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A PROJECT REPORT ON
INTELLIGENT BRAKING SYSTEM
SUBMITTED TO C-DAC ACTS PUNE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENT FOR ...
CERTIFICATE
TO WHOMSOEVER IT MAY CONCERN
This is to certify that
AKASH KUMAR
DEEWAN SINGH
KARTIKEY TEWARI
SUMIT KUMAR
have...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This project “Intelligent Braking system” was a great learning experience for us
and we are submitting thi...
ABSTRACT
The main purpose of present Automobiles is being developed by more of electrical parts
for efficient operation. G...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Figures
1 Introduction
1.1 About Project
1.2 Scope of Project
1.3 System Requirements
1.3.1 Hard...
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 2.1 NGX LPC 1768 Blueboard
Fig 2.2 STM32F3 Discovery Board
Fig 2.3 L293d Motor Driver IC
Fig 2.4 CAN T...
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 About Project:
Accidents occur due to technical problem within the vehicle or due to mistake of driver...
 Two MCP2551 CAN Transceivers
 Two Ultrasonic Sensors
 DC Motor
1.3.2 Software Requirements
The software used for imple...
2. LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 NGX Blueboard(LPC 1768)
The NGX-LPC1768 board consists of basic peripherals connected to it which...
2.2 STM32F3 Discovery Board
The STM32 F3 series combines a 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 core (with FPU and DSP
instructions) runni...
2.3 L293d IC
L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as
current amplifiers since ...
2.4 MCP 2551 Transceivers:
The MCP2551 is a high-speed CAN, fault-tolerant device that serves as the interface
between a C...
2.5 Ultrasonic Ranging Module HC - SR04
Product features:
Ultrasonic ranging module HC - SR04 provides 2cm - 400cm non-con...
Figure 2.5 Ultrasonic Sensor (HC-SR04)
Timing diagram:
The Timing diagram is shown below. You only need to supply a short ...
2.6 DC MOTORS
Almost every mechanical movement that we see around us is accomplished by an electric
motor. Electric machin...
which all DC motors operate. The force exerted upon the conductor can be expressed as
follows.
F = B i l Newton
where B is...
2.7 CAN
The CAN bus was developed by BOSCH as a multi-master, message broadcast system
that specifies a maximum signaling ...
• IDE–A dominant single identifier extension (IDE) bit means that a standard CAN
identifier with no extension is being tra...
3. IMPLEMENTATION
CAN H
CAN L
TRANSCEIVERS
Fig 3.1 Block Diagram of Proposed System
In this project CAN Protocol is used t...
CONCLUSION
The Intelligent Braking system, if implemented can avert lots of accidents and can save
invaluable human lives ...
REFERENCES
1) Jadhav Snehal Dnyandeo1, Taware Tejashree Brahmadeo2, and Jadhav Shamal
popatrao3, VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM US...
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intelligent braking system report

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with help of this we can save human life and also we reduce accident. it is based on stm 32f3 micro-controller,lpc-1768 and Ultra-sonic sensor etc.

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intelligent braking system report

  1. 1. A PROJECT REPORT ON INTELLIGENT BRAKING SYSTEM SUBMITTED TO C-DAC ACTS PUNE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF Guided by: Mr. Rishabh Submitted By: AKASH KUMAR 160840130009 DEEWAN SINGH 160840130030 KARTIKEY TEWARI 160840130045 SUMIT KUMAR 160840130103 CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED COMPUTING PUNE
  2. 2. CERTIFICATE TO WHOMSOEVER IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that AKASH KUMAR DEEWAN SINGH KARTIKEY TEWARI SUMIT KUMAR have successfully completed their project on Intelligent Braking System Under the guidance of Mr. Rishabh Hardas.
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project “Intelligent Braking system” was a great learning experience for us and we are submitting this work to Advanced Computing Training School (CDAC ACTS). We all are very glad to Mr. Rishabh for his valuable guidance to work on this project. His guidance and support helped us to overcome various obstacles and intricacies during the course of project work. Our most heartfelt thanks goes to Mrs. Purvi Tomar (Course Coordinator, PG- DESD) who gave all the required support and kind coordination to provide all the necessities like required hardware, internet facility and extra Lab hours to complete the project and throughout the course up to the last day here in C-DAC ACTS, Pune.
  4. 4. ABSTRACT The main purpose of present Automobiles is being developed by more of electrical parts for efficient operation. Generally a vehicle was manufactured with an analog driver vehicle interface for indicating various vehicle statuses like speed, fuel level, Engine temperature etc. This work presents the development and implementation of a digital driving system for a semi-autonomous vehicle to improve the efficiency of driver-vehicle interface. It uses an ARM based data acquisition system that uses ADC to control data from analog to digital format and visualize through LCD. This work focuses the development of distance measurement by using Ultrasonic sensors which denotes that vehicle’s position from obstacles. The vehicle detects the speed breaker and also some primary zones before certain limitation by tags using CAN module for introducing the new invention of priority based Intelligent Braking System.
  5. 5. TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Figures 1 Introduction 1.1 About Project 1.2 Scope of Project 1.3 System Requirements 1.3.1 Hardware Requirements 1.3.2 Software Requirements 2 Literature Survey 3 Implementation 4 Results 5 Conclusion 6 References
  6. 6. LIST OF FIGURES Fig 2.1 NGX LPC 1768 Blueboard Fig 2.2 STM32F3 Discovery Board Fig 2.3 L293d Motor Driver IC Fig 2.4 CAN Transceiver Fig 2.5 Ultrasonic Sensor (HC-SR04) Fig 2.6 Timing Diagram Fig 2.7 Fleming’s Left Hand Rule Fig 2.8 DC Motor Fig 2.9 CAN Frame Format Fig 3.1 Block Diagram of Proposed System LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Electric Parameters of HC-SR04
  7. 7. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 About Project: Accidents occur due to technical problem within the vehicle or due to mistake of driver. Sometimes the drivers lose control over the vehicle and sometimes accident occurs due to rash driving. When the drivers come to know that vehicle is going to collide they become nervous and they don’t apply the brakes. Majority of the accidents occur this way. The system designed will prevent such accidents. It keeps track of any vehicles in front. It will continuously keep the track of the distance between the two vehicles. When two come dangerously close the microprocessor in the system activates the brakes and it will stop the vehicle. 1.2 Project scope: Intelligent Braking system is introduced for providing safety and comfort to driver during driving. The main aim of system is to avoid critical damage of vehicle during driving. Most of the time driver is unable to judge proper distance between car and an obstacle, so this system will be helpful as well as important in car safety. The intelligent braking system will open up new ideas and concept for automobile industries. As the requirements of human beings for comfort and safe driving increases, this system is addition in regular safety system, and also increase demand of vehicle in market view. 1.3 System Requirements 1.3.1 Hardware Requirements Hardware requirements are as followed:  One NGX LPC Board (LPC 1768)  One STM32F3 Discovery Board  L293d Motor Driver IC
  8. 8.  Two MCP2551 CAN Transceivers  Two Ultrasonic Sensors  DC Motor 1.3.2 Software Requirements The software used for implementing the project was Keil uVision4 for lpc 1768 board and Keil uVision5, CubeMX for STM32F3 discovery Board.
  9. 9. 2. LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1 NGX Blueboard(LPC 1768) The NGX-LPC1768 board consists of basic peripherals connected to it which are necessary for getting started with LPC1768 programming. Apart from board following are specifications of the LPC1768 controller: • The LPC1768 microcontroller has 512KB of internal flash and 64KB RAM. • Ethernet MAC, USB Device/Host/OTG interface, 8-channel general purpose DMA controller. • 4 UARTs, 2 SSP controllers, SPI interface, 3 I2C-bus interfaces, 2-input plus 2-output I2S-bus interface, 8-channel 12-bit ADC, 10-bit DAC, motor control PWM. • 2 CAN channels. • 4 general purpose timers, 6-output general purpose PWM, ultra-low power Real-Time Clock (RTC) with separate battery supply, and up to 70 general purpose I/O pins. Fig 2.1 NGX LPC 1768 Blueboard
  10. 10. 2.2 STM32F3 Discovery Board The STM32 F3 series combines a 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 core (with FPU and DSP instructions) running at 72 MHz with a high number of integrated analog peripherals leading to cost reduction at application level and simplifying application design, including:  Ultra-fast comparators (25 ns)  Op-amp with programmable gain  12-bit DACs  Ultra-fast 12-bit ADCs with 5 MSPS (Million Samples Per Second) per channel (up to 18 MSPS in Interleaved mode)  Precise 16-bit sigma-delta ADCs (21 channels)  Core Coupled Memory SRAM (Routine Booster), a specific memory architecture boosting time-critical routines, accelerating the performance by 43%  144 MHz Advanced 16-bit pulse-width modulation timer (resolution < 7 ns) for control applications  High resolution timer (217 picoseconds), self-compensated vs power supply and temperature drift Fig 2.2 STM32F3 Discovery Board
  11. 11. 2.3 L293d IC L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher- current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors. L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction. The motor operations of two motors can be controlled by input logic at pins 2 & 7 and 10 & 15. Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor. Logic 01 and 10 will rotate it in clockwise and anticlockwise directions, respectively. Enable pins 1 and 9 (corresponding to the two motors) must be high for motors to start operating. When an enable input is high, the associated driver gets enabled. As a result, the outputs become active and work in phase with their inputs. Similarly, when the enable input is low, that driver is disabled, and their outputs are off and in the high-impedance state. Fig 2.3 L293d Motor Driver IC
  12. 12. 2.4 MCP 2551 Transceivers: The MCP2551 is a high-speed CAN, fault-tolerant device that serves as the interface between a CAN protocol controller and the physical bus. The MCP2551 device provides differential transmit and receive capability for the CAN protocol controller, and is fully compatible with the ISO-11898 standard, including 24V requirements. It will operate at speeds of up to 1 Mb/s. Typically, each node in a CAN system must have a device to convert the digital signals generated by a CAN controller to signals suitable for transmission over the bus cabling (differential output). It also provides a buffer between the CAN controller and the high-voltage spikes that can be generated on the CAN bus by outside sources. Some of its features are: • Supports 1 Mb/s operation • Implements ISO-11898 standard physical layer requirements • Suitable for 12V and 24V systems • Detection of ground fault (permanent Dominant) on TXD input • Power-on Reset and voltage brown-out protection • An unpowered node or brown-out event will not disturb the CAN bus • Low current standby operation • Protection against damage due to short-circuit conditions (positive or negative battery voltage) • Up to 112 nodes can be connected • High-noise immunity due to differential bus implementation • Temperature ranges: - Industrial (I): -40°C to +85°C - Extended (E): -40°C to +125°C Fig 2.4 CAN Transceiver
  13. 13. 2.5 Ultrasonic Ranging Module HC - SR04 Product features: Ultrasonic ranging module HC - SR04 provides 2cm - 400cm non-contact measurement function, the ranging accuracy can reach to 3mm. The modules includes ultrasonic transmitters, receiver and control circuit. The basic principle of work: 1) Using IO trigger for at least 10us high level signal, 2) The Module automatically sends eight 40 kHz and detect whether there is a pulse signal back. 3) IF the signal back, through high level , time of high output IO duration is the time from sending ultrasonic to returning. Test distance = (high level time velocity of sound (340M/S) / 2 Wire connecting direct as following: ● 5V Supply ● Trigger Pulse Input ● Echo Pulse Output ● 0V Ground Working Voltage DC 5 V Working Current 15mA Working Frequency 40Hz Max Range 4m Min Range 2cm Measuring Angle 15 degree Trigger Input Signal 10uS TTL pulse Echo Output Signal Input TTL lever signal and the range in Proportion Dimension 45* 45*20*15mm Table 2.1 Electric parameters of HC-SR04
  14. 14. Figure 2.5 Ultrasonic Sensor (HC-SR04) Timing diagram: The Timing diagram is shown below. You only need to supply a short 10uS pulse to the trigger input to start the ranging, and then the module will send out an 8 cycle burst of ultrasound at 40 kHz and raise its echo. The Echo is a distance object that is pulse width and the range in proportion .You can calculate the range through the time interval between sending trigger signal and receiving echo signal. Formula: us / 58 = centimeters or us / 148 =inch; or: the range = high level time * velocity (340M/S) / 2; we suggest to use over 60ms measurement cycle, in order to prevent trigger signal to the echo signal. Figure 2.6 Timing Diagram
  15. 15. 2.6 DC MOTORS Almost every mechanical movement that we see around us is accomplished by an electric motor. Electric machines are a means of converting energy. Motors take electrical energy and produce mechanical energy. Electric motors are used to power hundreds of devices we use in everyday life. Motors come in various sizes. Huge motors that can take loads of 1000’s of Horsepower are typically used in the industry. Some examples of large motor applications include elevators, electric trains, hoists, and heavy metal rolling mills. Examples of small motor applications include motors used in automobiles, robots, hand power tools and food blenders. Micro-machines are electric machines with parts the size of red blood cells, and find many applications in medicine. Electric motors are broadly classified into two different categories: DC (Direct Current) and AC (Alternating Current). Within these categories are numerous types, each offering unique abilities that suit them well for specific applications. In most cases, regardless of type, electric motors consist of a stator (stationary field) and a rotor (the rotating field or armature) and operate through the interaction of magnetic flux and electric current to produce rotational speed and torque. DC motors are distinguished by their ability to operate from direct current. There are different kinds of D.C. motors, but they all work on the same principles. In this chapter, we will study their basic principle of operation and their characteristics. It’s important to understand motor characteristics so we can choose the right one for our application requirement. The learning objectives for this chapter are listed below. 2.6.1 DC Motor Basic Principles 2.6.1.1 Energy Conversion If electrical energy is supplied to a conductor lying perpendicular to a magnetic field, the interaction of current flowing in the conductor and the magnetic field will produce mechanical force (and therefore, mechanical energy). 2.6.1.2 Value of Mechanical Force There are two conditions which are necessary to produce a force on the conductor. The conductor must be carrying current, and must be within a magnetic field. When these two conditions exist, a force will be applied to the conductor, which will attempt to move the conductor in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. This is the basic theory by
  16. 16. which all DC motors operate. The force exerted upon the conductor can be expressed as follows. F = B i l Newton where B is the density of the magnetic field, l is the length of conductor, and i the value of current flowing in the conductor. The direction of motion can be found using Fleming’s Left Hand Rule. Figure 2.7 Fleming’s Left Hand Rule The first finger points in the direction of the magnetic field (first - field), which goes from the North Pole to the South Pole. The second finger points in the direction of the current in the wire (second - current). The thumb then points in the direction the wire is thrust or pushed while in the magnetic field (thumb - torque or thrust). Fig 2.8 DC Motor
  17. 17. 2.7 CAN The CAN bus was developed by BOSCH as a multi-master, message broadcast system that specifies a maximum signaling rate of 1 megabit per second (bps). Unlike a traditional network such as USB or Ethernet, CAN does not send large blocks of data point-to-point from node A to node B under the supervision of a central bus master. In a CAN network, many short messages like temperature or RPM are broadcast to the entire network, which provides for data consistency in every node of the system. CAN is an International Standardization Organization (ISO) defined serial communications bus originally developed for the automotive industry to replace the complex wiring harness with a two-wire bus. The specification calls for high immunity to electrical interference and the ability to self-diagnose and repair data errors. 2.7.1 CAN Frame Format: Fig 2.9 CAN Frame Format The following figure shows the CAN protocols’ frame format. • SOF– The single dominant start of frame (SOF) bit marks the start of a message, and is used to synchronize the nodes on a bus after being idle. • Identifier- The Standard CAN 11-bit identifier establishes the priority of the message. The lower the binary value, the higher its priority. • RTR– The single remote transmission request (RTR) bit is dominant when information is required from another node. All nodes receive the request, but the identifier determines the specified node. The responding data is also received by all nodes and used by any node interested. In this way, all data being used in a system is uniform.
  18. 18. • IDE–A dominant single identifier extension (IDE) bit means that a standard CAN identifier with no extension is being transmitted. • r0– Reserved bit (for possible use by future standard amendment). • DLC–The 4-bit data length code (DLC) contains the number of bytes of data being transmitted. • Data–Up to 64 bits of application data may be transmitted. • CRC–The 16-bit (15 bits plus delimiter) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) contains the checksum (number of bits transmitted) of the preceding application data for error detection. • ACK– Every node receiving an accurate message overwrites this recessive bit in the original message with a dominate bit, indicating an error-free message has been sent. Should a receiving node detect an error and leave this bit recessive, it discards the message and the sending node repeats the message after re-arbitration. In this way, each node acknowledges (ACK) the integrity of its data. ACK is 2 bits, one is the acknowledgment bit and the second is a delimiter. • EOF–This end-of-frame (EOF), 7-bit field marks the end of a CAN frame (message) and disables bit-stuffing, indicating a stuffing error when dominant. When 5 bits of the same logic level occur in succession during normal operation, a bit of the opposite logic level is stuffed into the data. • IFS–This 7-bit inter-frame space (IFS) contains the time required by the controller to move a correctly received frame to its proper position in a message buffer area. 2.7.2 The Extended CAN Frame format consists of these additional bits: • SRR–The substitute remote request (SRR) bit replaces the RTR bit in the standard message location as a placeholder in the extended format. • IDE–A recessive bit in the identifier extension (IDE) indicates that more identifier bits follow. The 18-bit extension follows IDE. • r1– Following the RTR and r0 bits, an additional reserve bit has been included ahead of the DLC bit.
  19. 19. 3. IMPLEMENTATION CAN H CAN L TRANSCEIVERS Fig 3.1 Block Diagram of Proposed System In this project CAN Protocol is used to transmit data from one board to the other. Ultrasonic sensors sense the distance between vehicles and sends it to the GPIO of STM32F3. This distance is send to the other board through MCP 2551 CAN Transceiver. On the other board speed is being controlled manually by potentiometer which is connected to the ADC of LPC 1768 and initially this speed is shown in the LCD of LPC 1768. As soon as the CAN transceiver of LPC 1768 receives the data from the other board, it is shown in the LCD. Speed of motor is controlled according to the distance. If the distance between the vehicles is less, then a warning message is displayed on the LCD which in turn starts the PWM which slows down the speed of motor. STM32F3 LPC 1768 CAN CONTROLLER MCP-2551 CAN CONTROLLER MCP-2551 ULTRASONIC SENSOR (HC-SR04) GPIO POT MOTOR
  20. 20. CONCLUSION The Intelligent Braking system, if implemented can avert lots of accidents and can save invaluable human lives and property. Implementation of such an advanced system can be made compulsory similar to wearing of seat belts so that accidents can be averted to some extent. Our Intelligent braking system provides a glimpse into the future of automotive safety, and how much more advanced these individual systems can be for avoiding accidents and protecting vehicle occupants when they are integrated into one system. The future of automotive safety is more than just developing new technology; it is shifting the approach to safety. INTELLIGENT BRAKING SYSTEM approach represents a significant shift from the traditional approach to safety, but it is fundamental to achieving the substantial benefits.
  21. 21. REFERENCES 1) Jadhav Snehal Dnyandeo1, Taware Tejashree Brahmadeo2, and Jadhav Shamal popatrao3, VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM USING CAN PROTOCOL. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 3, Issue 3, May-June, 2015. 2) Ashworth.R, Darkin.D.G, Dickinson.K.W, Hartley.M.G, Wan.W.L, and R.C. Waterfall, APPLICATIONS OF VIDEO IMAGE PROCESSING FOR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS. Second International Conference on Road Traffic Control, 14-18 April 1985, London, UK, pp. 119-122. 3) Divyapriya.P, Sasirekha.A, Srilakshmi.B, and Vinodhini.V. EMBEDDED SYSTEM BASED MULTIMODULE PROCESS CONTROL USING CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK International Journal of Communication and Computer Technologies Volume 02 – No.5 Issue: 04 April 2014. 4) Manoj Prasanth.R, Raja.S, and Saranya.L, VEHICLE CONTROL USING CAN PROTOCOL FOR IMPLEMENTING THE INTELLIGENT BRAKING SYSTEM (IBS). International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering. Vol. 3, Issue 3, March 2014. 5) Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Rolin D. McKinlay, and Danny Causey: PIC MICROCONTROLLER AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS, PE India, 01- Sep-2008. 6) Pradhan Suvendu Kedareswar* and Venkatasubramanian Krishnamoorthy, AN INTELLIGENT EMBEDDED DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM ON CAN PROTOCOL TO AVOID REAR-END COLLISION OF VEHICLES. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 8(19), IPL0124, August 2015.

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