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  1. 1. HAWASSA UNIVERSITY School of Law and Governance Department of Governance Course code-GaDs 525 Developing Proposal Title: Factors Affecting Females Participation In Higher Institutions. In Case of Hawassa University -Department of Governance and Development Studies Submittet To: Dr.Elias A.
  2. 2. 1.Introduction • One area of concern what we have observed in this year about is, the ratio of females to male students in our class. • The number of female students in our class is very few in number when we compare with male students. • So, this great difference initiate us to find out the reason behind the difference.
  3. 3.  Education is a tool to enable citizens to make all rounded participation in development process.  The participation of females in socio-economic programs especially depends on their educational background. Educating girls and women is critical to achieve the benefits as well as the improvement in the areas of health, fertility and nutrition.  Thus, females must be treated equally with males to attain educational access, which is necessary to increase their participation in different development programs.
  4. 4. International treaties, conventions, laws & policies set a legal commitment on the right of education and gender equality. However, gross and net enrollment differences in schooling of females prevail. Females remain under represented at all levels of education. Pro.Habtamu Wendimu, Shurke Kassa (2008).
  5. 5. The main objective of our study will be to ensure equal participation of females with males in Higher Education in case of Hawassa University; Department of Governance and Development studies.
  6. 6. This study also specifically aimed at to identify the factors that affect female’s participation at proposed study and to suggest possible strategies that can be used to enhance women’s participation at post graduate programs by addressing questions like;  What is importance of female education? What are the factors that affecting females participation at post graduate programs?  How to balance gender parity at post graduate program?
  7. 7. 2.Backgroun of the Study Hawassa University (HU) was established at Hawassa town in April 2000.Since 1976 the different colleges of HU had been operational starting with the college of Agriculture.The University has been formed by merging three colleges in Southern Ethiopia: Hawassa College of Agriculture (ACA), Wondogenet College of Forestry and Dilla College of Teacher Education and Health Sciences. (www.hu.edu.et)
  8. 8.  Even if Hawassa University is a comprehensive university engaged in the provision of all-round education, research, training, & community service through its diversified areas of academic units, there are constraints in balancing the number of females and males students at post graduate programs in general and department of Governance and Development studies in particular.  In this department the Gender Parity Index of 2015/16 entrant is about 7.69. Which means the number of females is very less than the number of male in the same class.
  9. 9. 3.Statement of Problem • The stereotyping continues to prevail in technical and professional fields. Even where women have open access to all professions, they overwhelmingly opt for traditionally female occupations. • The gap separating men and women in the job market remains wide in many countries, whether in the North or the South. • With marginal variables between most countries, women have a lower employment rate, are unemployed longer, are paid less and have less secure jobs.
  10. 10. • still discrimination is very much in evidence and education and training policies specially targeting young women are needed to restore a balance. • Although young women are increasingly choosing typically male professions, they remain over- represented in traditionally female jobs, such as secretaries, nurses, and underrepresented in jobs with responsibility and the professions. (Geeta Sharma, 2002)
  11. 11. Religious factors, although in general acting indirectly in favor of male. The fact that most religious leaders are male makes for a powerful image in favor male and it would be a very helpful if religious leaders of all faiths and denominations may strongly support female participation.( Colin Brock & Nadine Cammish, 1997)
  12. 12. • Educational factor itself can be a deterrent to female participation in difficulties of accessibility, lack of resources and low teacher quality and morale are widespread. • Parents in some countries, very reluctant indeed to send daughters to school if there is no female teacher, and the facilities for the accommodation and security of such teachers are usually absent or inadequate. (Colin Brock & Nadine Cammish, 1997)
  13. 13. • This study will address the above and relating gaps prevailing in the participation of females in post graduate programs by recommending possible solutions for policy makers and areas of problems. • This research will has paramount importance to help policy makers in the Ministry of Education as an input to identify the gaps in the Education policy so that they could give better attention to emerging issues in new carriculum.
  14. 14. • In addition, it will help the private educational centre will engage in the field of educational quality and develop the relation between private and public sector. • This study enable and initiate researchers to further study by identifying gaps and factors affecting female participation in education at higher institutions. Finally, the study will also contribute to enrich literatures in the field.
  15. 15. Key Terminologies Sex -describes the biological differences between men and women, which are universal and determined at birth. (East Asia and Pacific Regional UNGEI) Gender-It refers to expectations held about the characteristics, attitudes and likely behaviors of both women and men. These roles and expectations are learned and predetermined by society. (Ibid, p 13)
  16. 16. Gender parity- deals with equality in numbers or proportions of women and men on a specific attribute. (Ibid, p 13) Gender analysis-It explores the differences between the two sex and enable policies, programs and projects so as to identify and meet the different needs of men and women.
  17. 17. Gender Parity Index- It is one of the development indicator or measures of development. It is a socioeconomic index usually designed to measure the relative access to education of males and females. (Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org./wiki/Gender- parity-index time 9:30 date Dec.2/2015)
  18. 18. Education is the process of facilitating learning, knowledge, skill, values, beliefs, and habits of a group of people are transferred to other people,through,storytelling,discussion,teaching ,training,orresearch. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education)
  19. 19. Theoretical frame works Theoretical Frame work of this study will be guided by the feminist theory. The theory recognizes the pervasive influence of gender divisions on social life and tries to understand women’s oppression and the structures in society that espouse this oppression and subordination. (Nzomo,1995)
  20. 20. Feminists advance three broad perspectives in trying to explain the absence of women from senior management in the public and private sector. The first perspective is personal factors in which the paucity of women in management positions is attributed to the psychosocial attributes, including personalitycharacteristics,attitudes and behavioral skills of women themselves.(Singh and Shahabudin 2000).
  21. 21. The institutional factors paradigm advances the view that it is the disadvantageous position of women in the organizational structure (few numbers, little power, limited access to resources) which shapes and defines the behavior and positions of women. The underlying premise of this perspective is that men and women are equally capable of and committed to assuming positions of leadership. (Bond 1996)
  22. 22. The cultural factors lead to stereotypical views about women’s abilities within the cultural context. The view that top management positions are only suitable for men relegates women to secondary roles. (Smulders 1998,50)
  23. 23. Research Design Methodology We will use both qualitative and quantitative approach because in qualitative method we will use nominal data to understand attitude of the community towards female and in quantitative method we will use numerical data to know the ratio of female to male in participation.
  24. 24. Method of Data Collection • In preparing these researches both secondary and primary data will be used. • Secondary source will be gathered through relevant documents, internet, published and unpublished books, journals, news papers.
  25. 25. Primary source primary data will be gathered from personal observation, informal interview, in-depth interview and focus group discussion. Observation Observation will be made in different ways like in class session. To facilitate the gathered information the researcher will use photo camera and tape recorder. This method is very crucial method because to know the concrete situation what it is going.
  26. 26. Observation is a tangible evidence to know and compare information obtained through interview and others. There is an expected to identify and observe as there is low status for female in the study area. Interview • Informal interview will be conducted to understand general concept of the factor of gender inequality in the study area. It is truly important to identify key informants for in-depth interview and focus group discussion.
  27. 27. Sampling Techniques Sampling will be used because there are different members of the people on how they understand and consider the concept of gender equality as well as factors of gender inequality in-depth interview will be used those are believed to be more understanding. Based on the objective of the study, informants will be selected through purposive sampling because we need to obtain available information from different respondents.
  28. 28. Dissemination The final result of this study will bring solutions for the great gap between male and female students at tertiary education and identify the main factors that affect female participation. Based on our final recommendation there May be rearrangements will be taken in the policy of education.
  29. 29. Time Table
  30. 30. Cost break down
  31. 31. References • 1.Bond, S. (1996). Academic Leadership. Unpublished Trainers Module Prepared for the Common Wealth Secretariat, London. • 2.Colin Brock & Nadine Cammish(1997). Factors Affecting Female Participation in Education in Seven Developing Countries, Universities of Oxford and Hull. • 3.East Asia and Pacific Regional UNGEI. Confronting Factors that Affect Gender Equality in Education, Websites: www.ungei.org and www.unicef.org/eapro.(Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org./wiki/Gender-parity-index time 9:30 , date Dec.2/2015)
  32. 32. • 4.Geeta Sharma(Ed) (2002).Learning Channel.org, OneWorld South Asia 17, Panchsheel Commercial Centre, http://www.oneworld.net. • 5.Nzomo, M. (1995). Women in top management in Kenya. Nairobi, African Association for Public Administration and Management. • 6.Pro.Habtamu Wndim, Shurke Kassa (2008). Factors Affecting Females’ Participation in Education: the case of Tocha Woreda in SNNPR, website, etd.aau.edu.et/handle/123456789/1824
  33. 33. 7.Shahabudin, S.H. and Singh, J.K. (2000). Academic leadership strategies and skills for Women in higher education in Shahabudin. in Asian women leaders in higher education: management challenges for the new millennium. S. H. and Gill, K.S. UNESCO Malaysia and University Kebangsaan, Malaysia. pp. 69-93.
  34. 34. 8.Singh,J.K.(2002).Women and Higher Education Management in the Commonwealth:An Overview. Paper presented at the Regional Training of Trainers Workshop on Women and Higher Education Management, held at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa. Nairobi, 16-22 June.
  35. 35. • 9.Smulders, A. E. A.(1998). Creating space for women: Gender linked factors in managing staff in higher education institutions. UNESCO, Paris International Institute of Education. • 10.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education, Retrieved from November 15, 2015. • 11.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education#Te rtiary_.28higher.29, Retrieved from November 15,2015.
  36. 36. THE END! THANK YOU!