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Historical
Background on
Management
Theory
Lisa MacLeod
15 August 2014
Why is this relevant?
The theories and the underlying aspects which
have determined our current management
and leadership ...
The Pre-Classical Era
At this period of time, management styles were
shaped based on:
• economical
• social
• political
• ...
Pre-Classical Era:
Cultural Beliefs and Values
China dependent on:
• Politics
• Social rank
• Tests determined the rank
(W...
Pre-Classical Era:
Cultural Beliefs and Values
India dependent on:
• Job descriptions
• Qualifications
• Human Resource Re...
Pre-Classical Era:
Cultural Beliefs and Values
Egypt dependent on:
• The theory of 10
• Stringent to conformity
• Each Sup...
Pre-Classical Era:
Cultural Beliefs and Values
Greece dependent on:
• The common belief that hard work
would only bring ha...
The Classical Era
Fredrick Taylor designed Scientific Management
Theory that was to benefit both the laborer and the
compa...
The Classical Era:
The Believers and Followers
Gant focused on:
• The individual
• Helped those who were not capable
• Cre...
The Classical Era:
The Believers and Followers
Emerson based the natural soldier on a
system:
• Twelve principles
• The fi...
The Classical Era:
The Believers and Followers
Cooke focused on work efficiency and:
• Developed professionalism
• Provide...
The Modernism Era
The Modernism Era or the Social Person Era
consisted of several studies. The popular
Hawthorn studies ha...
The Modernism Era:
Folliett and Bernard
• Mary Folliett linked the Scientific Management Era and the
Social Person Era. Fo...
The Post-Modern Era
The Post-Modern Era is regarded as a period of
time that can not be examined in detail due to
the exte...
The Post-Modern Era
The main concepts adapted and modified from
the Modern Era are:
• The systematization
• Information te...
What will our era be?
Even though all these systems have been explored and
presented, we as leaders and as managers are
cu...
References:
Clemmer, J. (2003). The Leader's Digest: Timeless
Principles for Team and Organization Success.
Kitchener: Cle...
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Historical Background on Management Theory

The theories and the underlying aspects which have determined our current management and leadership systems and processes have gone through several changes and developments for centuries. Those who have been actively involved in determining the processes required to achieve a common goal between employers and employees have incorporated both studies of management as a science and management as an art. Do you know why you do what you do?

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Historical Background on Management Theory

  1. 1. Historical Background on Management Theory Lisa MacLeod 15 August 2014
  2. 2. Why is this relevant? The theories and the underlying aspects which have determined our current management and leadership systems and processes have gone through several changes and developments for centuries. Those who have been actively involved in determining the processes required to achieve a common goal between employers and employees have incorporated both studies of management as a science and management as an art. Do you know why you do what you do?
  3. 3. The Pre-Classical Era At this period of time, management styles were shaped based on: • economical • social • political • technical aspects The Pre-Classical Era is broadly defined as the ability to “…view management as an activity that performs certain functions to obtain the effective acquisition, allocation and utilization of human efforts and physical resources to accomplish some goal.” (Wren, 2005, p. 3)
  4. 4. Pre-Classical Era: Cultural Beliefs and Values China dependent on: • Politics • Social rank • Tests determined the rank (Wren, 2005)
  5. 5. Pre-Classical Era: Cultural Beliefs and Values India dependent on: • Job descriptions • Qualifications • Human Resource Representative (Wren, 2005)
  6. 6. Pre-Classical Era: Cultural Beliefs and Values Egypt dependent on: • The theory of 10 • Stringent to conformity • Each Supervisor had 10 workers (Wren, 2005)
  7. 7. Pre-Classical Era: Cultural Beliefs and Values Greece dependent on: • The common belief that hard work would only bring happiness and prosperity. (Wren, 2005)
  8. 8. The Classical Era Fredrick Taylor designed Scientific Management Theory that was to benefit both the laborer and the company by increasing production and providing more social benefits for the employees. This era focused on: • The natural soldier • Empowering and inspire to perform • Achieve a standard The Classical Era or also known as the Scientific Era was because it was”…to use scientific fact finding methods to determine empirically the right was to perform tasks.” (Wren, 2005, p. 124)
  9. 9. The Classical Era: The Believers and Followers Gant focused on: • The individual • Helped those who were not capable • Created a collaborative atmosphere • Introduced graphics by making posters to demonstrate achievements (Kouzes, 2003)
  10. 10. The Classical Era: The Believers and Followers Emerson based the natural soldier on a system: • Twelve principles • The first five were directly related to the people • The latter seven were directly related to the methods in which the work was done (Kouzes, 2003)
  11. 11. The Classical Era: The Believers and Followers Cooke focused on work efficiency and: • Developed professionalism • Provided workers the social human benefits • Organized structures • Created good relations between the workers and management (Kouzes, 2003)
  12. 12. The Modernism Era The Modernism Era or the Social Person Era consisted of several studies. The popular Hawthorn studies had two studies in particular that produced contrasting results which concluded in the idea that a mixture of management styles are necessary based on the situation or organization that is to be managed. (Kouzes, 2003)
  13. 13. The Modernism Era: Folliett and Bernard • Mary Folliett linked the Scientific Management Era and the Social Person Era. Follett’s theories were based on the circular response or group organization. The group was then to work towards a common vision ad the group was to think as one therefore putting the group first and the individual second. • Chester Bernard shared the same ideas about management and leadership. The main components were cooperation, a common purpose and effective communication and leadership. This was to be regarded as combining production and people. Group orientated techniques were utilized and hidden talents and techniques of the individuals were discovered. (Kouzes, 2003; Wren, 2005)
  14. 14. The Post-Modern Era The Post-Modern Era is regarded as a period of time that can not be examined in detail due to the extensive areas that have been identified. However, the Modern Era can be divided into areas of research by: • Henri Fayol • Lillian Gilber • Mary Follett (Wren, 2005)
  15. 15. The Post-Modern Era The main concepts adapted and modified from the Modern Era are: • The systematization • Information technology • Business ethics • Corporate social responsibility • Global cross-cultural issues related to management thought (Gardner, 1990)
  16. 16. What will our era be? Even though all these systems have been explored and presented, we as leaders and as managers are currently creating our new thoughts of management. Due to our time of constant change in which we are involved, navigating change will be the balance between management and leadership and today’s leader will capitalize on current events. Eventually, this will determine how we see things and will demonstrate what we fundamentally believe in. (Clemmer, 2003)
  17. 17. References: Clemmer, J. (2003). The Leader's Digest: Timeless Principles for Team and Organization Success. Kitchener: Clemmer Group Press. Gardner, J. (1990). On leadership. New York: The Free Press. Kouzes, J. (2003). Business Leadership: A Jossey Bass Reader. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Wren, D. (2005), The history of management thought, 5th Edition. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

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