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NewMedia (2).ppt

  1. 1. Cmns 130 New Media ( Chapter 8 in Text)  Definition & the Information Revolution  Changing economics  Changing regulation  Social Issues  Social Challenges:  The Knowledge Gap  Surveillance and loss of privacy  Sharing and Market “Hacktivism”
  2. 2. Cmns 130 History of New Media  Since 1970s, but especially 1990s, nations concerned with the “ information highway”  Treated the Internet like an 1840s challenge of the telegraph  Concern that to remain competitive in a global trading economy, nations needed to “wire up”  Provide businesses, workers and consumers access to the Internet for education, retail, entertainment  Frontier metaphors often used  Essential for economic transformation away from industrial to service/ information economies: the so-called “innovation agenda”  In Canada, wired telco/cable providers dominated agenda: wireless only now emerging
  3. 3. Cmns 130 Building the Internet  Nations regulate telecommunications internationally: agree on bandwidth of electronic transmission, spacing of satellites, sharing of costs/ interconnection  Also develop technical standards for interconnection ( IP protocols such as MP3)  This is the international standards role of nations, businesses and technical experts in creating a market for technology, and ensuring consumers don’t buy technology which will not work  Business play a bigger and bigger role influencing this shadow world of standards: citizens underrepresented  But: companies still need states to rule on standards
  4. 4. Cmns 130 Definition of New Media  Digital communication  Used in the production, distribution and reception of communication  Involves use of new communication networks: Internet as mass medium
  5. 5. Cmns 130 Information Revolution  Digitization: using computers to store,manipulate and transmit information in form of speech, text, data, and video more cheaply and faster than every before.  Networking: distributed, fast digital networks wired and wireless  Convergence: refers to merging of what were three separate industries: telecommunications, computing, and electronics or broadcasting
  6. 6. Cmns 130 Characteristics of New Media  Convergence of telecommunications and entertainment/broadcast media industries  Wire or wireless communication  Point to point or addressable  Interactive ( two way) ( now multiple conferencing)
  7. 7. Cmns 130 Characteristics Continued  Interpersonal: ie. The terrain of telephony treats telephone calls ( discretionary contact between two consenting persons) as PRIVATE not PUBLIC communication ( where telco distributors are not responsible for content of message)  Multiple: can be Mass/Broadcast which is PUBLIC communication ( broadcasters are responsible for message in exchange for spectrum monopoly: hybrid character)  Now a grey area of semi public/private communication ( can monitor cell phones, amass, monitor and store unprecedented personal communication)
  8. 8. Cmns 130 Digital Communication  Where image text or sound is converted into binary numbers- ones and zeroes ( 0/1)  Digital codes can duplicate, track store or play back complex kinds of content  Strong when combined with ever greater chip capacity in computers, and bundles of glass fibre ( fibre optics) capable of carrying large quantities of information  Current “revolution”: the Digital Video Disk  DVDs: higher resolution, no rewinding,now coming recordable for storage and intending to replace CDS  Also: wireless Internet ( games on the cell phone)
  9. 9. Cmns 130 Implication of Digitization  Drive to animation and special effects  Actors worried about cyber simulators replacing them  Domination of nature: totally simulated worlds?  Question of authenticity of image
  10. 10. Cmns 130 The Role of the Media in the Age of Digital Reproduction  Walter Benjamin, a noted cultural scholar, suggests that the infinite reproducibility of the communication product ( CD, video, internet) due to its low marginal cost of duplication changes the nature of the work of art  But western capitalism has conceived of the realm of ideas and expression as proprietary  Books, stories or photos may be copyrighted so they ‘belong’ to the author and no one may borrow or copy them without permission, attribution or payment  The high risk nature of entertainment ( so called hit rule) calls for imitation or ‘clones’ in popular culture ( riding the next so called fad or wave)  Infinite reproducibility, repackaging,repurposing and presenting information as original  There are many pressures on ‘news’ or ‘entertainment’ manufacture for cutting corners on production: ethical standards to prevent recycling content and presenting it as original are weak– digital watermarking is a weak barrier
  11. 11. Cmns 130 Technical Potentials of the New Media  Costs of production dropping: makes media creation more accessible ( digital camera and access to the net)  Costs of distribution down  Interactive// less hierarchical  Faster…more global
  12. 12. Cmns 130 The Internet  What: a vast network of high speed wires and satellite relays linking computers worldwide  No central hub: thousands of computer nodes ( it is highly distributed)  Uses a type of switching that is hard to trace: designed after WW2 in the RAND corporation to avoid worldwide military attack  Now used for: email, commerce, chat lines,file sharing etc.  Sometimes synonmous with on line world
  13. 13. Cmns 130 Components of the Internet  World Wide Web  Internet Service Providers (AOL Time Warner; Sympatico,Telus, Shaw@Home, AT&T)  Portals ( MSN)  Browsers: Explorer, Netscape  Search Engines and directories ( Google, etc)
  14. 14. Cmns 130 Rate of Diffusion  Each generation of technology ( telegraph, telephone,radio, satellite to cable TV, VCRs) had an increasingly rapid rate of diffusion  Key is where it reaches ‘mass’ or majority ( 60% or more) of consumers.  Internet has done so within one decade: only other technology to do so, but not quite as fast were the VCR and cell phones  Now well over 75% of Canadians have access: that number rises to 100% under 25  The Internet the fastest techology in rate of social adaption
  15. 15. Cmns 130 Impacts  Changed the way we work  Accellerated space time compression: globalization processes  Convergence of computers and distribution allows greater efficiency of control and communication  Much cheaper to sell via Internet than in person ( 1/100th cost per transaction for banks, airlines)  Average person is now estimated to spend 187 hours a year on line ( source: Penguin Media and Information 2003)
  16. 16. Cmns 130 Social Transformations of the Internet  Utopic Visions  Breaks oligopoly power  Allows user control over media selected, compiled, used  Provides new forms of social connection beyond space based  New communities of interest may form ( beyond borders)  Together with other technologies allow development of artificial intelligence/body/intelligence augmentation  A Democratic Realization  Dystopic Visions  Reinforces and extends it ( US controls 65% share of world Internet server hosts)  Keeps user in ‘invisible walled gardens’  Has enabled social predation: largest use for pornography /weapons and illicit drug/and stalking on line  New market intelligence aggregating in unprecedented scope: data shadows and on line surveillance  Few use the Net for political news, mobilization: while alt.news and other organizations are growing: commercial search engines bury them so they are difficult to find…thus an authoritarian politics continued, not a democratic one
  17. 17. Cmns 130 World Wide Web  Between 22 and 800 million sites– less than half indexed  Main search engines:  Google (500 m page estimate)  Alta Vista294)  Yahoo  Iwon,  Northern Light  Fast
  18. 18. Cmns 130 Industry Structure  No one owner of Internet  ISP providers route through a tangled web of other providers  One dominant PC software manufacturer: Microsoft ( Internet Explorer)  Decade long anti trust suit settled out of court  Like AT&T, US Department of Justice concerned about dominant market power, and predatory competition  Until 1990s, little competition between telephones and cable companies: now starting  Late 1990s a wave of Stock Speculation and large scale mergers for dot com sector just before its crash  AOL ( which owns Netscape) tookover Time Warner: sign of new technology surpassing old  Emergence of little known Netscapes of Power
  19. 19. Cmns 130 Ideology of the Internet  Electronic Freedom Foundation  Neo liberal/New Media  Free  Egalitarian  Decentralized  Ad Hoc  Open and peer to peer  Experimental  Autonomous  Anarchic  Media Oligopolies ( Incumbent Media)  Social Responsibility model: but self not government regulation  For Profit  Hierarchical  Systematized and Centralized  Planned  Proprietary  Pragmatic  Accountable  Organized  Reliable  Source: Richard Campbell, Media and Culture, 41.
  20. 20. Cmns 130 The Business Case for On line Start Ups  Sector characterised by rapidly falling costs  Transistorization etc.  Costs for average computer falling 30% per year ( just 0.01% of costs in 1970)  E commerce applications growing, but still less than 5% of retail( slower than supposed)  Personal messaging ( email) very high  Use for Information /Research high: but rise of subscription media ( eg. Newspaper on line, growing only among global travel segment)  Drive to get video downloadable for entertainment (video cell phones banned in washrooms)  Still largest volume of business is porn worldwide
  21. 21. Cmns 130 Globalization of the Internet  US has privatized domain names but retained control over their allocation  This is a sore point for Europe and other powerful economic regions  Internet content providers are estimated to be 98% English, 87% commercial, and dominantly US in origin  Other foreign governments now trying to:  Invest in promotion of infrastructure  Offer government services on line  Promote the development of indigenous services  ( eg. Canada: New Media Content Fund at Telefilm and the Canadian Television Fund)
  22. 22. Cmns 130 Canadian Shape of Convergence  Links telecom and broadcast and news  No computer sector  Does link portals and so on  First impacts of convergence have been to de-localize news and media production  Consolidation of media production  Centralization in a few cities
  23. 23. Cmns 130 Regulation of the Internet  Canada ‘s CRTC decided in 1999 not to regulate the Internet : to leave it to open competition  Australia and Europe are taking very different directions  1996 US Telecommunications Act ( calling for deregulation) is opposed world wide:  It is essentially impossible for one country to act as a content gatekeeper for a world community– Michael Epstein, quoted in Campbell, 57.  Hate and offensive contents are of growing social concern ( especially sexual predation on the Net)  1996 US Communications Decency Act made it a felony to transmit obscene, indecent, or harassing material on the Internet where children might see it: struck down n grounds Internet no different from a book store: not like broadcast ACLU v. Janet Reno, 1998)23  Rise of ‘filters’/ ratings? On line entertainment
  24. 24. Cmns 130 “Hacktivism”  Development of Open Source Code: Linux which is free open source operating system challenges Microsoft  File sharing “coops” of the type of Napster ( trading MP3s) growing  “junk” and growth of viruses  Romantic vision of small content providers surging on the net  Eg. The ‘garage bands’ now can find an audience; the poet self publish, the digital video camcorder allow the production of broadcast quality documentaries for $20,000 versus 1.2 million in the TV industry  A technologically optimistic view: technology as emancipatory, “revolutionary” shattering the powers of entrenched business, cultural authorities  What Winseck in the courseware calls ‘fantasy’
  25. 25. Cmns 130 Intellectual Property Law  Part of Intellectual Property Law  Governs the realm of inventions ( Patent Law) and brands or names ( Trade Mark Law), Trade Secrets ( Commercial Law) and Copyright
  26. 26. Cmns 130 The Canadian Copyright Act  “protection”  For the life of the author plus 50 years  Where the creator has the sole right to perform the creative act, grant permission or a “license” to reproduce it, or copy it.  What is not copyrightable:  Facts– but the compilation of them ( i.e how they are interpreted, is)  Ideas- unless they are manifest in a drawing, paper, or written form ( see Vivian and Maurin, page 365)  Copyright: important in book publishing, sound tracks to films, films, music  All TV and radio based on copyright payment to the performers they use  Increasingly important in international trade, all forms of academic expression
  27. 27. Cmns 130 Canadian Copyright Agencies  CANCOPY: 130 courseware  SOCAN
  28. 28. Cmns 130 US Digital Millenium Copyright Act ( 1998)  Computer users who copy or distribute the digital expression of others without their permission are liable to prosecution  ISP’s may avoid liability if they police and remove offenders  Arose because of spread of MP3 ( a digital compression technology)
  29. 29. Cmns 130 Napster  Before 1999, just 5 companies, court cases on price fixing underway  Developer launches Website wi 2 mi per day  Called P to P networking  Allowed visitors to search for files on other MP3 users’ hard drive and download to burn their own CDs: control over compilation shifts to consumers  ‘freeware’: since Napster’s server did not house or archive the music, the owners thought they were exempt from copyright law and reasoned that prosecution should happen at the individual level: since so dispersed and large ( estimated in the millions a month) it was believed it was not possible to enforce the law
  30. 30. Cmns 130 The Napster Case (see Fleras: 262)  Musical Recording Industry argued Napster infringed copyright– even Metallica!  Damages estimated in the millions  Refused to admit free sampling in fact increased exposure to music: eventual purchase  Lined up a number of musicians to argue that the financial damage was to artists ( not the the multinationals)
  31. 31. Cmns 130 Napster defense  An information source  Not ‘housing’ or copying  Intention to move to a subscription service  Struggled to settle out of court  Agreed to charge a monthly fee  Purchased by Bertelsmann  Lost Case
  32. 32. Cmns 130 Effects of Napster  Now usurped in the market ( Morpheus , Kazaa and others) but trying a comeback  Victor? : to large companies:  BUT– they introduced 2 tier pricing to allow new artists to break in  They reduced price of CDs  More services experimenting with subscription and transaction fees  Major transformation in Music Happening  Victor? To consumers  Forcing a major rethink of copyright  Hierarchy of value: new versus brand artists merit more protection  Should IP be free? It takes a community to raise an artist.
  33. 33. Cmns 130
  34. 34. Cmns 130 The Argument  Fleras: intrusion of commercial interests and government regulation has compromised the regulatory potential of the Internet  McLuhan: the inception of a new media casts into sharper relief the premises, priorities and power relations of existing media ( page 249).
  35. 35. Cmns 130 Crucial Questions  Should those who control the medium also control the message?  Cases: GayTV and Shaw Cable  BCE /CTV and Independent Film  Sympatico(Bell) and Oliver Hate Site  Issue is: will gatekeeper show preference/discriminate against competitors, or evade responsibility?
  36. 36. Cmns 130 The Consumer’s Guide to the New Media  1.Question Everything that is seen, heard or read in new media. ( no FDA)  2. Conclude almost everything is to make money for someone.  Assume everything is a potential threat to your privacy:  Source: John Pavlik “ The Structure of the New Media Industry: in The Media Entertainment Industries, Allyn and Bacon, 2000.
  37. 37. Cmns 130 The Myth of Convergence  Not new  Since 19th century  Telegraph and global news agencies born together ( Winseck)  AT&T ran RCA/Films until State department busted it  In Canada today, we have one of the most consolidated media systems in the world, with a high degree of cross-media ownership
  38. 38. Cmns 130 Risk and Political Economy Game  Inventors of new technologies generate new patents ( ham heaven)  When market become established: patents bought or litigated ( crisis of capital for development)  Incumbent industries either block development or buy out new technology  If new technology threatens core business of old, then predatory behavior, or massive buyout  If new technology too risky, then businesses buy not make new service.  Thus new technologies rarely challenge the incumbents, but over 50 years can see major change in owner players: market efficient at reducing risk and adapting to change
  39. 39. Cmns 130 The Critical Political Economy View: Lost in Cyberspace by Dwayne Winseck  Sees Intellectual Property Disputes as masking the larger problem: oligopoly of power and control  Internet now dominated by big players, not an ideal perfect competition  Convergence not new: 19th and 20th century waves and predicted in Canada since 1971  In Canada:  Rogers allied with Microsoft and AT&T  CanWest: news and TV and radio  Bell Globemedia, CTV,Expressvue, Globe and Mail and Sympatico, largest ISP
  40. 40. Cmns 130 Impacts of Cross Media Ownership  Now vertically and horizontal companies can control all aspects of message  Should those who control the medium also control the message?  Yes: allows economies of scale, more money reinvested in content, better assumption of risk, more choice and convenience for consumers  No: debt means less investment in content, loss of jobs, avoidance of risk, less choice and higher prices for consumers ( Winseck, 326)
  41. 41. Cmns 130 Canadian Argument  Canada does have more choice among services  Highest level of cable, cell, Internet penetration in G-8  Chronic shortage/ market failure in high cost production  Shrinking public investment in non commercial or community media  Indicators News  More news services, fewer private foreign news bureaus, more reliance on wire services; diminishing number of jobs  Indicator Entertainment  Digital channels not allied with big Canadian companies on verge of bankruptcy  Can’t get carried by cable companies, or carried at too high a wholesale rate  Services high level of repetition( estimated more than 66% reruns)  Lag of asymmetry: late on video file swapping, speed of video downloads
  42. 42. Cmns 130 Winseck’s conclusion  In short, there is a resilience in the “old media” that will not yield  Incumbents battle new entrants and either buy them up or forge partnerships, or force them out of business  People still mostly rely on TV for their political information  Internet works to extend and conserve existing market dominance in cyberspace
  43. 43. Cmns 130 Netscapes of Power  Must watch “netscapes of power”: rise of gatekeepers and “walled gardens”  Trend to bundling services for convenience  Styling information services for personal preferences– and not challenging these ( narrower and narrower homogenous taste communities)  Technologies of discrimination: owner preference in placing subsidiaries at front of retail shelf and burying competitive service providers
  44. 44. Cmns 130 Fleras: Rhetoric and Reality ( p.269)
  45. 45. Cmns 130 Rhetoric & Reality  Subversive/Freewheel  Egalitarian  Anarchic Power to the People  Globalizing  Free  Empowering and Enlightening  Diversity  Corporatized/Control  Ehaves/Ehavenots  Authoritarian power to the dollar  Americanizing  Marketing and Advertising  Make Money  Conformity
  46. 46. Cmns 130 Social Issues: Surveillance  Network architecture is now “smart”  Before, telcos did not know the content of messages  Now, they do. Bits are monitored, stored in charting flow and effective service  Nortel and Cisco can establish network architectures which:  Identify each traffic type-Web, email, voice, video…and isolate the type of application even down to specific brands, by the interface used, by the user typeand individual user identification or by the site address (winseck:331)
  47. 47. Cmns 130 Surveillance 2  Rise of “cookies” ( spies on content, personal information and preferences jeapordizing privacy)  Technological potential of building a complete ‘data shadow’ of the consumer, to better market to them  Emerging self regulation of services  Eg restrictive private contracts for use, limiting video downloads, for example, in absence of regulation permitting it.  Or: @Home…wide open powers to remove offensive matter which is too prone to authoritarian censorship  Still major fights: first over spam ( reaccessing your email accounts, and next data shadowing/market surveillance)
  48. 48. Cmns 130 The Walled Garden  AOL Time Warner term  Disney too  Keep users within designated zones for as long as possible ( Winseck, 335)  How?  By creation of content and service menus, organization of hyperlinks, bias of search engings, network architecture, promotion, content synergies,elimination of bypasses  Creation of walled gardens: safe, predictable, branded  Eg: Disney assumes role of immigration officer in AOL’s world: if people enter their site, and then leave AOL, contract can be cancelled ( Winseck, 336)
  49. 49. Cmns 130 The Information Gap  Rest of the World is less than one-tenth on the way to cyberspace  Vast continents ( Africa) left out of “global information highway”  Rich consumers and those educated elites the first to embrace computers and the Internet  Poor, uneducated slow: many countries do not have policies to help individuals(eg. Computers in the home), although do help schools
  50. 50. Cmns 130 The Knowledge Gap  Information and Knowledge gap is widening: despite mass penetration of the Internet in Canada, still high levels of illiteracy, ( under 25%) relatively low levels of university education ( several points below Europe), and growing child poverty: estimates place one in four to one in three kids below poverty level  Structurally higher levels of unemployment, precarious jobs  Gendered landscape of technological control