1. Prepared By : Syed Hassnain Shah
Social determinants of Health
Classification and Examples
2. Social determinants of health are conditions in
the environments in which people are born, live,
learn, work, play, worship, and age.
That affect a wide range of health, functioning,
and quality-of-life outcomes and risks.
Conditions (e.g., social, economic, and physical)
in these various environments and settings (e.g.,
school, church, workplace, and neighborhood)
have been referred to as “place.
3. In addition to the more material attributes of
“place,” the patterns of social engagement and
sense of security and well-being are also
affected by where people live.
Resources that enhance quality of life can have
a significant influence on population health
Examples of these resources include safe and
affordable housing, access to education, public
safety, availability of healthy foods, local
emergency/health services, and environments
free of life-threatening toxins.
7. It include the physical, chemical and
biological factors external to the
individual, as well as all the other factors
impacting behaviors in order to prevent
diseases and create healthy
9. Community based wildlife protection
in Tanzania helps to maintain overall
biodiversity of the East African country.
Pictured in previous slide, an African
bush elephant walks throughout
Ngoro-ngoro National Park, Tanzania.
Establishment of Wildlife Management
Areas has helped to protect this
elephant and many other species from
poaching and habitat loss.
10. Macro factors are economic conditions,
social and political factors, culture, and
environmental factors such as ecology,
natural resources, employment,
economic development, and education.
Macro factors affect the population as a
whole and indirectly impact on
individuals and the family.
11. China is also an economic powerhouse on
the global stage. China has a GDP of over $12
trillion, with a huge population of just under
1.4 billion people. As such, you can see that
the average Chinese person gets a smaller
slice of the pie, and the reduced consumer
spending (in comparison to the US) reflects
13. Health inequalities are the unjust and
avoidable differences in people's health
across the population and between specific
population groups. Some authors,
particularly from North America, use
'inequalities' to denote differences between
groups and 'inequities' to denote unjust
differences between groups.
15. There are alarming racial differences in maternal
mortality. Depending on sources, the risk of
pregnancy-related deaths for black women is 3–4
times or 2–6 times higher than for white
The birth weights of infants of black women are
lower than those of infants of white women, too,
and this cannot be attributed to genetics, because
newborns from Africa-born black women are
closer in weight to newborns from US-born white
women than they are to newborns of US-born
16. The built environment includes all of the physical
parts of where we live and work (e.g., homes,
buildings, streets, open spaces, and
The built environment influences a person’s level
of physical activity. For example, inaccessible or
nonexistent sidewalks and bicycle or walking paths
contribute to sedentary habits. These habits lead
to poor health outcomes such as obesity,
cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and some types of
cancer. Today, approximately two thirds of
Americans are overweight.
19. Social Context, also known as milieu is how
someone reacts to something depending on their
immediate social or physical environment.
Social context can influence how someone
perceives something. For example, a person who is
trying a new food in an unwelcoming or harsh
environment might perceive the food as tasting
bad and not like it in the future. But if they had
been in a fun and relaxing environment when they
first tried it they may have perceived the food as
tasting good and end up enjoying it.
21. People with the same social
environment often develop a sense of
social solidarity; people often tend to
trust and help one another, and to
congregate in social groups. They will
often think in similar styles and
patterns, even though the conclusions
which they reach may differ.
26. A stressor is a biological agent,
environmental condition, external
stimulus or an event seen as causing
stress to an organism.
Psychologically speaking, a stressor can
be events or environments that
individuals might consider demanding,
challenging, and/or threatening
28. Managers are stressed out by their
50% of employees who have left a job,
quit because they hated their boss.
There is miscommunication between
you and your manager on key projects
It’s normal to disagree with your
manager sometimes, but a truly bad
relationship can lead to anxiety, stress
and potentially even your resignation.
29. Health behavior is an action to maintain,
attain, or regain good health and to
prevent illness. Some common health
behaviors are exercising regularly, eating
a balanced diet, and obtaining necessary
inoculations. Health behaviors are
influenced by the social, cultural and
physical environments in which we live
30. The 1988 Welsh Heart Health Survey (HPAW
1990) reported that among 18–34 year olds, 61
percent of men engaged in moderately vigorous
exercise at least two times a week compared
with only 35 percent of women.
For 35–64 year olds, the percentages drops to
37 percent for men and 17 percent for women.
Overall, across First World countries the
typical exerciser is likely to be young, well
educated, affluent and male.
32. Social integration is the process during
which newcomers or minorities are
incorporated into the social structure of the
Social support means having friends and
other people, including family, to turn to in
times of need or crisis to give you a broader
focus and positive self-image. Social support
enhances quality of life and provides a
buffer against adverse life events.
34. In relation to tolerant and open
societies, members of minority groups
often use social integration to gain full
access to the opportunities, rights and
services available to the members of
the mainstream of society with cultural
institutions such as churches and civic
35. Early familial social support has been shown to be
important in children's abilities to develop social
competencies,and supportive parental
relationships have also had benefits for college-
Teacher and school personnel support have been
shown to be stronger than other relationships of
This is hypothesized to be a result of family and
friend social relationships to be subject to conflicts
whereas school relationships are more stable.
37. ''change in the health of an individual, group of
people or population which is attributable to an
intervention or series of interventions''
This definition is helpful because it makes clear
that determining health outcomes, first and
foremost, involves measuring a change.
Secondly, they can relate to individual patients or
entire populations and finally, the outcomes are
related to specific interventions.
39. Health outcomes have been found to
be positive following treatment of
COPD patients with once daily
tiotropium for 6 months , and
similar results have been found after 1
year of treatment with tiotropium ,
and in comparison with treatment with
ipratropium over a year .
40. It is a positive physical, social and mental state; it
is not just the absence of pain, discomfort and
It requires that basic needs are met, that
individuals have a sense of purpose, that they feel
able to achieve important personal goals and
participate in society.
It is enhanced by conditions that include
supportive personal relationships, strong and
inclusive communities, good health, financial and
personal security, rewarding employment, and a
healthy and attractive environment
42. India’s overall rank in youth wellbeing falls in
the bottom tier of countries in the Index.
However, due to its strong democratic
institutions and robust electoral processes at
the national and state levels, the country does
well in the citizen participation domain.
India’s young people experience challenges in
health, education, economic opportunity,
information and communication technology,
and gender equality.