2. LITERATURE REVIEW
3. MAIN PARTS OF HYPERLOOP
3.1. LOW PRESSURE TUBE
3.2.1. PASSANGER ONLY VERSION
3.2.2. PASSENGER PLUS VEHICLE VERSION
3.3. AXIAL COMPRESSOR
3.3.1. COMPRESSOR LINE DIAGRAM
4. HYPERLOOP DESIGN
4. Existing conventional modes of transportation of people consists of four unique types
rail, road, water, and air.
These modes of transport may be either slow or expensive.
Hyperloop is a new mode of transport that seeks to change this paradigm by being both fast
and inexpensive for people and goods.
This hypothetical high-speed mode of transportation would have the following characteristics:
immunity to weather, collision free, twice the speed of a plane, low power consumption,
and energy storage for 24-hour operations.
The name Hyperloop was chosen because it would go in a loop.
It eliminates direct emission, noise, delay, weather concerns, and pilot error.
The energy required to run this system will be supplied by itself which will be produced by the
solar panels affixed to upper part of tube .
The energy consumed by the hyperloop to drive its system is almost 80% of the total energy
generated by the solar panels thus 20% energy will be add extra money into hyperloop pocket.
6. Concepts for high-speed trains in vacuum or evacuated tubes can be traced back as far as 1909,
when rocket pioneer Robert H. Goddard proposed high-speed passenger-carrying pods
traveling through evacuated tubes. Bachelet introduced the core idea behind magnetically
levitating trains as early as 1910.
Elon Musk, (July 2012) pitched an idea for fifth mode of transport which would operate on
combined principles of a Concorde, an air hockey table and rail gun. He patented this under the
name-Hyperloop of which he published an open sourced white paper. In his words, Hyperloop
incorporates reduced-pressure tubes in which pressurized capsules ride on air bearings,
accelerated by linear induction motors. The Hyperloop is proposed as the next contender in
High Speed Transport, and a simplified energy analysis is performed to aid in evaluating the
feasibility of the Hyperloop. A diffuser-compressor-nozzle system has also been incorporated
with it. Ahmed Habib (May 2016), proposed the use of linear induction motor for
propulsion of the Hyperloop capsule which can be used for speeding and
braking. The study demonstrated that like rotatory synchronous motors, linear motors can run
on three phase power and can support very high speed. Although rotatory induction motors are
more energy efficient there are end effects that reduce the motors thrust force, thus providing
linear induction motors are much more suitable for the required output.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
7. Hyperloop is a new mode of transportation proposed as an alternative to California’s high
speed rail project, with the intended benefits of higher performance at lower overall costs.
It consists of a passenger pod traveling through a tube under a light vacuum and suspended on
air bearings. Of the two variants outlined, the smaller system includes a 1.1 meter tall
passenger capsule traveling through a 2.2 meter tube at 700 miles per hour. The passenger pod
features water-based heat exchangers as well as an on-board compression system that reduces
the aerodynamic drag as it moves through the tube. Hyperloop is a conceptual transportation
system designed to lower costs and travel times relative to California’s current high-speed rail
project. Elon Musk and a team of engineers from Tesla Motors and the Space Exploration
Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) proposed the idea in August 2013 as an open design to be
vetted and further refined through public contribution. The concept deviates from existing
high-speed rail designs by eliminating the rails, enclosing the passenger pod in a tube under a
partial vacuum, and suspending the pod on air bearings. Propulsion is handled by a set of linear
electromagnetic accelerators mounted to the tube with the entire system held above ground on
concrete columns maintaining a relatively straight trajectory. Although Hyperloop is similar to
other vacuum tube train (VacTrain) concepts, the soft vacuum represents a distinct difference.
Jeffrey C. Chin et.al.
8. It allows the pod to run on air-bearings, thus removing the need for a magnetic levitation system
used on other VacTrain designs. The air bearings require a source of pressurized air, which is
provided by a compressor powered by on-board batteries. Although the original proposal looks
very promising, additional engineering and economic analyses are markedly necessary before a
more complete design can be developed.
9. 3. MAIN PART OF HYPERLOOP
1. Low Pressure Tube
3. Axial Compressor
10. 3.1. Low Pressure Tube
The tube is made of steel.
The pressure in the tube is 100pa (equivalent to flying above 150,000 feet altitude).
Pylons are placed every 30 m to support the tube.
11. 3.2. CAPSULE
Two versions of the Hyperloop capsules are being considered:
3.2.1. passenger only version.
3.2.2. passenger plus vehicle version.
3.2.1. Hyperloop Passenger Capsule
A minimum of 28 passengers per capsule.
The capsules are supported via air bearings that operate using a compressed air reservoir and
The maximum width is 4.43 ft (1.35 m) and maximum height is 3.61 ft (1.10 m).
12. 3.2.2. Hyperloop Passenger Plus Vehicle Capsule
The passenger plus vehicle version of the Hyperloop will depart as often as the passenger only
version, but will accommodate 3 vehicles in addition to the passengers.
The passenger plus vehicle version of the Hyperloop capsule has an increased frontal area of 43
ft2 (4.0 m2), not including any propulsion or suspension components. This accounts for enough
width to fit a vehicle as large as the Tesla Model X.
14. 3.3. Axial Compressor
It avoids kantrowitz limit.
Air is compressed with a pressure ratio of 20:1.
Some air is stored for passenger and air bearing.
An onboard water tank is used for cooling of the air.
One important feature of the capsule is the onboard compressor, which serves two purposes.
This system allows the capsule to traverse the relatively narrow tube without choking flow that
travels between the capsule and the tube walls (resulting in a build-up of air mass in front of
the capsule and increasing the drag) by compressing air that is bypassed through the capsule.
It also supplies air to air bearings that support the weight of the capsule throughout the journey.
16. 1.Tube air is compressed with a compression ratio of 20:1 via an axial compressor.
2. Up to 60% of this air is bypassed:
a. The air travels via a narrow tube near bottom of the capsule to the tail.
b. A nozzle at the tail expands the flow generating thrust to mitigate some of the small
amounts of aerodynamic and bearing drag
3. Up to 0.2 kg/s of air is cooled and compressed an additional 5.2:1 for the passenger version
with additional cooling afterward.
a. This air is stored in onboard composite overwrap pressure vessel.
b. The stored air is eventually consumed by the air bearings to maintain distance between the
capsule and tube walls.
4. An onboard water tank is used for cooling of the air.
17. 3.4. Suspension
Thrust air bearings offer stability and extremely low drag
Compressor pressurized air and aerodynamic lift provide better lift to capsule.
Independent mechanical suspension are provide for smooth ride for passengers.
18. 4. Hyperloop Design
The geometry of the tube
depends on the choice of
either the passenger version of
Hyperloop or the passenger
plus vehicles version of
The inner diameter of the tube
is optimized to be 7 ft 4 in.
The tube cross-sectional area
is 42.2 ft2 (3.91 m2).
In order to keep cost to a
minimum, a uniform thickness
steel tube reinforced with
stringers was selected as the
material of choice for the inner
19. Tube sections would be pre-fabricated
and installed between pillar supports
spaced 100 ft (30 m) on average,
varying slightly depending on
This relatively short span allows
keeping tube material cost and
deflection to a minimum.
A specifically designed cleaning and
boring machine will make it possible
to surface finish the inside of the tube
and welded joints for a better gliding
In addition, the pillar to tube
connection nominal position will be
adjustable vertically and laterally to
ensure proper alignment despite
possible ground settling.
21. The Concorde portion of the Hyperloop is the capsule that rides within the tube. A passenger-
only Hyperloop capsule holds 28 passengers in side-by-side pairs. The capsules are 1.35 m (4.4
ft) wide and 1.1 m (3.6 ft) tall.
Given the Hyperloop
this starts at speeds around
500 mph (~800 km/h), and
is associated with a
dramatic increase in air drag.
22. To avoid being limited to these speeds, Musk's team has introduced a new idea for reducing
pressure in the tube.
They propose installing an air compressor in the front of the capsule to pump the air which will
not flow around the capsule and send it to a bypass nozzle at the rear of the capsule.
This reduces the amount of air that must flow around the sides of the capsule, thereby enabling
capsule speeds near Mach 1.
25. 5. Working
Hyperloop has four key features.
1) The passenger capsules aren’t propelled by air pressure like in vacuum tubes, but by two
electromagnetic motors. It is aimed to travel at a top speed of 760 miles per hour.
2) The tube tracks do have a vacuum, but not completely free of air. Instead, they have low
pressure air inside of them. Most things moving through air tubes will end up compressing the
air in the front thus, providing a cushion of air that slows the object down. But the hyperloop
will feature a compressor fan in the front of the capsule. The compressor fan can redirect air to
the back of the capsule, but mostly air will be sent to the air bearings.
3) Air bearings are ski like paddles that levitate the capsules above the surface of the tube to
4) The tube track is designed to be immune to weather and earthquakes. The pillars that rise the
tube above the ground have a small foot-print that can sway in the case of an earthquake. Each
of the tube sections can move around flexibly of the train ships because there isn’t a constant
track that capsules rely on.
26. The Hyperloop concept operates by sending specially designed "capsules" or "pods" through a
steel tube maintained at a partial vacuum.
In Musk's original concept, each capsule floats on a 0.02–0.05 in (0.5–1.3 mm) layer of air
provided under pressure to air-caster "skis“.
Linear induction motors located along the tube would accelerate and decelerate the capsule to
the appropriate speed for each section of the tube route.
With rolling resistance eliminated and air resistance
greatly reduced, the capsules can glide for the bulk
of the journey.
In Musk's original Hyperloop concept, an electrically driven inlet fan and axial compressor
would be placed at the nose of the capsule to "actively transfer high-pressure air from the front
to the rear of the vessel"
29. 7. Disadvantages
Turning will be critical (with large radius).
Insufficient movable space for passenger
30. 8. Conclusion
As it has number of advantages it will very help full for transport public as well as goods in a
very short period of time (at a top speed of 1220 kmph) and also in lower cost.
Conventional means of transportation (road, water, air, and rail) tend to be some mix of
expensive, slow, and environmentally harmful.
Road travel is particularly problematic, given carbon emissions and the fluctuating price of oil.
An additional passenger plus transport version of the Hyperloop has been created that is only
25% higher in cost than the passenger only version.
This version would be capable of transporting passengers, vehicles, etc.
Additional technological developments and further optimization could likely reduce this price.
31. 9. REFERENCE
1. Hyperloop Alpha pdf, Elon Musk.
2. Open-Source Conceptual Sizing Models for the Hyperloop Passenger Pod, Jeffrey C. Chi
et.al. NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH.
5. MIT Hyperloop final report.
6. Pankaj Singh Rathore and Sanjiv Kumar “Hyperloop Transportation System” International
Journal of Engineering Research and Technology ISSN 2278-0181 Issue-2018.