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Psychoanalysis assignmant.pdf
Psychoanalysis assignmant.pdf
Psychoanalysis assignmant.pdf
Psychoanalysis assignmant.pdf
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Psychoanalysis assignmant.pdf
Psychoanalysis assignmant.pdf
Psychoanalysis assignmant.pdf
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Psychoanalysis assignmant.pdf

  1. 1 (Social and Psych) ASSIGNMENT NO:1 NAME: SYED MUHAMMAD AZHAR SECTION: BBA-6B ENROLLMENT NO. 01-111201-107 SUBMITTED TO: Ma’am Aasma DATE OF SUBMISSION: 30th Dec 2022
  2. 2 Impression Management: Definition, Techniques and Examples Impression management describes the actions people take to influence how others perceive a concept. Depending on their objectives, people use impression management to either support current beliefs or try to change them. Impression management makes use of the manipulation of information to draw attention to certain aspects of a situation while ignoring others that might give the wrong impression. When adopting impression management, people concentrate on disseminating information that supports how they want other people to view them, leading their audience to generate judgments and conclusions based on incomplete or biased information. In social contexts where people naturally attempt to make themselves likeable and try to embody positive attributes, impression management might work as a subconscious process that people don't realize is happening. It may also be a deliberate choice made strategically when someone needs to manage public perception. Main purpose of Impression Management To develop or maintain one's social position is the main goal of impression management. This is true even in professional settings where businesses rely on public perception to persuade customers to conduct business with them. Impression management can be used for anything, from establishing friends to landing a job. It is simpler to attain your goals for impression management when you are aware of your own motivations. Impression Management Techniques: Some of the impression management techniques are following: 1. Conformity. 2. Excuses. 3. Apologies. 4. Self-promotion. 5. Flattery. 6. Favors. 7. Association.
  3. 3 CONFORMITY: Accepting another person's viewpoint to get their acceptance. Using the restructuring plan for the western regional office as an example, a manager tells his supervisor, "You are 100% correct. I wholeheartedly concur with you. EXCUSES: Explanations of a predicament-causing incident intended to reduce the predicament's apparent severity. Examples: The sales manager may tell the boss, "We missed the deadline for the newspaper ad, but nobody ever answers to those advertisements anyhow." APOLOGIES: Accepting responsibility for an unfortunate situation while also requesting forgiveness for the behavior. Example: An employee apologizes to the supervisor for a report error. Please pardon me. SELF PROMOTION: putting one's best traits forward, playing down one's shortcomings, and emphasizing one's accomplishments. Example: A salesperson informs his manager, "Matt tried to get the account for three years in vain. It took me six weeks to sew it. I'm the best closing this business has to offer. FLATTERY: Praising others for their virtues to come across as observant and likeable. A new sales trainee might say to a peer, "You handled that client's criticism so diplomatically! You handled that better than I ever could have.
  4. 4 FAVORS: Extending a helping hand to someone in order to win their acceptance. Example: A salesperson might say to a potential customer, "I have two theater tickets tonight that I can't use. Grab them. Take it as a thank you for your time in speaking with me. ASSOCIATION: Controlling information about the people and things one is affiliated with in order to improve or defend one's reputation. Example: During the interview, a job candidate remarks, "What a coincidence. I shared a college room with your boss. Most of the studies undertaken to test the effectiveness of IM techniques have been limited to determining whether IM behavior is related to job interviews success. Employment interviews make a particularly relevant area of study since applicants are clearly attempting to present positive images of themselves and there are relatively objective outcome measures. The evidence indicates that IM behavior works. In one study, for instance, interviewers felt that applicants for a position as a customer service representative who used IM techniques performed better in the interview, and they seemed somewhat more inclined to hire these people. Moreover, when the researchers considered applicants’ credentials, they concluded that it was the IM techniques alone that influenced the interviewers. That is, it didn’t seem to matter if applicants were well or poorly qualified. If they used IM techniques, they did better in the interview. Self-deception and Impression Management Self-deception is a process or expression where relevance, meaning or importance of evidence and logical arguments are denied or rationalized. Self-deception entails that people convince themselves of a truth, so as not to reveal self-knowledge of the deception.
  5. 5 Everyone shows a certain level of self-deception. Too much of it, however, is problematic. Just try to explain to someone that they’re not listening, while they’re convinced, they are listening. When someone isn’t aware of the unrealistic idea they have of themselves, it’s impossible to impress this upon them in a limited amount of time. So, don’t try to do this during a job interview. When this does happen, the conversation will probably result in a yes-no discussion. Someone with an unrealistic self-image will even deny the results from a test report. Instead, asks for a candidate’s strengths, including examples. How do you practice Impression Management? Below you can find several guidelines for managing the impressions you make on others. 1. Know yourself Self-awareness is one of the most important things in successful IM and authenticity. Sociologist Erving Goffman proposed a dramaturgical theory in which he posited that human beings are merely a combination of various roles we adopt. However, it’s important to have a sense of self-worth. Who am I? What do I value? What do I stand for? It’s important to have a sense of self-worth to prevent that we turn into a chameleon who adapts to everything and everyone around them. It’s not necessary to always go along with the masses. 2. Be mindful When interacting with others, our brain works at full speed. In social situations, it’s important to be effective listeners and the points of view of others must be understood. For this purpose, lots of connections are made between different brain areas. Although this often happens subconsciously, people should think about the consequences of statements and actions. Self-disclosure is an important part of forming relationships with others. Yet, we should be careful not to reveal too much information too quickly and always think about how someone else would respond to this information.
  6. 6 3. Manage emotions Nothing creates a negative impression faster than an inappropriate and explosive emotional outburst. Emotions are an important tool for connecting with others, and expressing emotions brings balance to the human brain, but emotions must be regulated and moderated. Negative emotions such as anger, irritations or even disgust must always be carefully and strategically displayed. For leaders in big organisations, for instance, it’s crucial to maintain emotional caution, but subtly let others know that they’re pleased or displeased. 4. Remember etiquette rules There’s a set of social rules, also called norms, that tell people how to behave in specific social situations. To make and maintain a positive impression, it’s important to adhere to and respect these social norms. Additionally, it’s important to show that we have good manners and know how to behave in different and perhaps challenging situations. Being polite is always a good strategy for impression management, as few people disapprove of politeness or have negative associations with it. 5. Be self-confident Self-confidence is difficult to adopt when you don’t have it, but there are social moments that demand courage and decisiveness. For instance, take a situation in which you’re obligated to converse with others. Take the initiative without thinking and ask a good question, or help someone. Additionally, it’s important to stand up for your principles or convictions. It’s particularly important to convince others of your visions when you have a leadership position. Most people will respect your loyalty to a certain conviction or ideas. However, also be reasonable. When someone else shares an argument that disproves your own conviction or work method, adjust these.
  7. 7 6. Be positive There’s much to gain by looking at the importance and use of positive thinking and positive affection when making impressions. A smile, a compliment, a positive energy is always better than a negative and charged atmosphere. Optimistic leaders will be able to convince employees more easily and are more often seen as effective. Effective self-impression management isn’t always easy. As with most social skills, this is also something that should be practised regularly to fully develop one’s self-impression management.
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