THEORY OF NURSING
Presented by - Mamta
Florence Nightingale was borne in Florence,
Italy, on 12th May,1820.
She had a broad knowledge of science,
mathematics, literature, philosophy, history,
politics, economics & arts.
She became a heroine in Great Britain as a result
of her work in the Crimean war
During the Crimean campaign, Florence
Nightingale gained the nickname "The Lady
with the Lamp",
Florence Nightingale Began her nursing training
in 1851 in Germany Pioneered the concept of
formal nursing education. Her experience in
treating sick/injured soldiers in the Crimean
War strongly influenced her philosophy of
She died on 13th August, 1910.
Nightingale’s Environmental Model
Nightingale viewed the manipulation of the physical
environment as a major component of nursing care.
She identified ventilation, warmth, light, noise, variety,
bed and bedding, cleanliness of rooms & walls &
nutrition as major areas of the environment the nurse
When one or more aspects of the environment are out
of balance the client must use increased energy to
counter the environmental stress.
Nightingale’s environmental model
& nursing’s metaparadigm
Nightingale did not invent or define the four major
concepts used to organise theory. They evolved from
an analysis of nursing curricula.
The four concepts according to her are-
NURSING- “what nursing has to do…….is to put the
patient in the best condition for nature to act upon
him.” Nightingale stated that nursing “ought to signify
the proper use of fresh air, light, warmth, cleanliness &
proper selection & administration of diet – all at the
least expense of vital power to the patient.”
Based on her definition of nursing, the following
definitions of human beings, environment, and
health can be deduced.
HUMAN BEINGS- human beings are not
defined by Nightingale specifically. They are
defined in relationship to their environment &
the impact of the environment upon them
ENVIRONMENT- she focused on ventilation,
warmth, noise, light & cleanliness.
HEALTH-she did not define health specifically.
She believed “nature only cures.” she believed
that nursing should provide care to healthy as
well as the ill and discussed health promotions
an activity in which nurses should engage.
NURSE OBSERVER PRACTITIONER
HOPES HEALTH OF
NIGHTINGALE AND THE NURSING
In the assessment of clients Nightingale
advocated two essential behaviors by the nurse-
(1) ask the client what is needed
(2) observation of the patient
Nursing diagnosis are based on
Analysis of the conclusions gained from the
information in the assessment
Planning includes identifying the nursing
actions needed to keep clients comfortable, dry
& in the best state for nature to work on. It is
focused on modifying the environment to
enhance the client’s ability to respond to the
Implementation takes place in the
environment that affects the client & involves
taking action to modify that environment.
Evaluation is based on the effect of the
changes in the environment on the client’s
ability to regain their health at the least expense
of their energy.
Nightingale & the characteristics of
Theories can interrelate concepts in such a way
as to create a different way of looking at a
Theories must be logical in nature
Theories must be relatively simple yet
Theories can be used by practitioners to guide
and improve their practice.
Theories must be consistent with other validated
theories, laws & principles but leave open
unanswered questions that need to be
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