Higher Education And Economic Development

T
Tennessee Independent Colleges and Universities AssociationTennessee Independent Colleges and Universities Association
Higher Education and
Economic Development
 Linking Higher Education to
        Market Forces
Introduction
• Knowledge economy
• Addressing brain drain
• Need for intellectual
  excellence in all areas
• Visioning a partnership
  of training and
  economic development
• Shared vision for the
  Kurdish Region
Introduction
• Importance of
  general knowledge
• Importance of
  specific knowledge
• Human resource
  demands of global
  businesses – What
  do they want?
Importance of Institutional
  Autonomy that is Accountable
• General Public
• Higher Education
  Community
• Government
• Students
• Business
General Public
•   Contribution to a civil society
•   Inclusive discourse and debate
•   Cultural enhancements
•   Preparing the future generations for robust
    economic development within a
    representative governmental structure that
    will ensure the stability and growth of a
    nation
Higher Education Community
• Offering comparable degrees
  within a transparent structure
  of quality
• Seeking cooperation in the
  higher education enterprise
  that allows mobility of faculty
  and students
• Participating in the global
  higher education community
Government
• Providing accountability for government
  financial support
• Supporting and contributing to the mission
  and vision of the country
• Graduating students in a timely manner
  equipped with skills necessary to advance
  the civic, economic, and research
  strategies
Students
• Providing access
• Providing for the highest quality education
  available with existing resources
• Offering degrees that match up with
  interests, passions and skill sets
• Providing services and courses necessary
  for on-time graduation
• Providing meaningful practical
  experiences
Business
• Providing highly qualified graduates with
  the necessary skill-sets to advance
  business agendas for existing enterprises
  – Entry level - skilled
  – Management
  – Technical
• Providing research to create new jobs and
  industries; fostering the entrepreneurial
  spirit
Creating a Responsive
     Higher Education System
• Mission Driven Institutions
• Engages All Stakeholders
• Has Available Resources to Accomplish
  Mission
• Develops Measurable Plans Around the
  Future of the Kurdish Region
• Has Strategies for Student Recruitment
Mission Driven Institutions
• Understands clearly strengths and
  limitations
• Careful planning with limited resources
• Constantly assess around mission focus
• Looks to ultimate goals and outcomes
  that are congruent with the business and
  government interests
Engages All Stakeholders
•   Faculty
•   Students
•   Alumni
•   Board
•   Ministry
•   Business
Available Resources to
         Accomplish Mission
•   Teaching and Learning
•   Research
•   Technology
•   Sources
    – Ministry
    – Business partnerships
Measurable Plans for the Future
    of the Kurdish Region
• Retaining and attracting scholars
• Moving research to patents and job creation (i.e.
  EPSCoR)
• Using the university for corporate attraction
• Business incubators for entrepreneurial thinking
  in an emerging economy.
   – Focus on small to medium enterprises
   – Support existing business for expansion
Student Recruitment
• Adequately prepare students for university level
  work
• Keeping the brightest in the Kurdish region
• Utilization of international education (service
  commitment scholarships)
• Attracting some of the best students to all areas of
  study
• Providing opportunity for under-prepared and low-
  income
• Incentive toward certain professions (scholarships –
  Corporate named scholars)
Partnership Examples
• Recent corporate relocations to Tennessee:
   – Automotive (management and production)
   – Technology production
• Belmont’s leadership institute
• Tusculum’s corporate site degree programs
• Lipscomb’s institutes for ethics and conflict
  resolution
• Faculty/Student research partnerships
• Business incubators
Challenges
• Need for open and transparent economic vision
  and plan
• Need for focus in higher education
   – Program justification
   – Responsiveness
• Scarce resources
• Lack of data on education attainment
• Strong lower and higher education systems that
  provide opportunity for everyone
Education Programs
Maintaining quality and focus
Education Programs
• Each academic program:
  – Must demonstrate that it is consistent with the
    university mission
  – Must be approved by the faculty and administration
  – Establishes and evaluates programs and learning
    outcomes
• Faculty are empowered and accountable at the
  university level to adjust curriculum that is
  cutting edge and responsive to regional, national
  and global challenges
Education Programs
• Decentralized admission
  decisions at the campus
  level which are
  consistent with the
  mission of the university
  – Selectivity
  – Competencies
  – Program admission aligns
    with objectives and
    desired outcomes
Education Programs
• University uses
  technology to
  enhance student
  learning appropriate
  to meeting the
  program goals and
  objectives and
  ensures that the
  students have access
  to training and use of
  technology
Education Programs
• Faculty hold the primary responsibility for
  curricular
   – Content
   – Quality
   – Effectiveness
• Faculty hold the responsibility for determining
  learning outcomes for courses and degree
  programs
• Programs must demonstrate knowledge
  progression (ratcheting)
Education Programs
• First Cycle: Undergraduate Programs
  – Institution identifies university-level
    competencies within the general education
    core and provides evidence that graduates
    have attained those competencies
    • Program level
    • Course level
The Bologna Process for U.S. Eyes:
 Re-learning Higher Education in
     the Age of Convergence


         Clifford Adelman
             April 2009
Short Cycle
• Demonstrate knowledge and understanding that builds
  upon secondary education
• Can apply knowledge to occupational contexts
• Ability to identify and use data to formulate responses to
  well-defined concrete and abstract problems
• Communicate about their understanding, skills, and
  activities, with peers, supervisors, and clients
• Possess the learning skills to undertake further studies
  with some autonomy
First Cycle
• Demonstrated knowledge and understanding that builds
  upon secondary education, and is typically at a level
  that, whilst supported by advanced textbooks, includes
  some aspects that will be informed by the forefront of
  their field of study
• Can apply knowledge in a manner that indicates
  professional approach to their work or vocation, and
  have competencies typically demonstrated through
  devising and sustaining arguments and solving problems
  within their field of study
First Cycle – (Continued)
• Have the ability to gather and interpret relevant data
  (usually within their field of study) to inform judgements
  that include reflection on relevant social, scientific or
  ethical issues;
• Can communicate information, ideas, problems and
  solutions to both specialists and non-specialist
  audiences; and
• Have developed those learning skills that are necessary
  for them to continue to undertake further study with a
  high degree of autonomy
Education Programs
• Second Cycle: Graduate Programs
  – Demonstrate that graduate programs are
    progressively more advanced than
    undergraduate programs
  – Graduate studies and support should foster
    • Independent learning
    • Contribution to profession or field of study
  – Residency and ECTS requirements should be
    met
Second Cycle
• Have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that
  is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that
  typically associated with Bachelor’ s level, and that
  provides a basis or opportunity for originality in
  developing and/or applying ideas, often within a research
  context
• Can apply their knowledge and understanding, and
  problem solving abilities in new or unfamiliar
  environments within broader (or multidisciplinary)
  contexts related to their field of study;
Second Cycle (Continued)
• Have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle
  complexity, and formulate judgments with incomplete or
  limited information, but that include reflecting on social
  and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of
  their knowledge and judgments;
• Can communicate their conclusions, and the knowledge
  and rationale underpinning these, to specialist and non-
  specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously; and
• Have the learning skills to allow them to continue to
  study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or
  autonomous.
Tuning Model
• Subject specific
  – Multi-institutional
  – Faculty driven
  – All key stakeholders
  – Does not determine 100% of content, just
    general learning outcomes
• Thematic Networks
  – Deal with specific cross border issues and
    curriculum solutions
Higher Education And Economic Development
Subject Dependent Outcomes
           First Cycle
• Demonstrate knowledge of the foundation and history of
  that major field;
• Demonstrate understanding of the overall structure of
  the discipline and the relationships both among its sub-
  fields and to other disciplines;
• Communicate the basic knowledge of the field
  (information, theories) in coherent ways and in
  appropriate media (oral, written, graphic, etc.);
• Place and interpret new information from the field in
  context;
Subject Dependent Outcomes
           First Cycle
• Demonstrate understanding and execution
  of the methods of critical analysis in the
  field;
• Execute discipline-related methods and
  techniques accurately; and
• Demonstrate understanding of quality
  criteria for evaluating discipline-related
  research.
Subject Dependent Outcomes
          Second Cycle
• Within a specialized field in the discipline,
  demonstrates knowledge of current and leading
  theories, interpretations, methods, and
  techniques;
• Can follow critically and interpret the latest
  developments in theory and practice in the field;
• Demonstrates competence in the techniques of
  independent research, and interprets research
  results at an advanced level;
Subject Dependent Outcomes
          Second Cycle
• Makes an original, though limited,
  contribution within the canons and
  appropriate to the practice of a discipline,
  e.g. thesis, project, performance,
  composition, exhibit, etc.; and
• Evidences creativity within the various
  contexts of the discipline.
European Credit Transfer
         System (ECTS)
• Focuses on student
  workload
• Learning outcomes
• Course Grades
  – Credits do not have to
    be the same, just
    comparable
Diploma Supplement
• Information about the credential awarded
• Information on the level of the credential
  – Provides narrative about the overall education
    experience to provide degree context in the
    international community
• Information on the contents of the course
  of study and results gained
  – Full time/part time; internships; theses; etc.
Diploma Supplement
• Statement of the purpose and function of
  the credential
  – Labor force or research preparation?
  – Confer status in a regulated profession?
• Additional information; such as:
  – Academic honors
  – External examinations or licenses
  – Institution or community service
  – Student research
  – Language proficiency
Quality Enhancement
• Institutions are to demonstrate that they
  are seeking to improve
• Institutions are allowed to determine the
  best process to accomplish ongoing
  quality
• Regional bodies have adopted Quality
  Enhancement Processes (QEP)
• Examples of PDCA and Deming
Quality Enhancement
• PDCA – Walter Shewhart
  and later adopted by
  Edwards Deming
  – Plan
  – Do
  – Check
  – Act
PDCA
• Plan
  – Define the problem or opportunity; Determine
    what it is that you are trying to improve
  – Identify who owns the process
  – Limit your investigation
  – Include all the stakeholders
  – Analyze the situation
    •   Fully assess your current process
    •   Brainstorming techniques
    •   Data driven analysis
    •   Qualitative analysis
PDCA
• Plan (continued)
  – Benchmarking
       • Comparative processes
       • Aspiring processes
  – Objectify the process (drive out fear and
    institute pride)
• Do
  – Implement corrective actions
  – Document the procedures of implementation
  – Monitor and measure changes (collect data)
PDCA
• Check
  – Analyze information collected on the change
    actions and outcomes
  – Monitor trends (discount for special cause
    variations)
  – Compare results against expected results
• Act
  – Expected results? Yes, congratulations!
  – Additional improvement? PDCA
Quality Enhancement
• Additional Tools:
  – Flow Charts
  – Brainstorming
  – SWOT
     •   Strengths
     •   Weaknesses
     •   Opportunities
     •   Threats
• Examples – Student Services
Edwards Deming
• Create constancy of purpose toward
  improvement of product and service
• Adopt a new philosophy of a global age
• Cease inspection of the end product as a
  substitute for true quality
• Use quality improvement to reduce cost
• Improve constantly and forever
• Institute life-long learning/training on the
  job
Edwards Deming
• Institute leadership; not merely supervision
• Drive out fear so that everyone may
  contribute to the betterment of the
  university
• Break down barriers between departments
  and universities
• Do not rely on slogans to institute change
• Eliminate quotas and institute leadership
Edwards Deming
• Eliminate management by objective and
  instill pride in work; for all levels of the
  university staff, administration, and faculty
• Institute programs of improvement for
  processes and individuals
• Engage everyone at the university to
  implement and sustain quality
  improvement
Higher Education And Economic Development
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Higher Education And Economic Development

  • 1. Higher Education and Economic Development Linking Higher Education to Market Forces
  • 2. Introduction • Knowledge economy • Addressing brain drain • Need for intellectual excellence in all areas • Visioning a partnership of training and economic development • Shared vision for the Kurdish Region
  • 3. Introduction • Importance of general knowledge • Importance of specific knowledge • Human resource demands of global businesses – What do they want?
  • 4. Importance of Institutional Autonomy that is Accountable • General Public • Higher Education Community • Government • Students • Business
  • 5. General Public • Contribution to a civil society • Inclusive discourse and debate • Cultural enhancements • Preparing the future generations for robust economic development within a representative governmental structure that will ensure the stability and growth of a nation
  • 6. Higher Education Community • Offering comparable degrees within a transparent structure of quality • Seeking cooperation in the higher education enterprise that allows mobility of faculty and students • Participating in the global higher education community
  • 7. Government • Providing accountability for government financial support • Supporting and contributing to the mission and vision of the country • Graduating students in a timely manner equipped with skills necessary to advance the civic, economic, and research strategies
  • 8. Students • Providing access • Providing for the highest quality education available with existing resources • Offering degrees that match up with interests, passions and skill sets • Providing services and courses necessary for on-time graduation • Providing meaningful practical experiences
  • 9. Business • Providing highly qualified graduates with the necessary skill-sets to advance business agendas for existing enterprises – Entry level - skilled – Management – Technical • Providing research to create new jobs and industries; fostering the entrepreneurial spirit
  • 10. Creating a Responsive Higher Education System • Mission Driven Institutions • Engages All Stakeholders • Has Available Resources to Accomplish Mission • Develops Measurable Plans Around the Future of the Kurdish Region • Has Strategies for Student Recruitment
  • 11. Mission Driven Institutions • Understands clearly strengths and limitations • Careful planning with limited resources • Constantly assess around mission focus • Looks to ultimate goals and outcomes that are congruent with the business and government interests
  • 12. Engages All Stakeholders • Faculty • Students • Alumni • Board • Ministry • Business
  • 13. Available Resources to Accomplish Mission • Teaching and Learning • Research • Technology • Sources – Ministry – Business partnerships
  • 14. Measurable Plans for the Future of the Kurdish Region • Retaining and attracting scholars • Moving research to patents and job creation (i.e. EPSCoR) • Using the university for corporate attraction • Business incubators for entrepreneurial thinking in an emerging economy. – Focus on small to medium enterprises – Support existing business for expansion
  • 15. Student Recruitment • Adequately prepare students for university level work • Keeping the brightest in the Kurdish region • Utilization of international education (service commitment scholarships) • Attracting some of the best students to all areas of study • Providing opportunity for under-prepared and low- income • Incentive toward certain professions (scholarships – Corporate named scholars)
  • 16. Partnership Examples • Recent corporate relocations to Tennessee: – Automotive (management and production) – Technology production • Belmont’s leadership institute • Tusculum’s corporate site degree programs • Lipscomb’s institutes for ethics and conflict resolution • Faculty/Student research partnerships • Business incubators
  • 17. Challenges • Need for open and transparent economic vision and plan • Need for focus in higher education – Program justification – Responsiveness • Scarce resources • Lack of data on education attainment • Strong lower and higher education systems that provide opportunity for everyone
  • 19. Education Programs • Each academic program: – Must demonstrate that it is consistent with the university mission – Must be approved by the faculty and administration – Establishes and evaluates programs and learning outcomes • Faculty are empowered and accountable at the university level to adjust curriculum that is cutting edge and responsive to regional, national and global challenges
  • 20. Education Programs • Decentralized admission decisions at the campus level which are consistent with the mission of the university – Selectivity – Competencies – Program admission aligns with objectives and desired outcomes
  • 21. Education Programs • University uses technology to enhance student learning appropriate to meeting the program goals and objectives and ensures that the students have access to training and use of technology
  • 22. Education Programs • Faculty hold the primary responsibility for curricular – Content – Quality – Effectiveness • Faculty hold the responsibility for determining learning outcomes for courses and degree programs • Programs must demonstrate knowledge progression (ratcheting)
  • 23. Education Programs • First Cycle: Undergraduate Programs – Institution identifies university-level competencies within the general education core and provides evidence that graduates have attained those competencies • Program level • Course level
  • 24. The Bologna Process for U.S. Eyes: Re-learning Higher Education in the Age of Convergence Clifford Adelman April 2009
  • 25. Short Cycle • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding that builds upon secondary education • Can apply knowledge to occupational contexts • Ability to identify and use data to formulate responses to well-defined concrete and abstract problems • Communicate about their understanding, skills, and activities, with peers, supervisors, and clients • Possess the learning skills to undertake further studies with some autonomy
  • 26. First Cycle • Demonstrated knowledge and understanding that builds upon secondary education, and is typically at a level that, whilst supported by advanced textbooks, includes some aspects that will be informed by the forefront of their field of study • Can apply knowledge in a manner that indicates professional approach to their work or vocation, and have competencies typically demonstrated through devising and sustaining arguments and solving problems within their field of study
  • 27. First Cycle – (Continued) • Have the ability to gather and interpret relevant data (usually within their field of study) to inform judgements that include reflection on relevant social, scientific or ethical issues; • Can communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialists and non-specialist audiences; and • Have developed those learning skills that are necessary for them to continue to undertake further study with a high degree of autonomy
  • 28. Education Programs • Second Cycle: Graduate Programs – Demonstrate that graduate programs are progressively more advanced than undergraduate programs – Graduate studies and support should foster • Independent learning • Contribution to profession or field of study – Residency and ECTS requirements should be met
  • 29. Second Cycle • Have demonstrated knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that typically associated with Bachelor’ s level, and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas, often within a research context • Can apply their knowledge and understanding, and problem solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader (or multidisciplinary) contexts related to their field of study;
  • 30. Second Cycle (Continued) • Have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity, and formulate judgments with incomplete or limited information, but that include reflecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgments; • Can communicate their conclusions, and the knowledge and rationale underpinning these, to specialist and non- specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously; and • Have the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous.
  • 31. Tuning Model • Subject specific – Multi-institutional – Faculty driven – All key stakeholders – Does not determine 100% of content, just general learning outcomes • Thematic Networks – Deal with specific cross border issues and curriculum solutions
  • 33. Subject Dependent Outcomes First Cycle • Demonstrate knowledge of the foundation and history of that major field; • Demonstrate understanding of the overall structure of the discipline and the relationships both among its sub- fields and to other disciplines; • Communicate the basic knowledge of the field (information, theories) in coherent ways and in appropriate media (oral, written, graphic, etc.); • Place and interpret new information from the field in context;
  • 34. Subject Dependent Outcomes First Cycle • Demonstrate understanding and execution of the methods of critical analysis in the field; • Execute discipline-related methods and techniques accurately; and • Demonstrate understanding of quality criteria for evaluating discipline-related research.
  • 35. Subject Dependent Outcomes Second Cycle • Within a specialized field in the discipline, demonstrates knowledge of current and leading theories, interpretations, methods, and techniques; • Can follow critically and interpret the latest developments in theory and practice in the field; • Demonstrates competence in the techniques of independent research, and interprets research results at an advanced level;
  • 36. Subject Dependent Outcomes Second Cycle • Makes an original, though limited, contribution within the canons and appropriate to the practice of a discipline, e.g. thesis, project, performance, composition, exhibit, etc.; and • Evidences creativity within the various contexts of the discipline.
  • 37. European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) • Focuses on student workload • Learning outcomes • Course Grades – Credits do not have to be the same, just comparable
  • 38. Diploma Supplement • Information about the credential awarded • Information on the level of the credential – Provides narrative about the overall education experience to provide degree context in the international community • Information on the contents of the course of study and results gained – Full time/part time; internships; theses; etc.
  • 39. Diploma Supplement • Statement of the purpose and function of the credential – Labor force or research preparation? – Confer status in a regulated profession? • Additional information; such as: – Academic honors – External examinations or licenses – Institution or community service – Student research – Language proficiency
  • 40. Quality Enhancement • Institutions are to demonstrate that they are seeking to improve • Institutions are allowed to determine the best process to accomplish ongoing quality • Regional bodies have adopted Quality Enhancement Processes (QEP) • Examples of PDCA and Deming
  • 41. Quality Enhancement • PDCA – Walter Shewhart and later adopted by Edwards Deming – Plan – Do – Check – Act
  • 42. PDCA • Plan – Define the problem or opportunity; Determine what it is that you are trying to improve – Identify who owns the process – Limit your investigation – Include all the stakeholders – Analyze the situation • Fully assess your current process • Brainstorming techniques • Data driven analysis • Qualitative analysis
  • 43. PDCA • Plan (continued) – Benchmarking • Comparative processes • Aspiring processes – Objectify the process (drive out fear and institute pride) • Do – Implement corrective actions – Document the procedures of implementation – Monitor and measure changes (collect data)
  • 44. PDCA • Check – Analyze information collected on the change actions and outcomes – Monitor trends (discount for special cause variations) – Compare results against expected results • Act – Expected results? Yes, congratulations! – Additional improvement? PDCA
  • 45. Quality Enhancement • Additional Tools: – Flow Charts – Brainstorming – SWOT • Strengths • Weaknesses • Opportunities • Threats • Examples – Student Services
  • 46. Edwards Deming • Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service • Adopt a new philosophy of a global age • Cease inspection of the end product as a substitute for true quality • Use quality improvement to reduce cost • Improve constantly and forever • Institute life-long learning/training on the job
  • 47. Edwards Deming • Institute leadership; not merely supervision • Drive out fear so that everyone may contribute to the betterment of the university • Break down barriers between departments and universities • Do not rely on slogans to institute change • Eliminate quotas and institute leadership
  • 48. Edwards Deming • Eliminate management by objective and instill pride in work; for all levels of the university staff, administration, and faculty • Institute programs of improvement for processes and individuals • Engage everyone at the university to implement and sustain quality improvement