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4. barriers to communication

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7 cs of communication
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4. barriers to communication

  1. 1. Assignment Choose any one of the following questions: 1) Explain the term conflict and examine how conflict relates to organizational communication. (25) 2) With reference to any two communication models, discuss the view that individual models do not fully capture the complexity of human nature. (25) 3) Critically discuss any two categories of non-verbal communication and demonstrate how non-verbal communication can function in relation to verbal communication. (25)
  2. 2. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
  3. 3.  Problems with any one of the components of the communication process can become a barrier to communication.  These barriers suggest opportunities for improving communication.
  4. 4.  Barriers to communication may be divided into two parts: • Those which are found within the sender and the recipient • Those which result from outside influences in the communication process
  5. 5. Barriers caused by sender and recipient  When thinking of these remember that they are only very rarely created deliberately by either party.  Mostly, they are a result of incomplete understanding of the information, the situation, or the vocabulary and attitude of the other party.
  6. 6. Distortion  Occurs either at the encoding or decoding stage in the communication process.  It occurs when language is put in a way that leads to incorrect or partial understanding of a message by the recipient.  The message to be sent out needs to be clear.
  7. 7. Contrast these two messages:  "Please be here about 7:00 tomorrow morning."  "Please be here at 7:00 tomorrow morning."  The one word difference makes the first message muddled and the second message clear.
  8. 8.  The problem may be semantics, e.g., note this muddled newspaper ad:  "Dog for sale. Will eat anything. Especially likes children. Call 888-3599 for more information."
  9. 9. Inadequate communication skills Communication skills are the ability to send or receive messages clearly and effectively with no possibility of misunderstanding. They include the ability to:  Express ideas clearly in writing  Read not only words on the page, but also interpret signs and symbols of all kinds, e.g. road signs or body language If one or the other parties involved fails to possess the necessary communication skills, messages are incorrectly encoded or decoded
  10. 10. Lack of listening ability  The ability to listen is an essential part of the communication process. Lack of effective listening skills may have potentially disastrous results.  Unless the sender can listen, he/she will be unable to discover the real response of the recipient.  Unless the recipient can listen, he/she will be unable to grasp the true significance of the message.
  11. 11. Attitudes and feelings  Our communication is governed by our attitudes and feelings.  These show themselves in the structuring of messages and in our reaction to messages received.  We all have certain attitudes to daily life produced by our education, environment and general experience.
  12. 12. Attitudes and feelings  If they are extreme, they are called prejudices.  They can distort our awareness of messages in communications and thus hamper our communication process
  13. 13. Differences in background  All communication depends on background, or the stored codes. ideas, information and attitudes that both the sender and the receiver have.  The closer the backgrounds of the sender and receiver, the easier they will find it to communicate.
  14. 14. Opinions  Opinions may be based on facts and inferences, or misinformation and prejudices.
  15. 15. Beliefs  Beliefs are views which usually are not susceptible to test by experiment, or logical argument, e.g. political and religious dogma.  In communication, beliefs are important because large groups of sincere people will act consistently in conformity with their beliefs.
  16. 16. Personal characteristics  We are, to a great extent, shaped by our previous history.  However, within any culture, considerable personal differences exist. These differences may pertain to language, age, sex, education, status or class.  Thus in both coding and decoding, it is important to evaluate the effect of these cultural and personal differences on the communication.
  17. 17. Non-verbal behaviour  Non-verbal behaviour can change a message substantially.  E.g. “good morning” with a smile “good morning with a frown send different messages.  Body language may unintentionally relay a different message than spoken language.  Sensitivity to such hidden or unconscious messages are an advantage in communication.
  18. 18. Communication chain  When the message is sent via a number of parties verbally, e.g. a to b to c to d Activity  Pass a message orally to 6 different people through whispering. First and last person in each chain to write down the message, first person as he encoded it and last person as he decoded it.
  19. 19. Overcoming the barriers  Many of the most important barriers to communicating may be overcome by following a few simple rules:
  20. 20. Develop personal communication skills This is one of the simplest ways in which communication may be improved. Communication skills cover the ability to:  write clear language so that meaning is expressed directly and without ambiguity  talk to a wide range of people in formal and informal settings  read for the correct understanding of information  listen and understand
  21. 21. LISTEN ACTIVELY
  22. 22. Active listeners:  Listen politely  Ask questions politely  Acknowledges speaker’s point of view  Does not change or add anything to what has been said
  23. 23. Know when to communicate  Judging the right moment to make a communication is important.  Choosing the right moment can help. E.g. Tackling your employer in the corridor when you want to ask him a favour is probably not a good idea.  Choosing the right moment, both in terms of psychological rightness and good timing, is thus a very important way of avoiding barriers of attitude in the recipient.
  24. 24. Know with whom to communicate  Communication with the wrong person can create all sorts of misunderstandings.  In business, communicating with the wrong person will give the impression of inefficiency, which would not be good for future communications.
  25. 25. Choose the medium carefully  Always think carefully about the best kind of communication medium for a particular situation and recipient.  e.g. in business, written communication is essential but in some cases it would be too formal and restricting.
  26. 26. Match the expression to the recipient  The most important rule for communicating.  Distortion may occur at encoding when sufficient care is not taken over the vocabulary and background of the recipient by the sender.  Consideration must also be given of your relationship with the recipient.
  27. 27. Conclusion  Following these rules will not guarantee perfect communication on every occasion.  There will be times when internal ‘distortion’ and external ‘noise’ will still erect barriers.  However, striving to follow these rules on all occasions makes communication far more effective as you learn to consider the other person’s point of view and assess the real purpose of what you are trying to achieve.

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