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Fleas.pptx

  1. 1. FLEAS BY: Asma Qureshi Laraib Naeem Muqadas Fazal Urwa Iftikhar
  2. 2. Fleas (General Introduction)
  3. 3. Morphology • Body is Laterally compressed. • The first segment on each leg (the coxa) is large and provides incredible power for jumping. • Lateral compression allows ease of movement through the hairs on the host. • A flea’s head is broadly joined to its thorax and often bears a genal ctenidium • Ctenidia backwardly directed body setae are adaptations that help flea retain itself among the fur or feathers of its host. • Eyes are simple and have only a single, small lens. • The legs are strong; hind legs are commonly much larger than are the other two pairs and are modified for jumping
  4. 4. The females are larger than males of the same species.
  5. 5. Life Cycle During their life cycles, fleas pass through a Complete Metamorphosis from Egg to Larva to Pupa to Adult.
  6. 6. 1. Eggs are large, smooth and oval and translucent. 2. In 2-10 days the eggs hatch into eyeless, legless active larvae: the heads are strongly sclerotized. 3. Under favorable conditions, the larvae may reach their 3rd stage in about 2 weeks, but development may be delayed for 6 months or more. 4. Larvae feed on organic debris in the host's nest, in crevices on the floor or under rugs: larvae of bird fleas thrive on broken-down sheaths of feathers on the epidermal scales of young birds. 5. Most fleas have 3 larval stages; each 3rd instar larva spins a cocoon within which it pupates. 6. Pupae may live for a week up to a year depending on the species and the environmental conditions related to temperature and moisture. 7. The fully formed adult may lie quiescent for an indefinite period of time before its becomes active and attempt to infect a host.
  7. 7. Important species of fleas
  8. 8. Types of Fleas
  9. 9. Cat Flea (Ctenocephalides Felis) • Cat fleas can still be found anywhere around the world as long as there are cats around. • Cat fleas are very small (about 1-3 mm in size) • they have a distinct brownish color • type is pretty weak to most flea control methods, but it also has a fast reproductive rate • Eggs fall out from domestic animals furs and into furniture, carpets, and similar surfaces, after which the eggs hatch into larvae. • Cycle Duration: 2 weeks – 8 months.
  10. 10. Dog Fleas (Ctenocephalides Canis) • Almost all characteristics of a cat flea, but you can discern the differences just by looking at them. • For example, dog fleas have a rounder head shape than cat fleas. • Can grow 5mm long • a dog flea can live in dogs’ furs or other furry wild animals • Cycle Duration: 2 – 4 weeks.
  11. 11. Human Fleas (Pulex Irritans) • As the name suggests, human fleas live by sucking blood from a human host, and they’re very similar in appearance to cat fleas and dog fleas • but they can grow up to 4mm long • a female flea can lay up to 400 eggs throughout one year. • Cycle Duration: 4 weeks – 1 year.
  12. 12. Chigoe Fleas (Tunga Penetrans) generally live in soil and sandy areas Appearance They have a brownish color and are very small (1 mm in size), making them the smallest flea species known. Location and Life Cycle • the adult female fleas pierce the epidermis to get human blood. • As long as it gets blood and remains inside the skin, the female flea will expel over 100 eggs just in two weeks. • As eggs fall to the ground, they’ll enter their natural life cycle and develop into adult fleas to look for a host animal. Cycle Duration: Less than 3 weeks.
  13. 13. Stick tight Fleas • also referred to as bird fleas • pierce the skin of the chicken head in a similar fashion to chigoe fleas. • Infesting other animals, such as foxes, squirrels, cats, and dogs. • Cycle Duration: 4 weeks.
  14. 14. Oriental Rat Flea (Xenopsylla Cheopis) • oriental rat fleas are very hard to eliminate. • Like most common pests that infest outdoor properties, these fleas are carried by rats, mice, rabbits, and other rodents. On occasion, oriental rat fleas can bite humans through infested rats,
  15. 15. Rabbit flea, or Silopsyllus cuniculi • could be found in clusters around a wild rabbit’s ear, especially a female rabbit in late pregnancy. Moreover, a female rabbit’s reproductive hormones affect rabbit these fleas’ survival.
  16. 16. Harmful effects of fleas
  17. 17. flea allergy dermatitis Flea allergy dermatitis
  18. 18. Turg Tungiasis
  19. 19. Fleas as plaque vector
  20. 20. Control 1.Treatment of Animals: • Thoroughly bathe pets with soap and water, • then comb them with a flea comb. • Pay careful attention to face and neck regions, and the area in front of the tail. • Soap will act as a gentle insecticide to kill adult fleas. • Talk to your veterinarian about choosing the right flea control product for your pet.
  21. 21. • Limit the amount of time your pet spends outdoors. • Limit contact with wild and stray animals. • Bathe and brush pets regularly. • Check for fleas regularly. • Fleas prefer warmer and more humid months, but if there is an animal to feed on, fleas can survive year-round.

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