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Is Mobile Really Necessary?

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Ifla puerto rico presentation on usability design and heuristics for mobile library sites

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Is Mobile Really Necessary?

  1. 1. Is mobile really necessary? Aaron Tay & Tiffini Travis #mbusability and #wlic2011
  2. 2. Trends in mobile Trendspotting One billion smartphone users by 201365% of teen mobile users access the internet 40% watching videos on their phone
  3. 3. 87% of blacks and Hispanicsown a cell phone“they take advantage of a much wider array of their phones’ data functionscompared to white cell phone owners” Pew Research, 2010
  4. 4. The question is not is it necessary Dean groom "Romantic Dinner"
  5. 5. Whats the best way to design itDean groom no cell phones
  6. 6. Usability testing is a tool to discover if users are using thesite as it was intended or if they use it in unanticipated ways Danielle Becker Online June/July 2011
  7. 7. mobile usability Past findingsMobile activity is secondaryUsers consult sites for quick informationReading comprehension is diminished inmobile formatMake an app instead of a mobile friendly site Kreueger, M. Clickz.com
  8. 8. mobile usability problems Past findingsMaking it difficult to touch and manipulateTrying to do too muchWhen it comes to copy, short is too long. Kreueger, M. Clickz.com
  9. 9. mobile library users Past findings55% were in favour of being able to use the catalogue with their mobile phones (Mills,2009)University of Edinburgh survey of users search library catalogue was reported by usersas the 2nd most popular activity on their mobile phones next to check library openinghours (Paterson, 2010).users are likely to use their mobile phones to get “quick hits of data” only 10% werereading academic content on their mobile (CDL 2010).53% said they would like to search mobile databases from their mobile either “frequently”or “occasionally” (CDL 2010)
  10. 10. 3 Types usability testingHeuristic evaluationPaper testsTask oriented usability testing with users
  11. 11. Heuristic evaluationHeuristic evaluation is a good method for finding both major and minor problems in a user interface.the probability for finding a given major usability problem at 42 percent on the average for single evaluators in six case studies (Nielsen 1992).The corresponding probability for finding a given minor problem was only 32 percent.
  12. 12. Research RQ1: What are the most popularQuestion features included in mobileResearch databases?QuestionResearch RQ2: How well do studentsQuestion navigate mobile databases to find information?RESARCH RQ3: What are student attitudesQUESTION towards using mobile libraryRESEARCH websites and databases?
  13. 13. MethodologyDevelop a heuristic checklist formobile library site usabilityDevelop modified heuristic for librarydatabases- mainly context/scopeConduct usability testing of two librarysites and two database sites
  14. 14. MethodologyExamined 13 mobile and app databases for interface designExamined 40 library mobile sitesExtensive literature review oflibrary and mobile usability
  15. 15. 3 Heuristic Categories Interface design User characteristics Content/purpose
  16. 16. 53% success rate for mobile use of sites64% success rate whenspecifically designed for mobile devices Neilsen Mobile Usability
  17. 17. Interface Design: the basic characteristics needed for users to navigate the site, formatted for major mobile devices, load time, designed consistently and easily learned so it is familiar upon many visits. For libraries, which are notorious for horrible site design, the lack of physical space on a mobile interface is a blessing. Very few pages we examined had too many links or text to space ratio.
  18. 18. 81% Browse the Internet77% Search the Internet Look for local 95% information 88% Take action within a day
  19. 19. User CharacteristicsAnother element of design is making sureyour users can use the site. intuitivelabeling of links, learnability, predictability,uses clear and concise language andminimize the user error. The error rate offormal usability testing with users is a keyindicator of the need to revise site design.
  20. 20. "There is no future for providingmobile access on smart phones totraditional library content in digitalform: electronic articles and ebooks" Koster networkedblogs.com 2011
  21. 21. Content/ PurposeThis last element is extremely importantfor libraries as it directly relates to what wedo: provide content. As mobile learning isincreasingly the buzz in higher education,the library needs to be ready and able toprovide access to all the content that canbe converted to mobile format.
  22. 22. Part one results Interface design
  23. 23. Part one results Interface design Linked from home page? Fits multiple formats? Visual display? Navigation?
  24. 24. Part one results Interface design
  25. 25. Part one results Interface design Linked from home page? Fits multiple formats? Visual display? Navigation?
  26. 26. Part one results User characteristics
  27. 27. Part one results User characteristics Jargon free? Users needs? User feedback? Task difficulty? User attitudes
  28. 28. Part one results User characteristics Jargon free? Users needs? User feedback? Task difficulty? User attitudes
  29. 29. Part one results Content/scope
  30. 30. Part one results Content/scope Sufficient help? Contact info? Basic info? Variety of links to mobile friendly content?
  31. 31. Part one results Content/scope Sufficient help? Contact info? Basic info? Variety of links to mobile friendly content?
  32. 32. Part one results Content/scope Full citation on first page ? Links to articles are mobile friendly Help screens/ feedback? Easily sent to PC?
  33. 33. Heuristic resultsAll had Basic services100% displayed on avg screen size50% link from home page30% had auto-direct50% link to full site90% linked to library catalog30% offer option for feedback from users
  34. 34. Implications• Mobile library sites are including access to additional content beyond basic services• Most prevalent interface includes icons and labelled links• Research indicates there is a wide variance on user preference for content on mobile library sites
  35. 35. Next steps• Task-based usability testing with undergraduate students• Compare heuristic analysis with actual results
  36. 36. Selected referencesBecker, D. (2011)Test-driving your website. Online, 38-41.Griggs, K., Bridges, L.M., Rempel, H.G. (2009). library/mobile: Tips on designing anddeveloping mobile web sites. Code4Li JournalHeo, J., Ham, D., Park, S., Song, C., & Yoon, W. (2009). A framework for evaluatingthe usability of mobile phones based on multi-level, hierarchical model of usabilityfactors. Interacting with Computers, 21(4), 263-275. doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2009.05.006Ji, Y., Park, J., Lee, C., & Yun, M. (2006). A Usability Checklist for the UsabilityEvaluation of Mobile Phone User Interface. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 20(3), 207-231. doi:10.1207/s15327590ijhc2003_3Kreuger, M. (august 2011) Jakob Neilsen on usability for mobile sites and apps.Retrieved from clickz.comMills, K. (2009) M-Libraries: information use on the move. Available: http://arcadiaproject.lib.cam.ac.uk/docs/M-Libraries_report.pdf
  37. 37. Selected referencesNielsen, J. (2005). Ten Usability Heuristics. Retrieved Aug 1, 2011, from http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.htmlNielsen, J. (2009). Mobile Usability. Retrieved Aug 1, 2001, from http://www.useit.com/alertbox/mobile-usability.htmlPaterson, L. & Low, B. (2011) "Student attitudes towards mobile library services for Smartphones", Library Hi Tech, Vol. 29Pew Research. (2010). Mobile Acess 2010. Retrieved Aug 1, 2011, from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Mobile-Access-2010/Summary-of-Findings.aspxTay, C. H. A. (2010). What are mobile friendly library sites offering? A survey. Musingsabout Librarianship Retrieved Aug 1, 2011, from http://musingsaboutlibrarianship.blogspot.com/2010/04/comparison-of-40-mobile-library-sites.htmlTravis, T. & Elaina Norlin (2002). Testing the competition: Usability of commercialinformation sites with academic library websites. College & Research Libraries 433-448.
  38. 38. Tiffini Travis ttravis@csulb.eduTwitter: @Mojo_GirlInfo: www.csulb.edu/~ttravisAaron Tay aarontay@gmail.comTwitter: @aarontayBlog:musingsaboutlibrarianship.blogspot.comPaper: Iflatravis.blogspot.com