• Body is Laterally compressed.
• The first segment on each leg (the coxa) is large and provides incredible power
• Lateral compression allows ease of movement through the hairs on the host.
• A flea’s head is broadly joined to its thorax and often bears a genal ctenidium
• Ctenidia backwardly directed body setae are adaptations that help flea retain
itself among the fur or feathers of its host.
• Eyes are simple and have only a single, small lens.
• The legs are strong; hind legs are commonly much larger than are the other two
pairs and are modified for jumping
The females are larger than males of the same species.
During their life
cycles, fleas pass
from Egg to Larva
to Pupa to Adult.
1. Eggs are large, smooth and oval and translucent.
2. In 2-10 days the eggs hatch into eyeless, legless active larvae: the heads
are strongly sclerotized.
3. Under favorable conditions, the larvae may reach their 3rd stage in about
2 weeks, but development may be delayed for 6 months or more.
4. Larvae feed on organic debris in the host's nest, in crevices on the floor
or under rugs: larvae of bird fleas thrive on broken-down sheaths of
feathers on the epidermal scales of young birds.
5. Most fleas have 3 larval stages; each 3rd instar larva spins a cocoon
within which it pupates.
6. Pupae may live for a week up to a year depending on the species and
the environmental conditions related to temperature and moisture.
7. The fully formed adult may lie quiescent for an indefinite period of time
before its becomes active and attempt to infect a host.
Cat Flea (Ctenocephalides Felis)
• Cat fleas can still be found anywhere
around the world as long as there are
• Cat fleas are very small (about 1-3 mm in
• they have a distinct brownish color
• type is pretty weak to most flea control
methods, but it also has a fast
• Eggs fall out from domestic animals furs
and into furniture, carpets, and similar
surfaces, after which the eggs hatch into
• Cycle Duration: 2 weeks – 8 months.
Dog Fleas (Ctenocephalides Canis)
• Almost all characteristics of a cat flea,
but you can discern the differences
just by looking at them.
• For example, dog fleas have a
rounder head shape than cat fleas.
• Can grow 5mm long
• a dog flea can live in dogs’ furs or
other furry wild animals
• Cycle Duration: 2 – 4 weeks.
Human Fleas (Pulex Irritans)
• As the name suggests, human fleas live by sucking blood from a human
host, and they’re very similar in appearance to cat fleas and dog fleas
• but they can grow up to 4mm long
• a female flea can lay up to 400 eggs throughout one year.
• Cycle Duration: 4 weeks – 1 year.
Chigoe Fleas (Tunga Penetrans)
generally live in soil and sandy areas
They have a brownish color and are very small (1 mm in
size), making them the smallest flea species known.
Location and Life Cycle
• the adult female fleas pierce the epidermis to get
• As long as it gets blood and remains inside the skin,
the female flea will expel over 100 eggs just in two
• As eggs fall to the ground, they’ll enter their natural
life cycle and develop into adult fleas to look for a
Cycle Duration: Less than 3 weeks.
Stick tight Fleas
• also referred to as bird fleas
• pierce the skin of the chicken head in a similar fashion to chigoe
• Infesting other animals, such as foxes, squirrels, cats, and dogs.
• Cycle Duration: 4 weeks.
Oriental Rat Flea (Xenopsylla Cheopis)
• oriental rat fleas are very hard to eliminate.
• Like most common pests that infest outdoor properties, these
fleas are carried by rats, mice, rabbits, and other rodents. On
occasion, oriental rat fleas can bite humans through infested rats,
Rabbit flea, or Silopsyllus cuniculi
• could be found in clusters around a wild rabbit’s ear, especially a female
rabbit in late pregnancy. Moreover, a female rabbit’s reproductive
hormones affect rabbit these fleas’ survival.
1.Treatment of Animals:
• Thoroughly bathe pets with soap and water,
• then comb them with a flea comb.
• Pay careful attention to face and neck regions, and the
area in front of the tail.
• Soap will act as a gentle insecticide to kill adult fleas.
• Talk to your veterinarian about choosing the right flea
control product for your pet.
• Limit the amount of time your pet spends outdoors.
• Limit contact with wild and stray animals.
• Bathe and brush pets regularly.
• Check for fleas regularly.
• Fleas prefer warmer and more humid months, but if there is an
animal to feed on, fleas can survive year-round.
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