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When User Stories Are Not Enough

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W9
Session
10/26/2016 1:30:00 PM
When User Stories Are Not Enough
Presented by:
Tony Higgins
Blueprint Software
Brought to...
Tony Higgins
Blueprint Software
A leading expert on all things software application lifecycle related, Tony Higgins
has am...
10/2/2016
© 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 1
WHEN USER STORIES ARE NOT ENOUGH
Tony Higgins
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When User Stories Are Not Enough

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IT organizations adopting agile development often struggle when applying agile to anything other than small, mid-sized, or non-critical applications. Because IT organizations must deal with the myriad business rules, non-functional requirements, industry regulations, and associated audits, the software requirements and resulting user stories can easily become too complex and interrelated. Tony Higgins says that approaches are surfacing which allow complex IT environments to improve upfront scoping, promote reuse, embrace living documentation, and deal with continuous requirements from a testing perspective. Join Tony as he shares his experiences on how requirements and tests can become one, and user stories exist as executable tests using behavior-driven design. See how all this provides testers with what's needed up front and results in better support for agile testing within IT.

IT organizations adopting agile development often struggle when applying agile to anything other than small, mid-sized, or non-critical applications. Because IT organizations must deal with the myriad business rules, non-functional requirements, industry regulations, and associated audits, the software requirements and resulting user stories can easily become too complex and interrelated. Tony Higgins says that approaches are surfacing which allow complex IT environments to improve upfront scoping, promote reuse, embrace living documentation, and deal with continuous requirements from a testing perspective. Join Tony as he shares his experiences on how requirements and tests can become one, and user stories exist as executable tests using behavior-driven design. See how all this provides testers with what's needed up front and results in better support for agile testing within IT.

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When User Stories Are Not Enough

  1. 1. W9 Session 10/26/2016 1:30:00 PM When User Stories Are Not Enough Presented by: Tony Higgins Blueprint Software Brought to you by: 350 Corporate Way, Suite 400, Orange Park, FL 32073 888-­‐268-­‐8770 ·∙ 904-­‐278-­‐0524 - info@techwell.com - http://www.starcanada.techwell.com/
  2. 2. Tony Higgins Blueprint Software A leading expert on all things software application lifecycle related, Tony Higgins has amassed a broad base of skills and experience in software and technology marketing, development, delivery, and enablement. With experience in both start-up and enterprise-level organizations, Tony offers a comprehensive perspective on both the technical and business requirements that drive successful implementation results.
  3. 3. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 1 WHEN USER STORIES ARE NOT ENOUGH Tony Higgins © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 1© 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 1 • Challenges in IT • Traditional Requirements in IT AGENDA Traditional Requirements in IT • How Agile changed (is changing) IT definition • Emerging Process and Technology © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 2
  4. 4. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 2 DEFINITION CHALLENGES IN IT © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 3 LARGE, COMPLEX, DISTRIBUTED DEFINITION CHALLENGES IN IT Marketing COMMITMENTS Executive HR Finance Legal Line of Business 1..n IT © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 4 M&A Supply Chain
  5. 5. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 3 DEFINITION CHALLENGES IN IT DISTRIBUTED AND OUTSOURCED TEAMS © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 5 DEFINITION CHALLENGES IN IT LEGACY SYSTEMS • Every project has to contend with legacy • IP in the source code, tests, end-users • How to define aspects that they impact? © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 6
  6. 6. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 4 Business Rule Structural Assertion Action Assertion Derivation DEFINITION CHALLENGES IN IT BUSINESS RULES Terms Facts Employee, timesheet, leave, responsibility centre Student worker is a type of employee Condition Authorization An employee’s manager or the individual acting as the employee’s An employee cannot exceed his/her yearly paid leave allowance Calculation Inference Yearly paid leave allowance is the employee type percentage multiplied by the number of working days in a year © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 7 Attributes Relationships Employee is known by a first name, middle initial and last name, or an employee number All employees belong to a responsibility centre Integrity & Validation individual acting as the employee s manager can approve the employee’s leave A manager or the individual acting as manager can approve the leave after it has been accepted by Human Resources Inference An employee is considered a new employee if the employee has not been assigned to a responsibility centre http://www.businessrulesgroup.org DEFINITION CHALLENGES IN IT NONFUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 8 Ian Sommerville. Software Engineering (6th edition). Addison-Wesley
  7. 7. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 5 CHALLENGES IN IT © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 9 Business & Infrastructure Big,Complex Rules Legacy Authorities Regulations, standards, … g Commitments Rules Nonfunctionals g y Definitions needs Validation application © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 10 Application Development Distributed, Outsourced
  8. 8. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 6 TRADITIONAL REQUIREMENTS © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 11 Chronic issues with individual requuirements: • Correct? • Feasible? • Verifiable? • Necessary? • Ambiguous? Chronic issues with sets of requirements: • Complete / Missing? • Conflicting? • Levelled? • Traceable? TRADITIONAL REQUIREMENTS Ambiguity … “Mary had a little lamb” Mary owned a lamb. Had: Held in possession, acquired, accepted, marked or characterized by, held in a position of disadvantage, tricked or fooled, beget, ate, ... Lamb: A young sheep, a gentle person, a pet, a person easily cheated or deceived (esp. in trading securities), ... © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 12 Mary gave birth to a small sheep. Mary ate some mutton. Mary conned a mild-mannered person.
  9. 9. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 7 Ambiguity … TRADITIONAL REQUIREMENTS • Negative Requirements (esp. double, triple negatives) • Boundary Conditions (exact boundaries often missed)y ( ) • Synonyms (like … but not exact) • Pronouns (referential) • Abbreviations (i.e., e.g. Examples are ‘samples’) • Adverbs (subjective/qualitative by nature) • A/B (‘feature/function’ = or? and? Sometimes?) © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 13 When not clear, and there are barriers to clarifying, people will make assumptions and move on … TRADITIONAL REQUIREMENTS Declarative Text Graphical Models Text vs. Graphical Models © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 14
  10. 10. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 8 TRADITIONAL REQUIREMENTS Exhaustive Traceability © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 15 TRADITIONAL REQUIREMENTS Doing the same work over and over … • Issue: Detecting opportunities for reuse • Not obvious when embarking on work • Reusable work not ‘discoverable’ • Issue: Mechanism for reuse • C t i d i t h i © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 16 • Copy-paste is predominant mechanism • Heavy maintenance when things change
  11. 11. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 9 TRADITIONAL REQUIREMENTS Weigers * RUP ** Taxonomy Examples © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 17 * http://www.processimpact.com ** http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/rational/library/content/RationalEdge/jan01/WhatIstheRationalUnifiedProcessJan01.pdf TRADITIONAL REQUIREMENTS Specifications Examples Higher Level Lower Level Exhaustive textual documents Exhaustive textual documents High-level Use Cases High-level Scenarios Detailed Use Cases Detailed Scenarios © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 18 Lower Level Exhaustive textual documents Detailed Scenarios “Agile – The Good, the Hype and the Ugly” Bertrand Meyer “Specification by Example” Gojko Adzic
  12. 12. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 10 PROBLEMS WITH TRADITIONAL REQUIREMENTS The heart of the problem is that traditional approaches produce requirements that become disconnected from real users' needs and experiences; they create complex and complicated solutions to problems that users don't have, fail to deliver solutions to problems that they do have, and sometimes create whole new problems that users didn't have before. © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 19 Kurt Bittner, Principal Analyst, Forrester Research AGILE IS CHANGING IT APPLICATION DELIVERY B i i Big, Complex Problems Nonfunctionals Business commitments • Time-boxed • Incremental • Collaborative • Alignment • Phased • Milestone-driven • Specialization • Siloed Inertia © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 20 Legacy Regulations Rules Distributed / Outsourced
  13. 13. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 11 AGILE IS CHANGING IT APPLICATION DELIVERY © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 21 https://interaktco.com/blog/project/making-waterscrumfall-work/ USER STORIES Format: As a <type of user>, I want <some goal> so that <some reason>. © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 22 Role, Persona “Who” Goal, objective “What” Reason, value “Why”
  14. 14. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 12 USER STORIES Story Title: As a Customer, I want Withdraw Option, So that I can get cash from ATM machine. Given I have a positive balance in my account When I withdraw an amount from my account Then ATM displays success message Given I have a zero balance in my account When I withdraw an amount from my account Then ATM displays error message Given I have <Balance> in my account When I withdraw <Amount> from my account Then ATM displays <Message> © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 23 OBSESSION FOR COMPLETENESS Specifications Examples Higher Level Lower Level Exhaustive textual documents Exhaustive textual documents High-level Use Cases High-level Scenarios Epics Detailed Use Cases Detailed Scenarios © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 24 Lower Level Exhaustive textual documents Detailed Scenarios User Stories
  15. 15. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 13 • Excessive “So That” Story • Overly complex; Multiple parts. • The “Odyssey” Story CLASSIC USER STORY PROBLEMS WHEN IT TRANSITIONS TO AGILE • The “Vague Persona” Story • Classic is “the user”; Being specific helps • The “Odyssey” Story • Beyond and epic; Diffused to point of no value • The Waterfall Story • Contains only design or technical aspects; no business value. • The Rigid Story • Too much detail, precluding different, creative to limit scope • The “System” Story • Doesn’t speak of value delivery • The “Parakeet Value” Story • “So that” is a repeat of “I want”. Missing th l © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 25 Too much detail, precluding different, creative solutions • The “For Whom” Story • Written for the role who doesn’t experience/realize the benefit https://www.agileconnection.com/article/identifying-and-improving-bad-user-stories?page=0%2C2 the value. • The “Technie Value” Story • “So that” is a technical capability, not a value. DEFINITION VS. WORK completion construction concept © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 26 Blueprints Workplan
  16. 16. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 14 USER STORY DICHOTOMY Work I Definition Item Business Stakeholders © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 27 Item IT REQUIREMENTS & TESTS TIGHTLY RELATED requirementrequirementrequirementrequirementi t requirementrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirementtestsrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirement Both describe what the system needs to do and Less Detail More Detail qrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirementRequirements qrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirementtestsrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirementrequirementTests system needs to do and how well it needs to do it © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 28 Code Test Yes NoCandidate Deployed User Validated?
  17. 17. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 15 REQUIREMENTS & TESTS TIGHTLY RELATED ATDD TDD Unit Tests Deliverable Code Automated Acceptance Tests Acceptance Criteria © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 29 customer • User Stories are a better Unit of Definition than a traditional statement • Structured meaning they always provide who, what, why OBSERVATIONS FOR DEFINING IN LARGE-SCALE IT USING AGILE: • They help stay aligned with needs during development • Why User Stories are Not Enough in IT • Quality of the user stories • Poor accounting for nonfunctionals, business rules, regulations, dependencies • Large-scale decomposition, visualizing and analyzing complexity, seeing the ‘big picture’ © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 30 g p , g y g p y, g g p • The need for traceability • Independence of Definition and Workplan
  18. 18. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 16 EMERGING PROCESS & TECHNOLOGY Disciplined Agile Delivery Scaled Agile Framework © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 31 http://www.disciplinedagiledelivery.com/ http://www.scaledagileframework.com/ Regs/Policies Nonfunctional Business Rules Domain Model EMERGING PROCESS & TECHNOLOGY Screen Mockups As a ___ I want to ___ so that ___ Acceptance criteriaBusiness Stakeholder Developer Tester © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 32 Examples Auto- Generate Executable specifications (.feature file) Each row is an ‘example’. Business Rules drive the ’examples’. Concordian SpecFlow Cucumber Fitnesse …….. Processes / Scenarios User Story
  19. 19. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 17 Generate Feature FileFeature File Generate User Stories Test Automation Frameworks Run  Feature files in Verification and  Production environments Test Results  reflected back in  stories WHEN USER STORIES ARE NOT ENOUGH Tony Higgins © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 34© 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 34
  20. 20. 10/2/2016 © 2015 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. | 18 • Ensure you’re accounting nonfunctionals, business rules, regulations • Use traceability prudently – only when ROIUse traceability prudently only when ROI • Leverage graphical modeling – at minimum scenarios and wireframes • Leverage emerging framworks and technologies • Leverage process and technology for definition reuse © 2016 Blueprint Software Systems Inc. All rights reserved. │ 35

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