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Aviatsionnij anglijskij dlja menadzerov (2004).pdf

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ТРАНСПОРТА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬН...
В-75
Воронянская Е.Л. Авиационный английский для менеджеров: Учеб. посо-
бие по изучению дисциплины «Авиационный английски...
Section I.
HISTORY OF AVIATION
Phonetics
Ex. 1. Read these words and practise saying them:
[J] dream, steam, peace, sea, r...
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Aviatsionnij anglijskij dlja menadzerov (2004).pdf

  1. 1. МИНИСТЕРСТВО ТРАНСПОРТА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ УЛЬЯНОВСКОЕ ВЫСШЕЕ АВИАЦИОННОЕ УЧИЛИЩЕ ГРАЖДАНСКОЙ АВИАЦИИ (ИНСТИТУТ) Е.Л. Воронянская АВИАЦИОННЫЙ АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ДЛЯ МЕНЕДЖЕРОВ Учебное пособие Ульяновск 2004 ББК Ш 143.21-09 я7
  2. 2. В-75 Воронянская Е.Л. Авиационный английский для менеджеров: Учеб. посо- бие по изучению дисциплины «Авиационный английский язык» для курсантов высших училищ и студентов заочной формы обучения / Е.Л. Воронянская. – Ульяновск: УВАУ ГА, 2004. – 86 с. Содержит аутентичные авиационно окрашенные тексты и упражнения для формирования, развития и закрепления лексическо-грамматических навыков авиационного английского языка. Разработано в соответствии с государственным общеобразовательным стан- дартом Российской Федерации и программой обучения студентов высших и средних летных училищ. Предназначено для проведения практических занятий с курсантами и сту- дентами заочной формы обучения специализации 061140 – Менеджмент на воздушном транспорте по дисциплине «Авиационный английский язык». Печатается по решению Редсовета училища. CONTENTS 1. History of aviation ………………………………………………………..……..3 2. Russian civil aviation in a free market economy ………………………..……..22 3. Aeroflot – Russian Airlines ………………………….……………………….. 40 4. Airlines and the marketing mix ………………………………………...…….. 56 5. Airports………………………..……..………………………..……...……......72 Bibliography ............................................................................…………… .……..85 © Е.Л. Воронянская, 2004 © Ульяновск, УВАУ ГА, 2004
  3. 3. Section I. HISTORY OF AVIATION Phonetics Ex. 1. Read these words and practise saying them: [J] dream, steam, peace, sea, reason, feature, mean, deal, heat [e] feather, death, head, steady, ready, heavy, leather, weather, health, measure [eI] great, break, steak [Iq] fear, appear, clear, hear, near, real, rear, dear, tear [eq] pear, bear, swear, wear, tear [H] rooster, balloon, soon, food, true, prove, rule, truth, fruit [u] pull, full, could, would, should [m] bomb, climb, limb, numb, dumb, lamb [g] get, ground, ground, glider, good, great, August, growth, segment [G] mythology, passenger, German, rigid, engine, undercarriage, generation, geography, large, jet, journey, injured [Z] fuselage, cabotage, sabotage, mirage, massage, garage. Ex. 2. Categorize the verbs into three groups according to the sound of their endings. Practise reading. Note: There are three different ways of pronouncing the endings of regular verbs in the Past Simple: [t], [d], [id]. Dreamed, melted, journeyed, attempted, wished, designed, travelled, contained, started, respected, proved, crashed, injured, performed, soloed, replaced, intro- duced, operated, outnumbered, developed, considered, increased, improved, ef- fected, shattered, caused, pulled, appeared, sailed, passed, helped, evaluated, as- sessed, honed, changed, connected. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 3 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  4. 4. Ex. 3. Practise reading international words and expressions. Translate them into Russian. Mythology, balloon, start, passenger, pioneer, propeller, design, military, metal, bomber, person, aeroplane, solo, monoplane, automatic pilot, company, type, service, civil aviation, mass, popular, astronaut, cosmonaut, economical, globe, to navigate, in- dustry, aspect, segment of transportation system, millions of dollars, total, distance, con- cept of geography, social traditions, cultural structures, economic principles, business practices, horizon, literature, appetite, list of careers. Vocabulary Ex. 4**. Study new words (Glossary 1). accept vt acceptable adj [qk'sept] [qk'septqbl] принимать; приемлемый, подходящий advance nc, nu in advance advance vi [qd'vRns] [qd'vRns] прогресс, успех; заранее, заблаговременно; делать успехи, развиваться airborne adj ['eqbLn] перевозимый по воздуху; оторвавшийся от земли; находящийся в воздухе aircraft nc (pl - ) ['eqkrRft] летательный аппарат, самолет airline nc airliner nc ['eqlaIn] ['eqlaInq] транспортная авиакомпания; транспортный самолет, авиалайнер airship nc ['eqSIp] дирижабль aloft adj (pred), adv [q'lPft] ав. в полете, в воздухе appear vi [q'pIq(r)] следовать, быть очевидным assess vt [q'ses] перен. оценить assessment nc, nu [q'sesmqnt] оценка attempt vt; nc [q'tempt] пытаться, попытка Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 4 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  5. 5. beneficial adj ["benI'fISl] выгодный business nc ['bIznIs] коммерческое предприятие cause vt. nc, nu [kLz] быть причиной; причина climb vt, vi, nc [klaIm] ав. набирать высоту; набор contain vt [kqn'teIn] содержать destination nc ["destI'neISn] пункт назначения efficient adj [I'fISnt] эффективный, действенный equip vt equip sb/sth (with/for sth) equipment nu [I'kwIp] [I'kwIpment] оборудовать, оснащать; оборудовать что-л. чем-л.; оборудование evaluate vt evaluation nc, nu [I'vxljueIt] [I"vxlju'eISn] определить важность, значение; оценка, определение (значения) evident adj ['evIdqnt] очевидный, ясный facilities nc usually pl [fq'sIlqtI] средства, оборудование fail vt, vi failure nc, nu [feIl] ['feIljq] тех. отказывать отказ, неисправность framework nc ['freImwWk] конструкция glider nc ['glaIdq] планер head for vt, vi [hed] направляться, держать курс improve vt, vi improvement nc, nu [Im'prHv] [Im'prHvmqnt] улучшать, совершенствовать; улучшение increase vt, vi increase nc, nu [In'krJs] ['InkrJs] увеличивать; увеличение, возрастание, рост injure vt ['InGq] ранить, повредить; injury nu, nc ['InGqrI] ущерб, рана, ушиб involve vt (not used in the continuous tenses) [In'vPlv] включать в себя; вовлекать; осложнять; погружаться (во что-л.); involve sb in sth to be involved in sth вовлекать кого-л. во что-л.; быть занятым, увлеченным чем-л.; Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 5 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  6. 6. involvement nc, nu [In'vPlvmqnt] увлеченность, занятость jet adj jet engine/plane /propulsion [Get] реактивный; реактивный двигатель/самолет/тяга load vt, vi; nc [lqud] грузить, груз, загрузка mercy nu be at the mercy of ['mWsI] милосердие, сострадание; быть во власти performance nc [pq'fLmqns] ав. летно-технические характеристики practicable adj ['prxktIkqbl] осуществимый, реальный profoundly adv [prq'faundlI] глубоко, серьезно propulsion nu [prq'pAlSn] движение вперед; тяга replace vt replacement nu [rI'pleIs] [rI'pleIsmqnt] заменять; замена retract vt, vi [rI'trxkt] ав. убирать (шасси) revenue nu or pl ['revqnjH] доход rigid adj ['rIGId] жесткий shatter vt, vi ['Sxtq] разрушать steam-driven adj ['stJm"drIvn] тех. паровой, с паровым двигателем steering nu ['stIqrIN] управляемость undercarriage nc ['AndqkxrIG] ав. шасси vehicle nc flying/ground vehicle ['vJIkl] транспортное средство; воздушное/наземное транспортное средство Ex. 5. Read and translate word combinations. To dream of flying like the birds, the first successful flying vehicle, a lighter-than- air craft, a hot-air balloon, to send aloft, to be at the mercy of the winds, steam-driven propellers for steering and propulsion, rigid metal framework, to be fatally injured, to solo across the Atlantic, to have only a single 220 horsepower engine, all-metal single-wing airliner, the first twin-engine monoplane, to be capable of climbing with Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 6 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  7. 7. a full load, after failure of one engine in flight, a low-wing monoplane, to increase the size and the speed, to improve the performance of passenger aeroplanes, to get more economical, environmentally acceptable and socially beneficial, to shatter concept of the relationship between time and distance. Reading Text. THE HISTORY OF AVIATION From earliest of times it appears that man dreamed of flying like the birds, and there are many stories of his attempts. One of the oldest stories from mythology tells of Icarus flying so high that the Sun melted the wax that held together his feathered wings, causing him to fall to his death. Man’s first successful flying vehicle was a lighter-than-air craft, the hot-air bal- loon. It got its start when the Montgolfier brothers sent aloft the world’s first airborne passengers – a sheep, a rooster and a duck. Man himself left the ground for the first time when Pilatre de Rozier journeyed 24 meters aloft in a Montgolfier balloon dur- ing a four-and-a-half minute flight in 1783. Man at last was off the ground. However, it soon became evident that the balloon was at the mercy of the winds. If the balloonist could find an altitude at which the wind was travelling in the direction he wished to go, fine. If not, he might find him- self heading for England when his destination was the south of France. In 1837 the great English pioneer of flight, Sir George Cayley, designed an effi- cient airship. It contained steam-driven propellers for steering and propulsion. The Germans, however, were the first to discover a use for this first satisfactory airship. In 1874 Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin started to design military aircraft. He used a ri- gid metal framework to build a true flying ship and the Zeppelin airships were the most highly respected aircraft in the air, as bombers in war and as airliners in peace. A 19th century German, Otto Lilienthal, was the person who proved that human flight in heavier-than-air craft was practicable. Before his glider crashed and fatally injured him in 1896, he had made more than 2,000 flights. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 7 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  8. 8. Orville and Wilbur Wright performed the first controlled flights in December 1903. Their four flights that month, totaling 97 seconds of air time, made their «Flyer» the most famous aeroplane in history. The first four-engine aeroplane to fly was the highly successful «Russian Knight» biplane designed, built and flown by Igor Sikorsky in 1913. In 1927 Charles Lindberg became a world hero when he soloed across the Atlan- tic. The New York to Paris flight was made in the monoplane «Spirit of St. Louis», which had only a single 220 horsepower engine. The Boeing 247, built in 1933, was the first of the modern, all-metal, single-wing airliners. It could carry ten passengers and could cross the United States in less than twenty hours. The aeroplane had de-icing equipment, an automatic pilot, a retractable undercarriage, and it was the first twin-engine monoplane capable of climbing with a full load after failure of one engine in flight. Even though the Boeing 247 was good, it was soon replaced by the new low-wing monoplane airliner introduced by the Douglas Company. The performance of the DC-3 aeroplanes was so extraordinary that 30 years after its first flight in 1935, the DC-3s still outnumbered any other type of aircraft in world-wide service. The development of jet propulsion is considered to be the greatest advance in avi- ation since the first flight of the Wright brothers. Frank Whittle of Britain operated his turbojet engine with success on April 12, 1937, but it was not until August 27, 1939, that the world’s first jet plane, built by the Germans, was flown. The Russian Tupolev TU-104 was in wide use during the latter months of 1958, and America’s Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 aeroplanes soon were transporting pas- sengers across the Atlantic. Mass travel became so popular that aircraft designers increased the size and the speed and improved the performance of passenger aeroplanes. Perhaps one day pas- senger will fly from one point to another at speeds which are presently known only to the astronauts and cosmonauts. Every new generation of aircraft is getting more eco- nomical, environmentally acceptable and socially beneficial. The Aviation Age dawned at 10.35 on December 17, 1903 near Kitty Hawk, NC when Orville Wright, manning the 1903 «Flyer», left the ground for a self-propelled flight of 120 feet in 12 seconds. Within a century, a man would navigate the globe by Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 8 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  9. 9. air, walk on the moon and send probes to distant Mars. Aviation has come a long way since its birth and now represents a very important industry. It is an industry touching every aspect of our lives, of our growth and our future. Civil aviation has developed to the point where it is now the largest and, in many ways, the most important seg- ment of the whole transportation system, representing thousands of jobs, millions of dollars in revenues, the growth of thousands of cities, businesses, services and manu- facturing facilities throughout the world. No other achievement of last century has ef- fected the total fabric of the lives of people as profoundly as aviation. It has shattered man’s concept of the relationship between time and distance. In the process, it has caused twentieth-century man not only to reassess his concept of geography, but also to re-evaluate his social traditions, his cultural structures, his economic principles and his business practices. Aviation has literally pulled the world closer together. The horizons which appeared so dark and fearsome to the seamen who sailed under Columbus are passed over in a matter of minutes in a modern aircraft. The aircraft has become such a part of the world scene that it would be unthinkable to wake up and find it gone. We set standards for time and distance with it. It has helped to shape our manners of speech and our dress and our tastes in food, art and literature. It has honed razor-sharp our appetite for travel. It has changed us as no other genera- tions have been changed before. Millions of people have connected their lives with the exciting world of civil avia- tion. There is an almost endless list of careers directly associated with civil aviation, the list growing longer day by day. And besides the full-time civil aviation careers, there are literally thousands of opportunities to involve aviation in one’s life. Ex. 6. Comprehension check. 1. Who was the first mythological hero to leave the ground? 2. Who designed the first hot-air-balloon? 3. Why did this craft prove to unpracticable? 4. When was the first efficient airship designed? 5. Where did it get propulsion from? 6. What event did the aviation community celebrate in December 2003? Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 9 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  10. 10. 7. What made Charles Lindberg a world hero? 8. What type of aircraft was the Boeing 247? 9. Which invention is considered to be the greatest advance in aviation? 10. What is the role aviation in modern life? Vocabulary practice Ex. 7. Find in the text a word or a phrase which has a similar meaning to each of the following. a) летательный аппарат легче воздуха, первые воздушные пассажиры, быть во власти ветров, приводимые в действие паром пропеллеры, для управления и соз- дания тяги, жесткая металлическая конструкция, выполнить первый управляе- мый полет, самолет цельнометаллической конструкции, выпускающиеся шасси, моноплан с низким расположением крыла, находить широкое применение, раз- рушить представление человека о взаимосвязи времени и пространства; b) to appear, a try, fortunate, something with wheels, to begin, a cock, clear, height, to move towards, operative, to include, stiff, highly regarded, possible, dam- aged, to do something alone, to go higher, a breakdown, remarkable, (to cause some- thing) to become greater, (to cause a person or a thing) to become better, a person who travels in a spacecraft, useful, to influence, to destroy, terrible. Ex. 8. Fill in the gaps using the words given below. monoplane biplane triplane quadruplane high-wing low-wing mid-wing single-engined twin-engined Depending on the number and position of main planes there is the … which has only one wing or, as it is sometimes considered preferable to say, one pair of wings. In some of them the wing is set at the top of the body, in others – at the bottom and in others it occupies an intermediate position. They are referred to respectively as … , … and … machines. Then there is the … which has two pairs of wings, one set above the other. There are also aeroplanes which have more than two planes – the … and the … . Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 10 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  11. 11. The aircraft equipped with one engine are … , with two engines - … . Ex. 9. Form noun + noun structures. Think of the best translation. e.g. a flight + 4,5 min = a four-and-a-half minute flight an aeroplane + 4 engines = a four-engine aeroplane Note: Noun + noun structures are used in measurements, with a number before the first noun which is normally singular in form. a journey + 2days a flight + 3 and a half hours a bottle + 5 litres a note + 10 pounds a walk + 3 miles a goose + 3 kilos a tent + 2 persons a holiday + 4 weeks a lesson + 2 hours a fence + 2 metres a wall + 2 metres a building + 7 storeys a course + 6 days a delay + 1 hour and a half Ex. 10. Translate these noun + noun structures into English. Полуторачасовой полет, трехдневное путешествие, двенадцатиэтажное здание, сторублевая купюра, двухнедельный отпуск, пятиминутный перерыв, шестичасовое занятие, десятидневный курс, двухлитровая бутыль, трехколес- ный велосипед, пятнадцатиминутная прогулка, сорокапятиминутный урок. Ex. 11*. Change the verbs into nouns. Note: A suffix is a combination of letters added at the end of a word, or word root. Its function is either to form a new word or to show the function of the word. There are many ways of forming nouns from verbs in English, with the suffixes: -sion, -tion, -ety, -ery, -ance, -ence, -ment, -al, -er, -or, etc. e.g. to arrive – arrival However, there are many less common suffixes: e.g. to choose – choice Appear, fly, discover, regulate, refer, prove, compete, establish, fail, replace, in- troduce, perform, develop, operate, transport, know, secure, represent, serve, achieve, Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 11 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  12. 12. certify, manage, involve, evaluate, assess, accept, improve, carry, retract, equip, in- jure, contain. Ex. 12*. Fill in the chart to find the other parts of speech. Use your dictionary where necessary. Check the pronunciation. Noun Verb Adjective 1. acceptance accept acceptable 2. … injure … 3. improvement … … 4. … succeed … 5. assessment … … 6. … fail … 7. … … beneficial 8. excitement … … 9. … economize … 10. … … changeable Ex. 13. Cross odd one out. 1. Hot-air balloon, glider, airship, aircraft, ground vehicle. 2. High-wing, low-wing, bottom-wing, mid-wing. 3. Monoplane, hydroplane, biplane, triplane, quadruplane. 4. Flight, performance, size, speed. 5. Jet engine, turboprop engine, turbofan engine, feather engine. Ex. 14. Three of these verbs can not be used in combination with «aircraft». Which ones are they? To fly, to design, to manufacture, to cargo, to control, to increase, to build, to board, to melt, to load, to operate Ex. 15. A: Match the words in column A with those in column B. e.g. a - 1 Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 12 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  13. 13. B: Learn these word combinations and use them in the sentences of your own. e.g. The TU-104 was the first Russian jet aircraft. A B a. supersonic aircraft 1. сверхзвуковой самолет b. passenger aircraft 2. учебно-тренировочный самолет c. cargo aircraft 3. транспортный самолет d. military aircarft 4. пассажирский самолет e. training aircraft 5. военный самолет f. transport aircraft 6. грузовой самолет Ex. 16. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions where necessary. … the beginning … time man dreamed … escaping the bonds … earth, but when … last he was … the ground it became evident that his craft was … the mercy … the winds. The balloonist could fly only … the direction the wind was travelling. Avia- tion got its start … 10.35 … 17th … December, 1903 … Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, when Orville Wright took … leaving the ground … a 12 second self-propelled flight. … a century aviation has become a significant industry which … many ways benefits the lives … individuals and society as a whole. Ex. 17. A: Translate the sentence from the text. And besides the full-time civil aviation careers, there are literally thousands of opportunities to involve aviation in one’s life. Note: to work full-time means that you work for a full day, e. g. 9 a.m. – 5 p. m. B: Learn some more common compounds and collocations with «time»: Part-time If you work part-time, you only work for a part of the day or week. Overtime If you work overtime, you work beyond your regular working hours. From time to time: occasionally For the time being: temporarily Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 13 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  14. 14. Behind the times: old-fashioned, out-of-date In no time: very quickly In time: not too late On time: punctual C: Complete the following paragraph with the appropriate words. Tom Laker dreamed of being an astronaut, so he was happy when he saw an ad- vertisement for vacancies in a space research centre. Unfortunately his application form didn’t arrive … time for a …-time job, but he was happy to accept a …-time post … the time being. He always arrived at the centre … time, and he worked very hard. … time … time, he even did … , and he got promoted … no time. One day, the director sent for Tom to congratulate him on his progress. «What area of research are you particularly interested in?» he asked. «Well, sir,» Tom said, «I’d like to go to the moon». «I’m afraid you’re … the times», replied the director. «We’re trying to send men to Mars!» Grammar. Structure and usage Ex. 18. A: Study the usage of «like» and «as». We can use like or as to say that things are similar. Like is similar to a preposition. We use it before a noun or pronoun: It flew like the wind. We can use like to give examples: She is good at social sciences, like economics. As is a conjunction. We use it before a clause and before an expression beginning with a preposition: When in Rome, do as the Romans do. Another use of as is to say what function or role a person or thing has. In this case, as is used like a preposition, before a noun: He flew as a pilot for Aeroflot for ten years. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 14 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  15. 15. B: Use as or like correctly in these sentences. 1. The air balloon was at the mercy of the wind … a toy. 2. A sheep, a rooster and a duck are known … the world’s first airborne passengers. 3. Some of the aircraft go straight up and down and hover overhead … a hum- ming bird does. 4. The availability of an airport has a number of advantages, … proximity to raw materials, lower land and capital investment costs, etc. 5. The effective use of a plane, … a key tool in operations, contributes to the suc- cess of a company. 6. The Zeppelin airships were the most highly respected aircraft in the air, … bombers in war and … airliners in peace. 7. In 1939, … in 1914, everybody seemed to expect war. 8. Everybody regards the development of jet propulsion … the greatest advance in aviation since the first flight of the Wright brothers. 9. Our ability to fly, … passengers, to almost any part of the world is an integral part of the global economy. 10. The international aviation industry which makes this possible is … the pro- verbial iceberg of which the passenger perceives only the tip. 11. In 1919 the International Air Traffic Association (IATA) was established … a voluntary association of international airlines. 12. In 1945 IATA was reborn … the International Air Transport Association. Ex. 19. Complete the chart. Give 4 forms of each verb. Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle II Present Participle I fly flew flown flying leaving finding containing driving having Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 15 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  16. 16. building making Ex. 20. A: Study the usage of the Past Simple. Look at this sentence from the text: In 1837 the great English pioneer of flight, Sir George Cayley, designed an effi- cient airship. The Past Simple is used here to talk about something that: − took place at a specific time in the past. − is finished. It does not matter if the events are short, long or repeated, or if they are in the near past or the distant past. We always think of them as complete events. The Past Simple is often used with time expressions such as: ago, last year, in 1874, on April 12, when he was young. B: Which of these words can be used with the expressions below? in during this ago last on at the 19th century the war the 27th of August the weekend ages the latter months of 1958 flight April August 27, 1939 Sunday week summer December 1903 1913 1927 C: Write down six dates or time expressions that are significant to the history of aviation. What happened then? e.g. The 27th of August - On August 27, 1939 the world’s first jet plane, built by the Germans, made its first flight. Ex. 21. A: Study the usage of the Present Perfect Simple. Remember that the Present Perfect Simple is used for: a) talking about recent past experience important at the time of speaking. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 16 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  17. 17. b) talking about general past experience. It does not matter when the experience happened. The important thing is the experience itself. The Present Perfect Simple is often used with indefinite time adverbials: ever, never, already, yet, before, just, recently, always. c) We can use it to talk about actions and activities which began in the past and which have continued up to the present and might continue into the future. Both since and for make clear how long something has been happening. Since refers to the be- ginning and for to the length of the period. B: Find sentences in the Present Perfect Simple in the text and explain their usage. Work in pairs and discuss your answers. Ex. 22. Complete the sentences using the Present Perfect Simple of the verbs in brackets: 1. Since its birth aviation ... (to advance) into a very important industry. 2. Man always ... (to dream) of flying like the birds. 3. Within a century aircraft designers ... (to increase) the size and the speed of passenger aircraft. 4. A new generation of aircraft ... (to become) more economical, environmentally acceptable and socially beneficial. 5. Edward ... (to fly) his own private jet for 5 years. 6. International aviation organizations always … (to pay) great attention to the development of civil aviation facilities throughout the world. 7. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) … (to play) a considerable diplomatic role, primarily by settling differences among Contracting States, including disagreements over airspace. Ex. 23. Put the verbs in these sentences into the Past Simple or Present Perfect. 1. In the early days of aviation man (to dream) of flying like the birds, but he (not understand) the intricate working of a bird’s wing. 2. Later, applying the technology of his day, Leonardo da Vinci (to suggest) that man (may) add some special device to his muscle power. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 17 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  18. 18. 3. The aviation industry (to grow) significantly since that windy December after- noon when the Wright brothers (to make) the first controlled flight. 4. In 1906 Alberto Santos-Dumont (to perform) the first officially observed Eu- ropean flight in his aircraft which (to fly) tail first. 5. By making a flight across the English Channel on July 25, 1909, Louis Bleriot (to focus) world attention on the future potential of the aeroplane. 6. The Germans (to be) the first to operate the airplane services. 7. In 1910 a Zeppelin airship (to begin) her service with the airlines. 8. Together with her sister ships, she (to carry) 35,000 passengers over 170,000 miles between major cities in Germany. 9. Igor Sikorsky (to build) the first practical helicopter. 10. Civil aviation (to come) a long way in the past 100 years. 11. Surveys of major corporations (to show) that most of them are unwilling to locate factories and offices far from airports. 12. Lately the companies (to learn) the value of owning their own aircraft. 13. Aviation (to become) a leading tool in the economic growth of the nations of the world. 14. The man involved in aviation always (to be) a partner in the team of enthu- siasts who (help) in the development of aviation. 15. Since the birth of aviation, the skills and knowledge required of the present- day aviation specialist (to undergo) significant changes. Ex. 24. Express the same idea in English. 1. С давних пор люди начали мечтать о том, чтобы летать, как птицы, и пы- тались подражать полету птиц. 2. В России человек впервые попытался подняться в воздух с помощью де- ревянных крыльев во времена Ивана Грозного. 3. Великий русский ученый Михаил Ломоносов изобрел и испытал вертолет. 4. В 1887 году Менделеев совершил полет на управляемом воздушном шаре. 5. Самолет Можайского, оснащенный паровым двигателем, имел все черты современного самолета. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 18 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  19. 19. 6. В 1885 году Можайский доказал, что полет человека на летательном ап- парате тяжелее воздуха возможен. 7. Профессор Жуковский внес огромный вклад в развитие русской авиации. 8. Бомбардировщик АНТ-4, сконструированный в бюро Туполева, был пер- вым в мире двухмоторным монопланом цельнометаллической конструкции. 9. Изобретение реактивной тяги было величайшим достижением авиации, и уже 22 марта 1956 года в аэропорту Лондона совершил посадку первый русский реактивный авиалайнер Ту-104. 10. Со времени своего возникновения русская авиация прошла долгий и слав- ный путь развития. Ни какое другое достижение прошлого века не оказывает та- кого существенного влияния на экономическую и социальную жизнь страны. Speaking. Writing IDEAS FOR DISCUSSION AND COMPOSITION Ex. 25. There are many career opportunities available in the world of civil avia- tion. Match a worker and the major job duties performed by him in a particular occupation. Worker Duties 1. Airport Director or Manager a. He plans improvements and expansion of the airport, supervises construction, directs maintenance of runways, taxiways, hangars and terminal buildings. 2. Air Traffic Controller b. He provides the day-to-day, hour-to-hour analyses, forecasts, observations, warnings and advice to pilots, airport operators and airlines. He reports weather conditions expected at air- ports, present weather and forecasts. 3. Pilot c. He makes airport rules and regulations, plans and supervises maintenance pro- grammes, makes recommendations on future Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 19 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  20. 20. needs of the airport. 4. Managerial and Administrative Staff d. He coordinates flights to prevent accidents and minimize delays in take-offs and land- ings. Some regulate airport traffic, others re- gulate fights between airports. 5. Airport Engineer e. They include executives responsible for the direction and supervision of research and production, and officials in departments such as marketing, sales, purchasing, public rela- tions, accounting 6. Meteorologist f. They are skilled, highly trained profession- als who have been care-fully selected for their personal and physical qualities and ability to fly safely. Ex. 26. Group work: Interview your groupmates about aviation careers using the hints below. View the variety of occupational choices open to you. What fields look especially promising for employment opportunities? What type and how much training and educa- tion are required in order to enter particular jobs? What are the typical working condi- tions associated with particular occupations? What personal qualities are important? What are the physical demands of the work? How do earnings in certain occupations compare with earnings in other occupations? What are the opportunities to travel? What are the opportunities for advancement? How does society benefit from the work? Which aviation career would you choose if you were not a manager? Why? Ex. 27. Broaden and explain the following statements. 1. The development of jet propulsion is considered to be the greatest advance in aviation since the first flight of the Wright brothers. 2. Every new generation of aircraft is getting more economical, environmentally acceptable and socially beneficial. 3. Aviation has shattered man’s concept of the relationship between time and distance. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 20 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  21. 21. 4. Aviation has caused twentieth-century man not only to reassess his concept of geography, but also to re-evaluate his social traditions, his cultural structures, his economic principles and his business practices. Ex. 28**. A: Study the principles of a summary writing given below: Note: Summary is a short statement that gives the main information about something without giving all the details. 1. Read the text 2. Exclude unnecessary and unimportant information. 3. Think of subject headings which may perform the function of an outline to your abstract. 4. Think of a plan. 5. Use the first point in this outline as a general statement of the problem discussed. It should indicate the source saying whether it is a book, an article or an abstract. 6. Be sure that the second sentence enumerates the most important subject headings. 7. Avoid duplicating the words of the title. 8. Avoid space-consuming phrases. 9. Use short simple sentences. 10. Use Passive voice and the third person present. B: Write a short summary on Text «The History of Aviation». Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 21 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  22. 22. Section II. RUSSIAN CIVIL AVIATION IN A FREE MARKET ECONOMY Phonetics Ex. 29. Read these words and practise saying them: [A] Russian, expulsion, hundred, number, trunk, fund, reduction, structure, other, another, company, among, country [R] advance, grant, fast, enhance, task, aircraft, demand, forecast, market [eI] aviation, date, major, operate, rate, safety, scale, create, regulation, declaration, aggravate [x] back, imagine, carry, actually, standard, practice, establish, matter, factor, accident, transport, aggravate, impact [q] among, company, relative, constant, declaration, aggravate, standard Ex. 30. Categorize the verbs into three groups according to the sound of their endings. Practise reading. Note: There are three different ways of pronouncing the –s ending in the Present Simple: [s], [z], [Iz]. Dates, spawns, contributes, imagines, connects, calls, experiences, has, advances, carries, proves, falls, seems, solves, organizes, intends, enhances, refers, requires, promotes, creates, avoids, takes, steps, believes, grows, increases, analyses, drives, realizes, extends, affords, addresses, seeks, achieves, exceeds, reflects, stabilizes, fol- lows, declines. Ex. 31. A: Practise reading related words. Note: Related words can have different stress patterns. Mind that in nouns the stress falls mainly on the first syllable, in verbs – on the second. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 22 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  23. 23. Nouns Verbs transport transport conduct conduct increase increase content content defect defect contest contest decrease decrease converse converse record record B: Add some other words you know. Ex. 32. Practise reading international words and expressions. Translate them into Russian. Role, positive, technical, political and economic effect, to transport, transport and communications, the declaration of sovereignty, problem, standards and recommend- ed practises, standards for licensing and certification, restructuring, to reorganize, the reform of the transport management system, minimal, company, sphere, competence, factor, coefficient, a record, to record, to analyse, economic category, commercial aviation, commercial interests, risk, fatal, personnel, to guarantee, to address, global economy, to balance, to stabilize. Vocabulary Ex. 33**. Study new words (Glossary 2). acquire vt [q'kwaIq(r)] приобретать acute adj [q'kjHt] острый aggravate vt ['xgrqveIt] ухудшать; aggravation nu ["xgrq'veISn] ухудшение Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 23 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  24. 24. airworthiness nu ['eq"wWDInIs] летная годность annual adj ['xnjql] ежегодный aviation security авиационная безопасность capacity nc, nu [kq'pxsqtI] 1. nu способность, возможность; 2. nc должность, качество carry vt carriage nu (commerce) carrier nc ['kxrI] ['kxrIG] ['kxrIq(r)] везти, перевозить перевозка, транспортировка; стоимость перевозки, доставки перевозчик challenge vt; nc ['CxlInG] бросать вызов; вызов community nc [kq'mjHnqtI] 1. (the ~) общество; 2. сообщество, содружество competitiveness nu [kPm'petqtIvnIs] конкурентоспособность concern vt, nc [kqn'sWn] заботиться, беспокоиться; забота consequence nc ['kPnsIkwqns] последствие cost-effective adj ['kPstI'fektIv] экономически эффективный crew nc [krH] экипаж decline vt, vi, nc [dI'klaIn] убывать, приходить в упадок; упадок; падение diminish vi, vt [dI'mInIS] уменьшать distinctive adj [dI'stINktIv] отличительный, характерный enhance vt [In'hRns] повышать ensure vt (US=insure) ensure sth/that [In'Suq(r)] обеспечивать, гарантировать; гарантировать что-л. equitable adj ['ekwItqbl] справедливый establish vt establishment nu [I'stxblIS] [I'stxblISmqnt] создавать, устанавливать; введение, установление expeditious adj ["ekspI'dISqs] быстрый, скоростной Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 24 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  25. 25. expel vt expel sb from sth expulsion nc, nu [Ik'spel] [Ik'spAlSn] исключать, изгонять исключать кого-л. из чего-л. исключение, вытеснение experience vt, nc, nu [Ik'spIqrIqns] испытывать, опыт extend vt extension nu [Ik'stend] [Ik'stenSn] удлинять, расширять; распространение, расширение flight operations летные перевозки flight safety безопасность полетов grant vt (formal) grant rights grant a request take sth for granted [grRnt] предоставлять; юр. давать права; удовлетворять просьбу; считать само собой разумеющимся impact nc the impact of sb on sth ['Impxkt] влияние, воздействие; влияние кого-л. на что-л. insure vt, vi insure sth/sb against sth insurance nc, nu insurance against fire [In'Suq (r)] [In'Suqrqns] страховать; страховать кого-л. от чего-л.; страховка; страхование на случай (пожара) intend vt be intended for sb/smth intention nc, nu [In'tend] [In'tenSn] 1. намереваться; 2. предназначать (ся) для кого/чего-л. намерение large-scale adj (attrib) ['lRGskeIl] крупномасштабный maintain vt maintenance nu [meIn'teIn] ['meIntqnqns] поддерживать, сохранять тех. техническое обслуживание precise adj [prI' saIs] точный profitability ["prPfItq'bIlItI] прибыльность, рентабельность promote vt [prq'mqut] способствовать, содействовать; promotion nc, nu [prq'mquSn] содействие, поддержка; создание благоприятных условий для продажи Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 25 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  26. 26. rebound vi [rI'baund] воспрянуть, оживиться refer (to) vi reference nc, nu in/with reference to sb/sth [rI'fW(r)] ['refrqns] относить (к) ссылка, сноска ссылаясь на кого-л./что-л. restore vt [rI'stL(r)] восстанавливать scheduled trunk services регулярные магистральные перевозки slowdown nu ['slqudaun] спад solvency nu ['sPlvqnsI] платежеспособность sound adj [saund] здравый, разумный state body государственный орган strict adj [strIkt] строгий sustain vt [sq'steIn] поддерживать undergo vt ["Andq'gqu] подвергаться; претерпевать vary vi, vt vary from sth, sb variety nu various adj ['veqrI] [vq'raIqtI] ['veqrIqs] менять(ся), изменять(ся); отличаться от чего/кого-л.; разнообразие; различный, разнообразный violate vt violation nc, nu ['vaIqleIt] ["vaIq'leISn] нарушать; нарушение wrestle vi (fig) ['resl] перен. упорная борьба Ex. 34. Read and translate word combinations. To experience ups and downs, to spawn industry, to have a major positive impact on smth, to advance into a very important industry, to be the most convenient and expeditious means of transport, to fall apart into local carriers, sound competition among the airlines, to solve the problem, the violation of standards and recommended practices, to aggravate flight operations and flight safety, to operate scheduled trunk services, the establishment of strict standards, to enhance the role of state manage- ment, to undergo large-scale restructuring, the expulsion of dishonest air transport Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 26 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  27. 27. companies from the market, to be the main concern of, to guarantee equality of eco- nomic competitiveness, rules for considering applications for licensing and certifica- tion, to sustain this vital industry, to meet passenger demand. Reading Text. RUSSIAN CIVIL AVIATION IN A FREE-MARKET ECONOMY Russian civil aviation dates back to February 9, 1923. It was the birth of a new in- dustry, a new way of life. It was the beginning of an industry that would spawn other industry and contribute to developing towns, jobs and communities. It was the begin- ning of Russian civil aviation. In the early days of aviation few could have imagined the role it is now called on to play. Since then it has come a long way experiencing both ups and downs. The Second World War had a major positive impact on the technical de- velopment of the aircraft. Aviation advanced into a very important industry with social, political and economic effects. In 1980 Russian civil aviation carried 130 million pas- sengers and proved to be the most convenient and expeditious means of transport and communications both internally and externally. In 1991 after the declaration of sove- reignty by Russia, civil aviation fell apart into five hundred local carriers. It seemed that sound competition among the airlines could solve all the problems, but actually the violation of standards and recommended practices aggravated flight operations and flight safety. The establishment of strict standards for licensing and certification reduced the number of airlines to 227 and only 20 of them were granted rights to op- erate scheduled trunk services. At present all industries, including civil aviation, are undergoing large-scale restructuring. In 2000 the Federal Air Transport Authority was reorganized into the State Civil Aviation Authority of Russia Ministry of Trans- port. The fast-going reform of the transport management system is intended to enhance the role of state management where it is necessary. This refers to flight safe- ty, aviation security and other fields. Strict state regulation is required, above all, in flight safety and the extension of high-quality services to air passengers and airlines. At the same time in a free-market economy the state’s interference in economic Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 27 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  28. 28. matters must be minimal, if at all. As far as competition between airlines is con- cerned, the state should only promote the development of sound competition and the expulsion of dishonest air transport companies from the market. The top priority tasks of Russian civil aviation include: − enhancing responsibility of civil aviation management at all levels; − creating equal conditions for all businesses operating on the market; − avoiding interference of state bodies in the activities of businesses in the spheres beyond their competence; − ensuring flight safety and aviation security; − taking measures to support Russian aviation enterprises on the world air transport markets Flight safety has always been the main concern of all civil aviation organizations and Russian civil aviation steps up its efforts to improve flight safety. The interna- tional aviation community believes that relative flight safety is no longer a distinctive factor, as the number of flights in the world is constantly growing. Although the rela- tive flight safety coefficient remains unchanged, the aircraft accident rate has ac- tually been increasing. Every accident is recorded and analysed. Flight safety is con- sidered as an «economic category» because in commercial aviation driven by com- mercial interests, there will always be an attempt to run a risk. If the risk is clearly de- fined, one can always take measures to avoid it, but if an airline fails to realize the degree of the risk and if no one can help the airline to realize it, the consequences may be fatal. New carriers are storming the market and the needs of aviation are changing. Licens- ing and certification acquire great significance in market-economy conditions. Precise rules for considering applications for licensing and certification have been established. According to new operating rules, only airlines having their own maintenance facilities, a licence to extend maintenance services, funds for maintaining airworthiness and condi- tions for personnel training must be allowed to fly. The purpose of strict and equitable rules is to guarantee equality of economic competitiveness for the airlines while provid- ing safe, efficient and cost-effective aviation services. We can not afford to ignore the main environmental problems, associated with civil aviation, namely aircraft noise and the impact of aircraft engine emissions. This complex issue must be addressed collectively in a way that is environmentally and Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 28 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  29. 29. economically responsible, and in a way that is responsive to the needs of all nations. Aviation is so important that we must find the best way to sustain this vital industry and thereby contribute to the future health of the global economy. Together with the whole aviation community our country seeks solutions to this problem. The best solu- tion is to balance the various technologically feasible reduction measures so that en- vironmental progress is achieved without diminishing the benefits of the air transport industry. Our goal is to achieve maximum environmental benefit in the most cost- effective manner. One of the acutest problems faced by international civil aviation community today is the continuing decline in air transportation. The traffic decline reflects a general economic slowdown. Even before 2001 began, it was expected that the air transport industry would experience sluggish or no annual traffic growth, but after September both traffic and revenues declined considerably. The events of September 2001 had a negative impact on the global aviation industry. Aviation flew into crisis, and contin- ues to wrestle with the challenges raised by the horrifying events of 11 September. The central challenge is to restore public confidence in the civil air transport system along with profitability. In Russia air transport capacity exceeds the population sol- vency. Civil aviation has everything it needs to meet passenger demand: aircraft, highly skilled crews, airports and equipment, however the demand for air tickets has been declining because of the low incomes of the majority of the Russian population. As a rule, aircraft fly 30 to 40 percent empty. As soon as the demand grows, the vo- lume of air transportation will increase. According to forecasts, the total domestic and international traffic carried by Russian airlines will stabilize and rebound, followed by further growth. Ex. 35. Comprehension check. 1. What date is considered to be the birthday of Russian civil aviation? 2. Why did the Second World War have a positive impact on the development of aviation? 3. Which factors influence restructuring of the transport management system? 4. What are the top priority tasks of Russian civil aviation? Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 29 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  30. 30. 5. What allows civil aviation to meet passenger demand? 6. Why have flight safety and aviation security always been considered as «eco- nomic categories»? Vocabulary practice Ex. 36. Find in the text a word or a phrase which has a similar meaning to each of the following. Испытывать взлеты и падения, нарушение стандартов, Федеральная служба воздушного транспорта России, Государственная служба гражданской авиации в составе Минтранса России, жесткое государственное регулирование, управление транспортным комплексом, обеспечить безопасность полетов, усилить авиацион- ную безопасность, вмешательство государства в экономическую деятельность, вытеснить нечестные авиакомпании с рынка, выше чьей-либо компетенции, дея- тельность хозяйствующих субъектов, относительный показатель безопасности по- летов, четко определить риск, штурмовать рынок, являться определяющим, число авиационных происшествий, правила эксплуатации, разрешение на оперативно- техническое обслуживание, средства для поддержания летной годности, искать решение проблемы, превышать платежеспособность населения. Ex. 37. Match definitions with the words given below. To seek carrier major impact to advance sound expeditious to aggravate strict to enhance equitable to spawn 1. To improve smth or to add (to the value, reputation, power, price, etc). 2. Reliable, based on logic or facts. 3. To produce in large numbers. 4. Fair and just. 5. To make worse or more serious. 6. A business carrying goods or people for payment. 7. Greater or more important. 8. Look for, try to find. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 30 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  31. 31. 9. A strong influence or effect. 10. Clear and exact. 11. To make progress. 12. Acting quickly and efficiently. Ex. 38*. Form adjectives from these words. Note: the common adjective suffixes are -able, -ible, -ant, -ent, -ary, -ory, -ish, -ous, -ful, -less, -ly, -y, -worthy, -like, -some. Evidance, efficiency, culture, satisfy, respect, change, control, peace, success, retract, consider, use, economy, accept, benefit, fear, contribute, technique, convenience, expe- dite, response, avoid, believe, relate, commerce, manage, tire, trust, wind. Ex. 39*. Fill in the chart to find the other parts of speech. Use your dictionary where necessary. Check the pronunciation. Noun Verb Adjective 1. belief believe believeable 2. … reduce … 3. … … competitive 4. … avoid … 5. requirement … … 6. … operate … 7. … … relative 8. extension … … 9. … refer … 10. … … contributory Ex. 40. A: The following phrasal verbs occur in Sections 1 and 2: − Be off: to leave − Head for: to move towards a place Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 31 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  32. 32. − Pass over: (of a storm, pain, bad experience) to come to an end − Pull together: (of a group of people) to work together using all the abilities and effort − Date back to/from (a particular period): to have existed since − Call on sb to do sth: to ask − Fall apart: to break into pieces − Step up sth: to increase or improve something B: Find these words and make sure you understand their meanings in the context of the passages. Then use them to complete the following sentences. 1. Aviation … that historic day in 1903, when the Wright Flyer made its epoch – making, if very short, flights. 2. One of the resolutions adopted by the meeting … governments to help ensure a sustainable future for international air transport in various ways. 3. Not least among aviation’s benefits is its ability to … nation’s military strength. 4. Every day millions of people of widely varying ages … ground and … their destination – sometimes over very long distances. 5. The Soviet Union certainly did good for sport aviation, which produced sport aircraft of incredible quality, but when the USSR …, money for operations stopped. 6. Advance Sukhoi Technologies designers … and made the most successful competition aircraft of all time. 7. In spite of a severe storm the flight … without any incident. Ex. 41. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions in English. to violate the standards to undergo restructuring to grant rights fatal consequences the expulsion of companies to sustain the industry beyond one’s competence to diminish the benefits Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 32 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  33. 33. Ex. 42. A: Study structure «take + noun» and translate into Russian: Note: «Take» is used with many nouns referring to activity where «take + noun» has the same meaning as the verb form of the noun, as in take a walk (=walk). «Take» is also used with many nouns in special senses: to take steps to do smth to take notice of smth to take measures to do smth to take an opportunity of smth to take measures against smth to take an opportunity to do smth to take part in smth to take smth into account to take a risk to do smth to take control of smth to take a decision to do smth to take place to take a decision on/about smth to take charge of smth B: Fill in the gaps using the expressions given above: 1. The aircraft designers took … to improve aircraft performance as well as to reduce noise level and engine emissions. 2. The company will take an … to supply medicine and food to the citizens of the distressed areas. 3. The environmentalists are taking … against environment pollution. 4. The protests of Green Peace are finally making the government take … of this significant concern. 5. The Committee took a … to hold a conference on flight safety problems. 6. Most pilots don’t take a … to fly in stormy weather. 7. The 33rd ICAO Assembly took … at ICAO headquarters in Montreal. 8. Delegations from 169 countries took … in the 2001 Assembly. 9. Achievements and significance of civil aviation are all the more remarkable considering that the first powered and controlled flight took … with the Wright Flyer only 100 years ago. C: Think of your own sentences with the expressions given above: e.g. If the risk is clearly defined, one can always take measures to avoid it. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 33 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  34. 34. Ex. 43. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions. 100 years ago, two fearless brothers ... Ohio took man’s first flight ... a powered aircraft. Their desire to do what nobody else could do before, and their drive to over- come endless challenges ... order to succeed, exemplifies the human spirit ... its greatest – a spirit which has continued to make the aviation industry one ... the most exciting. The event had a major positive impact ... the development ... the communi- ties and changed the world forever. Aviation advanced ... a very important industry and contributed ... developing towns and jobs. ... the century since the Wright Broth- ers’ historic flight, companies have enhanced the technology and services ... aviation to make flight safer, more secure, more efficient and more acceptable. Grammar. Structure and usage Ex. 44. Complete the chart. Give 4 forms of each verb. Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle II Present Participle I begin began begun beginning promote enhance grow carry prove set establish ensure require Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 34 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  35. 35. Ex. 45. A: Study the usage of the Present Tenses: 1. The Present Simple/The Present Continuous Look at these sentences from the text: Russian civil aviation steps up its efforts to improve flight safety. At present all industries, including civil aviation, are undergoing large-scale re- structuring. In the first sentence, we use the Present Simple to talk about permanent situations, or about things that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time. In the second sentence, we use the Present Continuous to talk about temporary ac- tions and situations that are going on around now: before, during and after the mo- ment of speaking. 2. The Present Perfect Simple/The Present Perfect Continuous Compare these sentences: Since then it has come a long way experiencing both ups and downs. The demand for air tickets has been declining. In the first, the Present Perfect Simple is used to show the completeness of the action. Aviation is a very important industry now. In the second, we use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about an «unfinished past» when we want to focus on the activity or situation itself, to show the continuity of the action. Ex. 46. Choose the correct answer to each of these questions. 1. Which word do we use for a specific point in the past when something began? A – for B – since 2. Which word do we use for a length of time? A – for B – since 3. Which words do we use to ask a question about length of time? A – for B – since Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 35 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  36. 36. Ex. 47. Make sentences with since or for. 1. Aviation /come /a long way /birth. 2. Air travel/grow substantially/the last 40 years 3. The development/jet propulsion/be/the greatest advance in aviation/the first flight of the Wright brothers. 4. Events of September 2001/aviation/wrestle with their consequences. 5. Man/have a desire/escape the bonds of earth/the beginning of time. 6. All successful aeroplanes/1903/incorporate the basic design elements/the first powered aircraft. Ex. 48. Put the verbs in these sentences into the Present Simple or Continuous, Present Perfect Simple or Continuous. 1. The global aviation industry (to be) a vital component of a global economy which (to be) essential to increasing the prosperity of the world. 2. The threat situation that (to arise) since 11 September first (to need) to be analyzed. 3. International civil aviation community already (to take) major initiatives to en- sure that civil aviation never again (to provide) the means for such violent acts. 4. In spite of the events of 11 September, civil aviation (to remain) fundamentally safe and secure. 5. Many surveys (show) that more people (to avoid) flying because of the incon- venience involved than because of the fear of another terrorist attack. 6. In the area of aviation security, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) (to develop) preventive measures since 1968, and continually (to strengthen) them. 7. From a long-term historical perspective, it can be seen that aviation security and safety (to improve) dramatically throughout the past decade. 8. Since its birth the global aviation community (to do) everything possible to save lives and to protect the enormous economic and social benefits of civil aviation. 9. The world community still (to learn) how to combat acts of violence involving aviation. 10. Safety and security always (to be) among global aviation industry’s top priorities. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 36 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  37. 37. Ex. 49. Express the same idea in English. 1. С момента своего возникновения русская авиация превратилась в одну из самых важных и развитых отраслей. 2. Менеджмент в гражданской авиации всегда играл важную роль в разви- тии процесса планирования на мировом и региональном уровнях. 3. Менеджеры также принимали самое активное участие в разработке стандар- тов и рекомендуемых практик и в решении возможных юридических вопросов. 4. Несмотря на высокую стоимость авиаперелетов, авиация играет жизнен- но важную роль в жизни страны. 5. За последнее десятилетие гражданской авиации пришлось столкнуться с рядом различных проблем. 6. Последние десять лет были очень трудными для гражданской авиации России и стран СНГ. 7. Согласно докладам около 300 авиакомпаний РФ и СНГ владеют авиапар- ком в количестве 7 352 воздушных судов. 8. Большая часть российского авиапарка состоит из самолетов, находящих- ся в эксплуатации свыше 20 лет. 9. Очевидно, что российским авиакомпаниям необходимо увеличить коли- чество самолетов в ближайшее время. 10. Большинство недавно приобретенных самолетов были иностранного производства, главным образом Боинги Б-737 и 767, Аэробусы А-310. 11.Совместные соглашения российских авиакомпаний с американскими и за- падноевропейскими не гарантируют решения текущих проблем российской авиа- промышленности, так как у каждой стороны есть свои приоритеты и интересы. 12. Финансовое здоровье авиакомпаний остается нестабильным. 13. Согласно статистическим данным, большинство пассажиров приобрета- ют авиабилеты по более низким ценам, в то время как авиакомпаниям прихо- дится работать в условиях постоянного роста цен. 14. Авиакомпании принимают меры по повышению качества своей работы. 15. В последнее время все больше авиакомпаний предпринимают шаги для решения проблем, связанных с защитой окружающей среды, таких как авиаци- онный шум и выхлопные газы. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 37 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  38. 38. Speaking. Writing IDEAS FOR DISCUSSION AND COMPOSITION Ex. 50. A: Study the typical structure of any presentation. - introduction - main body - conclusion Introduction Greeting the audience; Self-introduction; Outlining the main points of the presentation. Main body Defining the purpose of your presentation; The presentation (think of the report format: the use of demonstration materials and handouts). Conclusion Repeating briefly the main points of the presentation or giving a summary. Closing Thanking people for their attention and inviting them to ask questions B*: Study discourse markers given below and use them in your presentation. Discourse markers 1. Focusing and linking 2. Balancing contrasting points With reference to Talking/speaking of/about Regarding, as regards As far as … is concerned As for … On the one hand On the other hand While Whereas Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 38 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  39. 39. 3. Similarity 4. Counter-argument Similarly In the same way However Even so But Nevertheless All the same Still 5. Structuring 6. Adding First(ly)/Second(ly)/Third(ly) First of all Lastly Finally To begin/start with In the first/second/third place For one/another thing Moreover In addition Another thing is What is more Besides In any case As well as that 7. Logical consequence 8. Summing up Therefore/ so/ then As a result In conclusion Briefly In short To sum up Ex. 51**. Make a presentation on one of these topics: 1. A contemporary or historical personality involved in the world of aviation. 2. The role of aviation in our life. 3. Impact of aviation on environment (noise and emission). 4. Problems associated with living in the neighbourhood of an airport. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 39 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  40. 40. Section III. AEROFLOT – RUSSIAN AIRLINES Phonetics Ex. 52. Read these words and practise saying them: Mind the different ways of pronunciation of the following letters. T t [t] [S] [tS] profit aviation manufacture entire national structure country transportation future fleet operation nature network execution mixture aircraft conditional creature objective declaration temperature C c [k] [S] [s] decade special civil encompass efficient introduce carrier ocean peace cargo efficiency receive committee social service victory coefficient defence category commercial facility Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 40 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  41. 41. Ex. 53. Read these words and practise saying them: [C] breach, challenge, reach, charter, choice, purchase, change [k] epoch, technical, mechanical, technological, chemical, schedule, school [w] which, what, why, when, where, while, white, wheel, whether, whisper [h] who, whoever, whom, whose, whole, wholly [r] wrestle, write, writer, wreck, wrist, wrong, wretch, wrinkle [w-v] vital work, aviation world, civil war, weak voice, wide variety, wonderful service, move westwards, receive a warning, very well [N] pricing, single, aggravating, marketing, bring, distinct, length, among Ex. 54. Practise reading international words and expressions. Translate them into Russian. Decade, aerial fleet, regular transportation of passengers, period, epoch, opera- tion, pilot, committee, symbolic, the declaration of sovereignty, Soviet, negative, cri- sis, finances, million, billion, bankruptcy, corporate strategy, optimization, structure, transit, charter, affiliate, association, expert, airport administration, construction, al- liance, funds, personnel, type, corporate image, press-conference. Vocabulary Ex. 55**. Study new words (Glossary 3). accession nu [xk'seSn] вступление advent nc ['xdvqnt] прибытие, появление affiliate adj [q'fIlIeIt] 1. присоединенный 2. в грам. знач. сущ. филиал air-defence nu ['eqdI'fens] воен. противовоздушная оборона – ПВО alliance nc, nu work in alliance with sb [q'laIqns] союз, альянс, объединение работать в союзе с кем-л. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 41 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  42. 42. enter into an alliance with sb вступить в союз с кем-л. astonish vt [q'stPnIS] удивлять, изумлять at least [qt 'lJst] по крайней мере backbone nc (fig) ['bxkbqun] основа, суть bankruptcy nc, nu file for bankruptcy ['bxNkrqpsI] банкротство, несостоятельность; объявлять себя банкротом be short of испытывать недостаток в … breach nc [brJC] воен. брешь cargo nc, nu ['kRgqu] груз domestic adj [dq'mestIk] внутренний drastic adj ['drxstIk] радикальный efficiency nu [I'fISnsI] работоспособность entire adj [In'taIq(r)] полный, целый, весь eternal adj [I'tWnl] вечный execute vt execution nu ['eksIkjHt] ["eksI'kjHSn] выполнять, исполнять; выполнение, исполнение expand vt, vi expansion nc, nu [Ik'spxnd] [Ik'spxnSn] расширять; рост, увеличение, расширение expense nu at the expense of one’s health (life) expenses (usually pl) [Ik'spens] перен. счет, цена; за счет (здоровья), ценою жизни; расходы, издержки file vt file a complaint file an application [faIl] подавать документы; подать жалобу; подать заявление first and foremost в первую очередь Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 42 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  43. 43. fledgling nc ['fleGlIN] перен. неоперившийся юнец gain vt [geIn] выиграть, завоевать gain rights получить права hand vt hand over [hxnd] вручать, давать передавать haul nc long-haul medium-haul short-haul [hLl] пробег, пройденное расстояние магистральный дальний (зд. о ВС) магистральный средний магистральный ближний innovation nc, nu ["Inq'veISn] новшество invest vt, vi invest (money) in sth investment nu [In'vest] [In'vestmqnt] инвестировать; вкладывать деньги во что-л.; капиталовложение Joint Stock Company открытое акционерное общество objective nc [qb'GektIv] цель, задача perform vt perform a task perform a flight [pq'fLm] выполнять; выполнять задание; выполнять полет preliminary adj [prI'lImInqrI] предварительный profit nc, nu net profit operating profit ['prPfIt] прибыль; чистая прибыль; прибыль от основной деятельности purchase vt, nc, nu ['pWCIs] покупать, приобретать; покупка, приобретение release vt, nc, nu [rI'lJs] высвобождать, освобождение resume vt, vi [rI'zjHm] возобновлять route nc [rHt] маршрут Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 43 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  44. 44. share nc the lion’s share go shares (with sb) (in sth) on shares hold shares in a compa- ny (bank) [Seq(r)] 1.часть, доля, львиная доля, честно поделиться (чем-л. с кем-л.); 2. (commerce) акция, пай на паях иметь акции какой-л. компании (банка) terminal nc ['tWmInl] ав. аэровокзал viable adj ['vaIqbl] жизнеспособный Ex. 56. Read and translate word combinations. The aerial fleet, a fledgling national carrier, to set up a network of passenger and cargo carriage, to mark a new epoch, domestic and international routes, to perform scheduled international flights, to set war-time objectives, at the expense of their lives, to gain a victory over the enemy, the declaration of unconditional surrender, to resume peace-time civilian flights, advent of jet propulsion, in recognition of out- standing services, to give the eternal parking, to become the backbone of transport system, to fly the colours, to be established in the capacity as a national carrier, com- pared to an operating profit of, to file for bankruptcy, to hold on to the market share, outlines of Aeroflot corporate strategy, to expand the route structure, to gain rights to operate transit flights, to be short of long-haul airliners capable of covering long dis- tances non-stop, to look forward to an increase in the number of transit passengers, to turn plans into reality, to compete in alliances, a vital strategic move required for securing a proper place among the global carriers, to release the funds for aircraft maintenance, personnel training and purchase of new aircraft; to deserve reputation for innovation, efficiency and quality; to bring about a drastic change in the corporate image, to serve the best interests of the country by making its operations safe, effi- cient and responsive to national needs, to encourage a safe and economically viable air transport system. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 44 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  45. 45. Reading Text. AEROFLOT – RUSSIAN AIRLINES Only a decade ago the name Aeroflot referred to the entire civil aviation of our country. This name, which means the aerial fleet, was given to a fledgling national carrier on February 25, 1932, at time when the regular air transportation of passen- gers and cargo had just begun. Over the 1932-1941 period, a network of passenger and cargo carriage was set up. The aircraft designed by Andrei Tupolev, Alexander Yakovlev, Oleg Antonov, Sergei Ilyushin marked a new epoch in the world aircraft manufacturing. Since 1935 Aeroflot had in operation only Soviet-built aircraft. New domestic and international routes were introduced. By 1940 Aeroflot pilots had been performing scheduled in- ternational flights from Moscow to Sofia, Berlin, Stockholm, from Tashkent to Ka- bul, from Ulan Ude to Ulan Bator. On June 23, 1941, on the second day of the Great Patriotic War, the Council of People’s Commissars set before Aeroflot the following war-time objectives: “…serving the front and rear of the Red Army. Execution of the special orders from the State De- fence committee”. During the Second World War civil aviation pilots, shoulder to shoulder with all Russian people, at the expense of their lives gained the victory over the enemy. It is quite symbolic that it was a civilian crew who on May 9, 1945 flew to Mos- cow the declaration of unconditional surrender by Nazi Germany. The company had resumed peace-time civilian flights by the end of next year. In 1955 Aeroflot carried the annual total of 70,000 passengers, 3,000 tonnes of cargo and 2,700 tonnes of mail. Advent of jet propulsion was one of the greatest advances in aviation and on March 22, 1956 the London airport received the first Soviet TU-104 jetliner. «Russia astonishes the West…», «TU-104 makes a huge breach in western air-defences…», «In aircraft manufacturing the Soviets are at least two years ahead of the USA…» – ran the headlines. The aircraft had a long and remarkable life. In recognition of its outstanding services this aerial toiler was given the eternal parking at Vnukovo. Civil aviation continued to expand and became the backbone of transport system. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 45 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  46. 46. In 1991 after the declaration of sovereignty by Russia, Aeroflot fell apart into hundreds of local carriers. But someone had to fly the colours and in July 1992 Aero- flot – Russian Airlines Joint Stock Company was reestablished by the Government in the capacity as a national carrier. Today the Russian flag-carrier Aeroflot transports every fourth passenger on the domestic routes and services 25 destinations across the Russian Federation. It is found fit to operate scheduled flight service into 78 destina- tions in 54 countries. After the events of September 2001 both global passenger traffic and revenues de- clined considerably. Airlines finances suffered accordingly. According to preliminary figures compiled by ICAO, the world’s airlines lost nearly $11 billion that year, com- pared to an operating profit of $10,7 billion in 2000 and some of them were forced to file for bankruptcy. Aeroflot suffered too, but managed not only to hold on to its market share but also to advance. In 2001 Aeroflot’s net profit reached 1315 million rubles. Here are the outlines of Aeroflot corporate strategy. The first and foremost, to car- ry on with the optimization of destination network and flight schedules, which is the backbone of any modern carrier. It is important to expand the route structure into Western Europe, Russia and South-East Asia as well as to gain rights to operate tran- sit flights from Eastern and Southern Europe to the Far East and South-East Asia. This is quite possible: the Eastern–European carriers are short of long-haul airliners capable of covering these distances non-stop. Another major task is to provide for transit flights from Russia and the CIS (the Commonwealth of Independent States) via Europe to the Caribbean, Central and South America, and Africa. Aeroflot is also looking forward to an increase in the number of transit passengers on flights from South-East Asia and the Far East to Europe and America via Moscow. Aeroflot intends to hand over all its charter flights into an affiliate now being set up jointly with the Voronezh Aircraft-building Association, because the experts deem that charter does not go with the scheduled flight service and therefore becomes un- profitable. For these plans to turn into reality, Aeroflot together with the airport ad- ministration is starting the construction of Sheremetievo-3 terminal. Today the carriers are competing in alliances, which brings serious competitive advantages. Without any new investments a carrier can attract new passengers and Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 46 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  47. 47. offer them a wider choice of destinations and convenient transit flights. Aeroflot con- siders accession to an alliance a vital strategic move required for securing a proper place among the global carriers. In order to release the funds for aircraft maintenance, personnel training and pur- chase of new aircraft Aeroflot has decided to reduce variety of aircraft in its fleet from eleven types to four. These will include long-, medium-, short-haul airliners and cargo planes. In recent years the company has done a lot to deserve reputation for innovation, efficiency and quality. Aeroflot has a really ambitious goal: to become one of the world’s ten best-service carriers. «We’re doing a tremendous job to bring about a drastic change in our corporate image», – announced Valery Okulov, Aeroflot’s Di- rector General at a press-conference – «all our business practices are being reex- amined to meet the growing expectations of our passengers». Within the next few years the company intends to spend on its development $54 million, which is a lot of money by any standard. Aeroflot management regards it as an investment into the future success of this high-flying company. Aeroflot has one major overall aim: to serve the best interests of the country by making its operations safe, efficient and responsive to national needs, thus encouraging a safe and econom- ically viable air transport system. Ex. 57. Comprehension check. 1. When was Aeroflot called a «a fledgling national carrier» and why ? 2. What objectives were set before Aeroflot during World War II? 3. What aircraft was given the eternal parking at Vnukovo? Why? 4. What happened to Aeroflot after the declaration of sovereignty by Russia? 5. What are the outlines of Aeroflot corporative strategy? 6. Why has Aeroflot decided to reduce variety of aircraft? 7. What is Aeroflot major overall aim? Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 47 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  48. 48. Vocabulary practice Ex. 58. Find in the text a word or a phrase which has a similar meaning to each of the following. a) совет народных комиссаров, государственный комитет обороны, выпол- нять регулярные международные рейсы, акт о безоговорочной капитуляции, брешь в воздушной мощи Запада, воздушный труженик, поставить на вечную стоянку, открытое акционерное общество, восстановить доверие общества, по предварительным данным собранным ИКАО, продолжать совершенствовать расписание полетов, СНГ, чтобы осуществить эти планы, важный стратегиче- ский шаг, таким образом поддерживая экономически жизнеспособную систему воздушного транспорта; b) complete, an inexperienced person, very big, deserving attention, better than others, a hard worker, lasting for ever, to struggle, a difficult but interesting project or undertaking, filling with shock, at the cost of, before anything else, to think about, a union, showing strong desire, radical, including everything. Ex. 59. Match the antonyms in columns A and B. A B domestic minor front to decline to gain to lose peace international to expand defeat to fall apart to contract to increase rear to purchase to unite major war victory to sell Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 48 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  49. 49. Ex. 60*. Fill in the chart to find the other parts of speech. Use your dictionary where necessary. Check the pronunciation. Noun Verb Adjective 1. execution execute executive 2. … carry … 3. … … regular 4. … declare … 5. expectation … … 6. … decide … 7. … … responsive 8. safety … … 9. … optimize … 10. … … introductory Ex. 61. Read, translate and remember these international prefixes: Note the words: monoplane, international, re-establish. All three of them have prefixes. A prefix is a combination of letters placed before a word to change its meaning. The following is a list of common Latin and Greek prefixes. prefix meaning example anti against anticyclone bi two biplane co with, together cooperate contra against contradict de out, down de-icing dec ten decade dis bad, wrong disorder ex out, from export inter between international mono one monoplane re again reorganize semi/hemi/demi half hemisphere Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 49 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  50. 50. Ex. 62. Use one of the above prefixes to change the meaning of the words. Cycle, annual, exist, lingual, action, write, code, change, unite, president, place, centralize, examine, metallic, paint, circle, education, freeze, order, focal, operation, ability, social, plane, detached, continental, hero, automatic, militarized, governor. Ex. 63. Complete the following sentences, using the correct form of the word in brackets. Add an appropriate prefix. 1. The Boeing 247 was soon (place) by the new low-wing monoplane airliner in- troduced by the Douglas Company. 2. The performance of the DC-3 aeroplanes was so (ordinary) that 30 years after its first flight in 1935, the DC-3s still outnumbered any other type of aircraft in world-wide service. 3. At present Germany and France (operate) on the design of a new space-rocket. 4. He works in London and in Peking so he is (lingual). 5. Aviation has caused twentieth-century man not only to (assess) his concept of geography, but also to (evaluate) his social traditions, his cultural structures, his eco- nomic principles and his business practices. 6. It was a (lateral) agreement signed by India and Pakistan. 7. The aircraft which has only one wing or, as it is sometimes considered prefer- able to say, one pair of wings is called a (plane). 8. Does (national) aviation really improve relations between countries? Ex. 64. Match the words in column A with those in column B and learn them. e.g. 1-i A B 1. absolute profit a. накопленная прибыль 2. gross profit b. общая прибыль 3. monopoly profit c. относительная прибыль 4. accumulated profit d. валовая прибыль 5. exorbitant profit e. торговая прибыль 6. total profit f. чрезмерная прибыль Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 50 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  51. 51. 7. declared profit g. плановая прибыль 8. anticipated profit h. монополистическая прибыль 9. relative profit i. абсолютная прибыль 10. planned profit j. ожидаемая прибыль 11. commercial profit k. фактическая прибыль 12. actual profit l. объявленная прибыль Ex. 65*. A: Study definitions of these words. Think of your own examples. AIM = what you are hoping to achieve by a plan, action, or activity. OBJECTIVE = an aim that you are trying to achieve, especially in business or politics. GOAL = something that you hope to achieve in the future. e.g. − The main aim of the Aviation English course for managers is to improve students’ communication skills and to enlarge their vocabulary. − The main objective of the aviation company policy is to reduce risk. − Aeroflot has a really ambitious goal: to become one of the world’s ten best service carriers. B: Define these words. Carrier, route, management, bankruptsy, advantage, alliance, affiliate, backbone. Ex. 66. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions. American Airlines (AA), one ... the world’s largest airlines, dates back ... 1926. The first regular scheduled flight of what was to become AA took off ... 15 April when pioneer aviator Charles Lindberg, then chief for Robertson Aircraft Corporation of Missouri, flew the mail ... a DH-4 biplane from St. Louis ... Chicago. Between 1929 and 1930 American Airlines was set ... and, four years later, this company was recognized and became AA. Through strong leadership and a quality, today American provides ... least 95,000 jobs ... the globe and has ... operation a fleet ... 650 aircraft. AA has built its success Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 51 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  52. 52. ... the tradition ... providing quality service ... all its passengers, both ... flight and ... the ground. The airline has won a lot of awards in Europe ... the last years from its customers and the travel trade ... recognition ... its high performance. American Air- lines looks forward ... remaining the first ... the top 10 air carriers. Grammar. Structure and usage Ex. 67. Complete the chart. Give 4 forms of each verb. Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle II Present Participle I run ran run running gained executed resumed made fell brought marked recieved found held lost Ex. 68. A: Study the use of Past Tenses and find the examples in the text. − We use the Past Continuous to talk about something which was in progress at a past time. The action or situation has started but it had not finished at that time. − The Past Perfect is used to make clear that one action in the past happened before another action in the past or before the past time we are thinking about. − We use the Past Perfect Continuous to talk about something which had been in progress up to the past time we are talking about. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 52 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г
  53. 53. B: Put the verbs in these sentences into the Past Simple or Continuous, Past Perfect Simple or Continuous. 1. In the early days of the last century, mass transportation (be) earth-bound and relatively slow. 2. It (take) days and even weeks to cross a continent or an ocean. 3. Then (come) flight. Reality finally (catch up) with a concept that (fire) the im- agination for thousands of years, embodied by the mythological figure of Icarus. 4. Before his glider (crash) and fatally (injure) him in 1896, Lilienthal (make) more than 2,000 flights. 5. Less than four years after the end of World War II, Britain (fly) the de- Havilland Comet, powered by four turbojets. 6. In the period up to September 2001, the volume of traffic (be unchanged) from the same period in 2000, but after September both traffic and revenues (decline). 7. Only weeks after the hijackers (convert) commercial air transports into wea- pons of mass destruction, delegations from 169 countries (meet) at ICAO headquar- ters for the 33rd ICAO Assembly. 8. Reported monthly traffic figures suggest that up to September 2001 there (be) little change in overall tonne-kilometres performed over the same period in 2000. 9. Until September 2001 the financial situation of international airports (contin- ue) to improve on an annual basis for many years. 10. In Russia in 1998, air-passenger traffic (reduce) by 11% compared to 1997 – from 25,1 million to 22,4 million passengers. Before the August 1998 crisis the results were a little better than those of 1997, but by September they already (suffer) a drop of 33%. 11. In 1999, the number of air passengers (fall) by 3,9%, to 21,46 million, but by 2000 they (rise) once again to 21,76 million, up 1,4 % on the previous year. 12. By 1999, as a government-sponsored report published by Russia’s Audit Chamber noted, the number of newly built commercial aircraft (reduce) to nine. Е.Л. Воронянская Авиационный английский для менеджеров | 53 © НИЛ НОТ НИО УВАУ ГА(и), 2009 г

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