsequent to clinical trials. Drug discovery and development is an expensive process due to the high budgets of R&D and clinical trials. It takes almost 12-15 years to develop a single new drug molecule from the time it is discovered when it is available in market for treating patients.
  • 4. The average cost for research and development for each efficacious drug is likely to be $900 million to $2 billion. This figure includes the cost of the thousands of failures: For every 5,000-10,000 compounds that enter the investigation and development pipeline, ultimately only one attains approval. The Success requires immense resources the best scientific and logical minds, highly sophisticated laboratory and technology; and multifaceted project management. It also takes persistence and good fortune. Eventually, the process of drug discovery brings hope, faith and relief to billions of patients.
  • 6. Stages of drug discovery and development include: Stages of drug discovery and development include: Target identification Lead discovery Medicinal chemistry In- vitro studies In Vivo studies (pre-clinical) Preclinical research Clinical trials New Drug Application Approval
  • 7. 1.Target Identification  This is initial phase of the drug discovery pipeline.  Before you can develop a drug , there needs to be The identification of specific target to design drug .  The targets can be genes, epigenetic , proteins , RNA, or anything involved in disease pathogenesis.  An ideal target should be efficacious, safe, meet clinical and commercial requirements.  The techniques used for target identification may be based on principles of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, biophysics.
  • 8. 2.Lead discovery  Chemical compound designed to interact with specified targets are synthesized and isolated.  This step involves combinatorial chemistry , assay development to screen selected compound .  The assay depending upon target and function.
  • 9. 3. Medicinal chemistry  This phase involves developing a library of compounds and their analogs towards a target and conducting structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies.
  • 10. 4.In- vitro studies-  In- vitro studies investigate drug affinity towards its target and selectivity.  Cell culture system relevant to the disease in question are used .  Mechanism of action of the compound is questioned.
  • 11. 5.In Vivo studies (pre-clinical)  When lead compounds have been optimized and characterized to an acceptable level, in vivo studies are undertaken.  The mice and rats are used for this studies.  This studies helps to identify the drug metabolism and clearance, immune response, ability of drug to get into circulation and reach target sites.
  • 12. Preclinical Testing  Pre-clinical research in drug development process involves evaluation of drug‘s safety and efficacy in animal species that conclude to prospective human outcome.  The pre-clinical trials also have to acquire approval by corresponding regulatory authorities.  The regulatory authorities must ensure that trials are conducted in safe and ethical way and would give approval for only those drugs which are confirm to be safe and effective.  ICH has established a basic guideline for technical necessities of acceptable preclinical drug development.  The pre-clinical trials can be conducted in two ways: General pharmacology and Toxicology.  Pharmacology deals with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of drug.  It is essential to explore unwanted pharmacological effects in suitable animal models and monitoring them in toxicological studies  Pharmacokinetic studies are very important to make known the safety and efficacy parameters in terms of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.
  • 13. Clinical Research  Clinical trials are conducted in people (volunteer)and intended to answer specific questions about the safety and efficacy of drugs, vaccines, other therapies, or new methods of using current treatments.  Clinical trials follow a specific study protocol that is designed by the researcher or investigator or manufacturer.  As the developers design the clinical study, they will consider what they want to complete for each of the different Clinical Research Phases and starts the Investigational New Drug Process (IND), a process they must go through before clinical research begins.  Before a clinical trial begins, researchers review prior information about the drug to develop research questions and objectives.  Then, they decide:  Selection criteria for participants  Number of people take part of the study  Duration of study  Dose and route of administration of dosage form  Assessment of parameters  Data collection and analysi
  • 16. Phase 0 clinical trial  Phase 0 implicates investigative, first-in- human (FIH) trials that are conducted according to FDA guidelines.  Phase 0 trials termed as human micro dose studies, they have single sub- therapeutic doses given to 10 to 15 volunteers and give pharmacokinetic data or help with imaging specific targets without exerting pharmacological actions.
  • 17. Phase 1: Safety and dosage  Phase I trials are the first tests of a drug with a lesser number of healthy human volunteers.  clinical trials test a new biomedical intervention in a small group of people (e.g., 20- 80) for the first time to evaluate safety (e.g., to determine a safe dosage range, and to identify side effects).  Researchers adjust dosage regimen based on animal study data to find out what dose of a drug can tolerate the body and what are its acute side effects.  As a Phase 1 trial continues, researchers find out research mechanism of action, the side effects with increase in dosage, and information about effectiveness.  This is imperative to the design of Phase 2 studies.  Almost 70% of drugs travel to the next phase.
  • 18. Phase 2: Efficacy and side effects Phase II : clinical trials study the biomedical or behavioral intervention in a larger group of people (several hundred) to determine efficacy and to further evaluate its safety.  These trials aren‘t sufficient to confirm whether the drug will be therapeutic.  Phase 2 studies provide with additional safety data to the researchers.  Researchers use these data to refine research questions, develop research methods, and design new Phase 3 research protocols.  Around 33% of drugs travel to the next phase.  Most prominently, Phase II clinical studies aid to found therapeutic doses for the large-scale Phase III studies.
  • 19. Phase 3: Efficacy and adverse drug reactions monitoring  Phase III studies investigate the efficacy of the biomedical or behavioral intervention in large groups of human subjects (from several hundred to several thousand) & monitor adverse effects.  Researchers plan Phase 3 studies to prove whether a product deals an action benefit to a specific people or not.  These studies comprise 300 to 3,000 volunteers.  Phase 3 studies deliver most of the safety data.  The previous study might not able to detect less common side effects.  But phase 3 studies are conducted on large no. of volunteers and longer in duration, the results are more probable to detect long-term or uncommon side effects.  Around 25-30% of drugs travel to the next phase of clinical research.  If a drug developer has data from its previous tests, preclinical and clinical trials that a drug is safe and effective for its intended use, then the industry can file an application to market the medicine.  The FDA review team comprehensively inspects all submitted data on the drug and makes a conclusion to approve or not to approve it
  • 20. New Drug Application  A New Drug Application (NDA) expresses the full story of a drug molecule.  Its purpose is to verify that a drug is safe and effective for its proposed use in the people studied.  A drug developer must include all about a drug starting from preclinical data to Phase 3 trial detain the NDA.  Developers must include reports on all studies, data, and analysis.  Beside with clinical trial outcomes, developers must include:  Proposed labeling  Safety updates  Drug abuse information  Patent information
  • 21. FDA Review  Once FDA obtains a complete NDA then FDA team of review may require about 6 to 10 months to take a pronouncement on whether to approve the NDA.  If Once FDA obtains a incomplete NDA then FDA team of review refuse the NDA.  If FDA governs that a drug has been revealed to be safe and effective for its proposed use, it is then essential to work with the developer for upgrade prescribing information. This is denoted as ―labeling.  Labeling precisely defines the basis for approval and direction how to use the drug.  Although, remaining issues required to be fixed before the drug to be approved for marketing. In other cases, FDA have need of additional studies.  At this situation, the developer can choose whether to continue further development or not.  If a developer distresses with an FDA decision, there are tools for official appeal.
  • 22. Phase 4: Post-Market Drug Safety Monitoring  Phase 4 trials are conducted when the drug or device has been approved by FDA.  These trials are also recognized as post-marketing surveillance involving pharmacovigilance and continuing technical support after approval.  There are numerous observational strategies and assessment patterns used in Phase 4trials to evaluate the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety of an involvement in real-world settings.  Phase IV studies may be required by regulatory authorities (e.g. change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan) or may be undertaken by the sponsoring company for competitive purposes or other reasons.  Therefore, the true illustration of a drug‘s safety essentially requires over the months and even years that mark up a drug‘s lifespan in the market.  FDA reviews reports of complications with prescription and OTC drugs, and can decide to add precautions to the dosage or practice information, as well as other events for more serious adverse drug reactions.
  • 25. Pharmacovigilance  Pharmacovigilance is defined as, "the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other medicine-related problem". The principal aims of pharmacovigilance programme are as follows:  To improve patient care and safety in relation to the use of medicines, and all medical and para-medical interventions.  To improve public health and safety in relation to the use of medicines.  To contribute to the assessment of benefit, harm, effectiveness and risk of medicines, encouraging their safe, rational and more effective (including cost effective) use.  To promote understanding, education and clinical training in pharmacovigilance and its effective communication to health professionals and the public.
  • 26. Several stake holders are involved in monitoring safety of medicines.  Some of them are listed below: • Government • Pharmaceutical industries • Hospitals and academia • Medical and pharmaceutical associations • Poisons and medicines information centers • Health professionals like doctors, pharmacists, nurses • Patients • Consumers • The media • World Health Organization (WHO)
  • 27. Pharmacovigilance in India  The scope and objectives of the Pharmacovigilance are indicated below:  To create a nation-wide system for patient safety reporting.  To identify and analyze new signals from the reported cases.  To analyze the benefit-risk ratio of marketed medications.  To generate evidence-based information on safety of medicines.  To support regulatory agencies in the decision-making process on use of medications.  To communicate the safety information on use of medicines to various stake holders to minimize the risk.  To emerge as a national center of excellence for pharmacovigilance activities.  To collaborate with other national centers for the exchange of information and data management.  To provide training and consultancy support to other national pharmacovigilance centers across globe.  To identify and analyze new ADR signal from the reported cases.  To promote rational use of medicines.