2. Other name - Learning by Perceptual
Gestalt Theory of
• Gestalt Theory (Wertheimer) along with Kohler
and Koffka, Max Wertheimer was one of the
principal proponents of Gestalt theory which
emphasized higher-order cognitive processes in
the midst of behaviorism.
• The term Gestalt means “an organized whole in
contrast to a collection of parts”. Gestalt
psychologists consider the process of learning as
a Gestalt an organized whole or study in
3. • Insightful learning is also
known as Gestalt
learning which means
that learning is concerned
with the whole individual
and arises from the
interaction of an individual
with his situations or
• Through this interaction
emerge new forms of
perception, imagination and
ideas which altogether
4. Insight learning
• Insight learning is a type of learning or problem
solving that happens all-of-a-sudden through
understanding the relationships of various parts of
a problem rather than through trial and error.
Kohler called this cognitive process insight
• Insight learning does not rely on behavioral or
observational learning; it is a purely cognitive
• Kohler's theory of insight learning helped provide
some early evidence to support the role of
cognition in learning.
5. Basic Concepts of Insight Learning
• Learning is purposive, exploratory and creative
enterprise, in which the total situation is taken
into account by the learner.
• A learning situation is a problem situation and
the learner can deduce the solution by insight if
he perceives the situation as a whole.
• By taking the situation as whole a learner can
take proper decision in an intelligent way.
6. • While learning, the leaner
always responds to the
proper relationship rather
than specific stimuli.
• Learning occurs
suddenly by the
development of insight.
7. Kohler’s Experement (1945)
• Kohler experimented with
Sultan the chimp who was
caged with food strategically
placed outside the cage.
• Some boxes and sticks
where placed in the cage.
• Through some manipulation
of these objects which got
sultan nowhere, he seemed
to suddenly figure out that
the sticks could be joined to
get the food.
• He use insight to solve the
9. Criteria of Insightful Learning
• Insight development is generally facilitated by
previous experience with similar problem.
• Insight also involves little bit of trial and error
• Insight formation is closely related to the
intellectual development of the learner. The higher
the intellectual level of the learner, the quicker will
be occurrence of insight.
• Insight learning involves
understanding and reasoning
about the problem.
10. Identifying the problem
Understanding The problem
Incubation of ideas
Trial of mode of response
Steady repetition of adaptive behaviour
Comprehension of ability
Steps in Insight Learning
11. Characteristics of Insight Learning
Survey of problematic situation
Hesitation, pause, attitude of concentrated
attention to the problematic situation
Trail of mode of response
In case initial mode of response proves
inadequate, trial of some other response, the
transition from one method to the other being
sharp and often sudden.
12. Frequently recurrent attention to the
objectives or goal and motivation.
Appearance of critical point at which
the organism suddenly, directly and
definitely performs the required act.
Steady repetition of adaptive
Notable ability to discover and
attend to the essential aspect or
relation in the problematic situation
and to neglect relatively, variations in
Characteristics of Insight Learning
14. Principles of Gestalt Psychology
• Figure-ground : Every thing we perceive stands
against a background. Eg. We listen a song
against the background of music.
• Principle of Pragnanz : Our perceptual patterns
always tends to be simple, regular and complete
with no loose ends. It is related of law of closure.
• Law of transposition : extensive changes without
losing their identity.
• Law of similarity
• Law of Proximity
15. Gestalt Law of Learning
According to Gestalt theory, learning takes place
when the learner organizes the separate parts
(stimuli) of the perceptual field into a unified and
meaningful whole. The organization of the
stimuli in the perceptual field takes place in
accordance with four law :-
1. Law of Similarity
2. Law of Proximity
3. Law of Closure
4. Law of Continuity
22. Educational Implication
The teacher should present the subject matter
as a whole to facilitate insight learning.
Use of blind fumbling and mechanical trail and
error should be minimized.
While planning curriculum a particular subject
should not be treated as the mere collection of
isolated facts , should be closely integrated into
Teacher should motivate the child
by arousing his interest and curiosity
23. The learner must be given opportunities for using his
Learner task must be properly graded according to the
intellectual development of the leaner.
In order to develop the ability of problem solving by
insight, meaningful learning, learning by understanding
and reasoning must be encouraged in school.
The teacher must help learners to recall what has
been learned earlier, relate them to the new learning
Give goal oriented task to learner
Knowledge as a continuous organization, encourage
the need of knowledge and freedom for acquiring
24. Difference Between Trail and
Error and Insight learning
Trail and Error learning
Learning as a matter of
connection between a
stimulus and a response
Recognizes practice as the
basis of learning.
Give importance to one’s
Learning under reinforcement
is key concept
Parts are fundamental
Learning as the organization
of experience into cognitive
Recognizes an individual’s
insight as the basis of
Past experience is not
Perception is key concept
Whole is primary
25. Trail and Error learning
Trail and error learning is
practice and interest
Emphasis on trial and
error, drill and
It is best for reaction type
learning and habit
Insight learning is
understanding and insight
It is most suited for
concept learning and
Difference Between Trail and Error and Insight learning