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Urine for sugar test

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Topic: Urine for Sugar Test

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INTRODUCTION:
Urine sugar testing was established as a clinical laboratory procedure during
the 19th century. A glucose in...

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DEFINITION OF URINE FOR SUGAR TEST:
A urine glucose test is a quick and simple way to check for
abnormally high levels of ...

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Urine for sugar test

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Urine sugar testing was established as a clinical laboratory procedure during the 19th century. A glucose in urine test measures the amount of glucose in urine. Glucose is a type of sugar. It is our body’s main source of energy. A hormone called insulin helps move glucose from our bloodstream into our cells. If too much glucose gets into the blood, the extra glucose will be eliminated through our urine. A urine glucose test can be used to help determine if blood glucose levels are too high, which may be a sign of diabetes. If sugar levels remain high and don’t receive treatment, complications may develop and may have serious condition like type-I and type-II diabetes.
Si, it is an important test for detecting diabetes.

Urine sugar testing was established as a clinical laboratory procedure during the 19th century. A glucose in urine test measures the amount of glucose in urine. Glucose is a type of sugar. It is our body’s main source of energy. A hormone called insulin helps move glucose from our bloodstream into our cells. If too much glucose gets into the blood, the extra glucose will be eliminated through our urine. A urine glucose test can be used to help determine if blood glucose levels are too high, which may be a sign of diabetes. If sugar levels remain high and don’t receive treatment, complications may develop and may have serious condition like type-I and type-II diabetes.
Si, it is an important test for detecting diabetes.

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Urine for sugar test

  1. 1. Topic: Urine for Sugar Test
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION: Urine sugar testing was established as a clinical laboratory procedure during the 19th century. A glucose in urine test measures the amount of glucose in urine. Glucose is a type of sugar. It is our body’s main source of energy. A hormone called insulin helps move glucose from our bloodstream into our cells. If too much glucose gets into the blood, the extra glucose will be eliminated through our urine. A urine glucose test can be used to help determine if blood glucose levels are too high, which may be a sign of diabetes. If sugar levels remain high and don’t receive treatment, complications may develop and may have serious condition like type-I and type-II diabetes.
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF URINE FOR SUGAR TEST: A urine glucose test is a quick and simple way to check for abnormally high levels of glucose in urine. Normal level of glucose in urine: 0 - 0.8 mmol/l or 0-15 mg/dl.
  4. 4. ALTERNATIVE NAMES:  Urine glucose test  Glycosuria test  Glucosuria test
  5. 5. PURPOSES OF URINE FOR SUGAR TEST: 1. Screening to detect diabetes. 2. Confirmation diagnosis of diabetes. 3. Monitoring the effectiveness of diabetes control 4. Screening to detect gestational diabetes.
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL URINE:  Volume: 700-2500 ml excreted in 24 hours.  Appearance: clear/transparent  Odor: pungent, ammonia smell.  Color: straw in color.  Reaction: acidity.  Sediment: absent.  Specific gravity: 1.010 to 1.025  Constituents of urine: 96% water, 2% urea, 2% uric acid.
  7. 7. NORMAL CONSTITUENTS OF URINE: INORGANIC ORGANIC o Chloride o Sulphate o Calcium o Inorganic phosphate o Ammonia o Urea o Uric Acid o Creatinine o Organic sulphate
  8. 8. ABNORMAL CONSTITUENTS OF URINE: In patients with certain renal or non-renal (metabolic) disorders, the urine may contain some abnormal constituents like:  Glucose(glycosuria)  Proteins (proteinuria)  Bile pigments  Ketone bodies (ketonuria),  Blood (hematuria), hemoglobin (hemoglobinuria)
  9. 9. SYMPTOMS OF SUGAR IN URINE 1. Fatigue 2. Increased hunger 3. Persistent infections 4. Excessive thirst 5. Frequent desire to urinate 6. The feet or hands may experience tingling sensations or other abnormal feelings 7. Irritability
  10. 10. CONT… 8. Loss of weight without any known reason 9. The wounds, cuts , etc. may be very slow to heal sometimes.
  11. 11. CAUSES OF GLUCOSE IN URINE:  Diabetes mellitus: The excess blood glucose levels of people with unmanaged diabetes make it difficult for your kidneys to properly reabsorb the glucose and can cause it to leak into the urine.  Hyperthyroidism: Excessive thyroid hormone can cause decreased absorption of glucose that is then passed out of the body through the urine.  High sugar diet: Excessive sugar can raise blood glucose level that kidneys can’t properly reabsorb, which causes some glucose to be passed into the urine.
  12. 12. CONT……  Benign glycosuria: A rare condition in which the filtering system of the kidneys allows sugar to pass into the urine. It usually has no other symptoms and is inherited.  Liver cirrhosis: This disease affects carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in high blood glucose levels that can exceed the kidneys capabilities and cause glucose in the urine.  Emotion: Some emotions like fear and anger, can cause the release of adrenaline. Adrenaline encourages the breakdown of sugar to create energy for the fight or flight response, causing a temporary spike in blood sugar levels and potentially an increase in urine glucose as well.
  13. 13. INDICATION OF URINE FOR SUGAR TEST: I. Diabetes mellitus II. Gestational diabetes III. Kidney disease
  14. 14. ADVANTAGES OF URINE SUGAR TEST: I. It is less painful than blood glucose monitoring – no finger pricks to collect blood samples for testing. II. Urine sugar test may be less costly than buying a blood glucose monitoring. III. Easy to perform.
  15. 15. DISADVANTAGE OF URINE GLUCOSE TEST: I. Inability to detect low blood sugar(hypoglycemia) II. Many possible drug interferences III. For some patients, difficulty in reading and performing tests. IV. More privacy required than blood testing.
  16. 16. PRECAUTION OF URINE FOR SUGAR TEST: A. For man: A man retracts the foreskin, if present and clean the head of his penis with medicated towels or swabs. B. For women: A women should spread open the genital folds of skin with one hand. Then she can use her other hand to clean the urethra with medicated towels or swabs.
  17. 17. PREPARE OF THE PATIENT URINE FOR SUGAR TEST: 1. Wash your hands. 2. Clean your genital area with a cleansing pad. Start to urinate into the toilet. 3. Move the collection container under your urine stream. 4. Collect urine into the container. 5. Finish urinating into the toilet. 6. Return the sample container as instructed by your health care provider.
  18. 18. CONT….. MEDICATION: Certain medication can change the results of this test, as for example-  Tetracycline  Sulfonamide  Butaphen Before the test tell the patient which medicines you are taking. Do not stop taking any medicine before talking to your doctor or health provider.
  19. 19. HOW THE TEST WILL FEEL:  The test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.
  20. 20. PROCEDURE OF URINE EXAMINATION USING BENEDICT’S SOLUTION: A. Equipment: 1) Sprit lamp 2) Match box 3) Test tube with test tube holder 4) Test tube stand 5) Benedict’s solution
  21. 21. CONT…. 6. Dropper 7. Kidney tray 8. Clean, disposable gloves.
  22. 22. SPRIT LAMP
  23. 23. MATCH BOX
  24. 24. DROPPER
  25. 25. KIDNEY TRAY
  26. 26. GLOVES
  27. 27. TEST TUBE
  28. 28. TEST TUBE HOLDER
  29. 29. BENEDICT’S SOLUTION
  30. 30. PROCEDURE: 1. Explain about method of collecting a double voided specimen of urine. 2. Provide labeled container for collecting urine. 3. Don gloves and collect urine specimen from patient. 4. Take test tube and fix in holder. Pour 5 ml of benedict’s solution into test tube. 5. Light sprit lamp and heat benedict’s solution till its boils, holding test tube with mouth facing away from the nurse.
  31. 31. CONT…. 6. Add eight drops of urine using dropper, through the sides and allow boiling for another few seconds. 7. Put off flame and allow it to cool. 8. Watch for color change and compare with standard color code:
  32. 32. CONT… COLOR RESULT  Blue-nil No sugar  Green liquid without deposit: +/ 1% sugar  Green liquid with yellow deposit: ++/2% sugar  Colorless liquid with orange deposit: +++/3% sugar  Brick red: ++++/4% sugar
  33. 33. CONT…
  34. 34. CONT…. 9. Discard urine in toilet. 10. Replace the equipment after washing in proper place. 11. Displace gloves and wash hands. 12. Record result appropriately. If any abnormality present, inform the doctor immediately.
  35. 35. NURSING CARE PLAN: Nursing Diagnosis Goal Nursing Intervention Evaluation 1. Fear due to collection of urine Reduce fear from collection of urine.  Assess the level of fear.  Reassure the patient  Explain the collection of urine  Listen to patient attentively and answer the question  Give emotional support Gradually decreased fear from collection of urine.
  36. 36. CONT….. Nursing Diagnosis Goal Nursing Intervention Evaluation 2. Anxiety due to collection of urine. Reduce anxiety from collection of urine.  Assess the level of anxiety.  Provide psychological support.  Introduced with similar condition patient who has positive attitude Gradually decreased anxiety from collection of urine.
  37. 37. CONT….. 03.Deficit knowledge about urine for sugar test Provide information for increasing knowledge about urine for sugar test  Explain the patient about urine for sugar test  Encourage and support the patient  Advice the patient to complete the collect of urine by the satisfactory method  Advice to maintain personal hygiene Gradually demonstrated knowledge about urine for sugar test.
  38. 38. SOME TIPS MAY PREVENT SUGAR IN URINE:  Monitoring your diet and consuming less sugar is one way to help reduce your chances of experiencing glycosuria, as well as leading a healthy and active lifestyle.  Regular checkups to monitor your health may also help prevent glycosuria.  Proper management of the root cause, as well as making healthy lifestyle choices that improve eating less sugar, may help with the prevention of this condition.
  39. 39. COMPLICATION OF SUGAR IN URINE: Cardiovascular complications like-  Heart attack  Hypertension Issues with vision, kidney function damage, nerve damage, as well as sores on the hands and feet may also occur.
  40. 40. SUMMARY: The presence of glucose in the urine usually indicates that the individual has diabetes mellitus or other disease, a condition in which either the liver fails to store glucose as glycogen or the cells fail to take up glucose. In both cases, the blood glucose level is abnormally high. This makes the filtrate level of glucose high, and because the proximal convoluted tubule cannot absorb all of it, glucose appears in the urine.
  41. 41. REFERENCE:  Dr. Jayesh v. patidar, Nursing path. Available from: www.drjayeshpatidar. Blogspot.com.  Landry DW, Bazari H. Approach to the patient with renal disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds .Cecil Medicine. 24th ed . Philadelphia, pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 116.  Merck Consumer Version[ Internet]. Knilworth ( NJ): Merck & Co . Inc ; c 2017. Urinalysis[ cited 2017 May 18]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http:// www. Merckmanuals. Com/home/kidney and –urinary-tract- disorders/diagnosis-of-kidney.
  42. 42. CONT….  Medline plus . Glucose Urine Test( updated 1 Mar. 2016) http://medlineplusGov/ency/article/003581.htm(accessed sep 2017)  https://www.belmarrahealth.com/glycosuria-glucose-urine- symptoms-causes-potential-complications/
  43. 43. THANK YOU

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