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Coordination compound

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Coordination compound

  1. 1. Presenter Usama Waheed Roll no 16103123-032 A.o.A COORDINATION COMPOUND
  2. 2. Coordination compounds • Consist of a complex ion and necessary counter ions • [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 • • Complex ion: [Co(NH3)5Cl]2+ • Co3+ + 5 NH3 + Cl- • = 1(3+) + 5 (0) + 1(1-) • = 2+ • Counter ions: 2 Cl-
  3. 3. Coordination compouds Early chemists approached transition metal complexes using the concept of “valences” adapted from main group metals. Metals with a +3 charge, such as iron(III) or cobalt(III) were believed to only make three bonds. A compound such as [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 was thought to have three Co-Cl bonds, with no way to explain the bonding of ammonia in the compound.
  4. 4. Coordination compouds One approach by Blomstrand proposed chains of linked ammonia molecules, with the nitrogens having five bonds and connecting a chloride to the metal. Alfred Werner proposed that the ammonia molecules could bond strongly and directly to the metal, with chlorides either directly bonded, or loosely bonded and ionic in solution.
  5. 5. Coordination compounds •Jorgensen supported Blomstrand’s approach, and Werner, in order to support his theory, synthesized new compounds and studied their isomers. Eventually, in 1907, Werner prevailed and proved the octahedral geometry of coordination compounds
  6. 6. Coordination compounds •Alfred Werner (1866-1919) also determined the formulas and structures of many transition metal compounds by studying their isomers. Due to the existence of a variety of structural isomers, he proposed that complexes must have square planar and octahedral shapes.
  7. 7. Geometry Of Coordination Compounds
  8. 8. A Ligand • Molecule or ion having a lone electron pair that can be used to form a bond to a metal ion • (Lewis base). • coordinate covalent bond: metal-ligand bond • monodentate: one bond to metal ion • bidentate: two bond to metal ion • polydentate: more than two bonds to a metal • ion possible
  9. 9. Names of Common Ligands Formula Name Br- bromo CO3 2- carbonato Cl- chloro CN- cyano H- hydrido OH- hydroxo O2- oxo
  10. 10. Formulas of Coordination Compounds • 1. Cation then anion • 2. Total charges must balance to zero • 3. Complex ion in brackets • K2[Co(NH3)2Cl4] • [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl
  11. 11. Simple Naming Coordination Compounds [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 1. Cation is named before the anion. “chloride” goes last 2. Ligands are named before the metal ion. ammine, chlorine named before cobalt 3. For ligand, an “o” is added to the root name of an anion (fluoro, bromo). For neutral ligands the name of the molecule is used, with exceptions. ammine, chloro 4. The prefixes mono-, di-, tri-, etc., are used to denote the number of simple ligands. penta ammine
  12. 12. Simple Naming Coordination Compounds [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 5. The oxidation state of the central metal ion is designated by a (Roman numeral). cobalt (III) 6. When more than one type of ligand is present, they are named alphabetically. pentaamminechloro 7. If the complex ion has a negative charge, the suffix “ate” is added to the name of the metal. pentaamminechlorocobalt (III) chloride
  13. 13. 20_441 Isomers (same formula but different properties) Stereoisomers (same bonds, different spatial arrangements) Structural isomers (different bonds) Optical isomerism Geometric (cis-trans) isomerism Linkage isomerism Coordination isomerism
  14. 14. Structural Isomerism 1 • Coordination isomerism: • Composition of the complex ion varies. • [Cr(NH3)5SO4]Br • and [Cr(NH3)5Br]SO4
  15. 15. Structural Isomerism 2 • Ligand isomerism: • Same complex ion structure but point of attachment of at least one of the ligands differs. • [Co(NH3)4(NO2)Cl]Cl • and [Co(NH3)4(ONO)Cl]Cl
  16. 16. Linkage Isomers [Co(NH3)5(NO2)]Cl2 Pentaamminenitrocobalt(III) chloride [Co(NH3)5(ONO)]Cl2 Pentaamminenitritocobalt(III) chloride
  17. 17. Stereoisomerism 1 • Geometric isomerism (cis-trans): • Atoms or groups arranged differently spatially relative to metal ion • Pt(NH3)2Cl2
  18. 18. Stereoisomerism 2 • Optical isomerism: • Optical isomers are molecules that differ three-dimensionally by the placement of substituents around one or more atoms in a molecule. Optical isomers were given their name because they were first able to be distinguished by how they rotated plane-polarized light. • (no superimposable mirror images) 20_446 Unpolarized light Polarizing filter Polarized light Tube containing sample  Rotated polarized light
  19. 19. 20_448 Left hand Right hand Mirror image of right hand
  20. 20. 20_450 Cl Cl N N N N Co Cl Cl N N N N Co Cl Cl N N N N Co Cl Cl N N N N Co Cl Cl N N N N Co Isomer IIIsomer I cistrans Isomer II cannot be superimposed exactly on isomer I. They are not identical structures. The trans isomer and its mirror image are identical. They are not isomers of each other. Isomer II has the same structure as the mirror image of isomer I.(b)(a)
  21. 21. Thank You For your attention.