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UNIT 3 – EVOLUTION OF HINDU ARCHITECTURE
Hindu forms of worship -Evolution of temple form - meaning, symbolism,
ritual and...
ROCK CUT ARCHITECTURE –
BUDDHISM
100 AD – 160 AD
Harappan
•Drainage syste
•Rectangular intersecting roads
•Sanitary system
Mauryan
•Monolithic Pillars
•Finely carved capit...
Chalukyas
• Blend of Aryan and Dravidian style of architecture
Pallavas
· Mandaps, Rathas and finely carved panels and pil...
Hindu temples
• The temple is a holy site (tirtha), where they practitioners can perform
circumambulation (pradaksina).
• ...
10 scientific reasons behind the rituals in Hinduism according
to the ancient texts
1. The Location and Structure of the T...
BHUTHANADHA TEMPLE, BADAMI TEMPLE , KARNATAKA
•Temples, contains pure
vibrations of magnetic and
electric fields with positive
energy.
•the floor at the centre of
the t...
ACTIVATION OF Five Senses
Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell
•produce a sound, it
creates a unity in the Left
and Rig...
ACTIVATION OF Five Senses
Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell
•The inner sanctity is
usually dark and the
immediate se...
ACTIVATION OF Five Senses
Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell
•hands over the camphor to make
your hands warm and then...
ACTIVATION OF Five Senses
Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell
7. Drinking Theertham – Taste Sense Activated
•drink the...
ACTIVATION OF Five Senses
Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell
8. Doing Pradakshina around the Garbhagriha/Moolasthanam...
ACTIVATION OF Five Senses
Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell
9. Applying Tilak/Kumkum Given By the Temple Priest
•On ...
ACTIVATION OF Five Senses
Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell
10. Why Offer Coconut And Banana To God When You Visit I...
•One who is able to withdraw his senses
from sense objects, as the tortoise draws
its limbs within the shell, is firmly fi...
Vastu-purusa mandala
• A myth explains the symbolic diagram (mandala): the gods in
seeking to impose order on chaos, force...
Vastu-purusa mandala
SANCTUMMAHAMANDAPAMDWAJASTHAMBARAJAGOPURAM
1. Garbhagriha
2. Mandapa.
3. Antarala.
4. Mahamandapa.
5. Enclosing wall
6. Pradhikshana path.
Artha Mandapa.
•Shikara has the repetition of architectural motifs, converted into an element
of decoration. These architectural motifs h...
Elements of Hindu temple
• The sanctuary as whole is known as the
• Vimana that consists of two parts.
• The upper part of...
Elements of Hindu temple
‘Sikhara’ meaning the tower or the spire.
• It is the pyramidal or tapering portion of the temple...
Elements of Hindu temple
• Pradakshina patha’ meaning the ambulatory passageway for
circumambulation.
• It consists of enc...
Elements of Hindu temple
• It is also known as ‘Natamandira’ meaning temple hall of dancing, where
in olden days ritual of...
CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE
•No structural innovativeness
•Based on centre of gravity
•Mass supporting mass
•Repetition
• No mo...
GUPTA PERIOD ARCHITECTURE - 320 – 650 AD
4th BC- 6th BC
The Gupta Empire was one of the first people to use stone to build...
The Gupta style was influenced by Kusana, Mathura, and Gandhara and borrowed the common
features of T-shaped doorways, dec...
Evolution of Temple Architecture in India during Gupta Period:
During the Gupta period, a firm foundation of temple archit...
Earlier temples of the period had a monolithic flat
slab roof.
Later temples in brick and stone developed a Shikhara
The g...
The deities consecrated in the sanctum were carved strictly
according to religious canons and installed by performing
a sp...
Temple of Bhitargaon:
•This temple is the earliest and the most remarkable example of
brick building and bears resemblance...
Parvathi Temple at
Nachana Kuthara:
•This is a west facing temple, contrary
to most of other Hindu temples which
face east...
Shiva temple at Bhumara:
•It resembles in type and plan to the Bhitaragaon temple.
•This shrine consists of a square mason...
Dasavathara Vishnu Temple at Deogarh:
•The most important feature of the temple is Sikhara instead of the conventional fla...
GUPTA IRON PILLAR 4th
c.
• Shaft
• Lion abacus ; Bell capital
• Supports a statue of god Vishnu with a halo
• 43’ high
• A...
The pillar, made up of nearly seven tones of 98 per
cent wrought iron of pure quality, is 7.21m (23 feet
8 inches) high, w...
EARLY CHALUKYAN PERIOD-5th
– 8th
c. AD
(550 – 750 AD, 973 – 1190 AD)
The birth of the Chalukyan Dynasty was in the 5th
c. ...
EARLY CHALUKYAN PERIOD-5th
– 8th
c. AD
(550 – 750 AD, 973 – 1190 AD)
MEGUTI TEMPLE HUTCHIMALLI TEMPLERAVANA PHADI CAVE TEM...
RIVER KRISHNA
Lad Khan Temple at Aihole: EARLY CHALUKYAN PERIOD-5th
– 8th
c. AD (550 – 750 AD, 973 –
1190 AD) - LADH KHAN TEMPLE – AIHOL...
•Ladkhan Temple is one of the oldest temples in the complex probably built
in 450 AD.
• It was initially used as a panchay...
Plan – 50’ square
•3 sides walled, two sides of which have perforated stone
grilles
•4th side on east-open pillared porch ...
Ornamentation:
•The holy shrine was introduced at the end for the 
deity.
•Plain square shaft pillars existed
•Bracket cap...
•The Durga Temple is the most unique temple you have ever seen.
• It almost resembles a mini fort. And therefore probably ...
•This is the brahmanical version of the 
Buddhist Chaitya hall adapted to suit the 
service of the former belief.
•The dur...
Gabagriha - ardha-mandpa - sabha-mandapa - mukhamandapa
Papanath temple – Pattadakal
•90’ x 30’ in dimension. The Papanath temple erected before the end of the 17th
 
century rev...
•Temple has on plan a sanctum (garbhagriha ) surrounded by a 
circumambulatory path (pradakshinapatha) 
•With devakoshtha ...
•Dedicated to Lord Vishnu
•Built as the chief temple after the capital was founded
•Later on converted into Shiva’s temple...
•Both the plan and the elevation does not harmonize.
•The interior still bears the influence of rock cut architecture .
•T...
VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE – PATTADAKAL 740 AD
•This temple, in worship, known as ‘Shri Lokeswara- was built by Lokamahadevi, 
the ...
•This temple has on plan a square sanctum (garbhagriha) with a circumambulatory
path (pradakshinapatha), an antarala with ...
•The whole of the interior of this temple is embellished with elegant carvings and
aesthetically modeled sculptures.
•Epis...
Virupaksha Temple
Virupaksha Temple
The Kailash (, Kailasa, Kailasha,
Kailasanatha) temple is the unmatched
structure in the world situated in Ellora.
This is...
The influence of other temple styles cannot be neglected, for, this temple resembles closely with the
Virupaksha temple at...
The most prominent feature of the court is two huge monolithic elephants and pillars on each side. The
pillars, square in ...
images of Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati. This may be the symbolical representation of unison of these three
rivers at Prayag...
•The temple shows traces of Pallava style.
•the Chalukya king Vikramaditya II (r. 733–744 CE) took some Pallava artists ba...
•The rear wall of its excavated courtyard has length of 276 feet (84 m), breadth of 154
feet (47 m) and height of 100 ft (...
•The Nandi mandapa and main Shiva temple are each about 7 metres high, and
built on two storeys.
• The base of the temple ...
Based on Archaeological Survey of India, ASI’s information, stunning Architectural feats.
•The rear wall of its excavated ...
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture
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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE II- UNIT 3

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Evolution of Hindu Temple Architecture

  1. 1. UNIT 3 – EVOLUTION OF HINDU ARCHITECTURE Hindu forms of worship -Evolution of temple form - meaning, symbolism, ritual and social Importance of temple Categories of temple - elements of temple architecture Early shrines of the Gupta and Chalukyan periods Tigawa temple Ladh Khan and Durga temple -Aihole Papanatha, Virupaksha temples -Pattadakal Kailasanatha temple - Ellora
  2. 2. ROCK CUT ARCHITECTURE – BUDDHISM 100 AD – 160 AD
  3. 3. Harappan •Drainage syste •Rectangular intersecting roads •Sanitary system Mauryan •Monolithic Pillars •Finely carved capitols – Bull capitol and Sarnath capitol •Stupas start during this period – 4 gateways •Surface built with bricks •Viharas and Chaityas •Rock Cut Architecture Shunga – Satvahanas · Early classic architecture · Carved railings and gateways around Buddhist shrines Kushan · Sculpture developed · The emperor himself was a divine authority · Buddha was first time given a human form during this time Gupta period · Beginning of Hindu temples – temple at Deoghar, Udaigiri caves in Orissa · Vaishnavite temple in Vidisha
  4. 4. Chalukyas • Blend of Aryan and Dravidian style of architecture Pallavas · Mandaps, Rathas and finely carved panels and pillars · Shore temple at Mahabs is a structural temple · Ratha temple is a rock cut temple · Kanchipuram also has temples. Panels depict shiva as Natraja, History of Pallavas Cholas · Tanjaur Temple: 65 m tall vimana · Pillared halls and sculptures depicting Bharata’s natyashastra · Fine paintings Pandyas · Built high outer walls and gopuram · Their gopurams can be seen from long distances Hoysalas · Belur and Halebeed temples · Profusion of manifold pillars with rich and intricate carvings · Panels depict gods and goddesses Orissa Temples · Lingraja temple 40 m high · Sun Temple
  5. 5. Hindu temples • The temple is a holy site (tirtha), where they practitioners can perform circumambulation (pradaksina). • They also perform the pious act of gazing at the deity (darsan) and offering prayers, flowers and food (puja). • The temple is never a meeting place for a congregation, but it came to be a focal point of the community. • The heart of the temple is the dark hall called garbha grha (womb hall), where the most important icon is placed. It is the most important area. • Pillared halls (mandapa) and porticos were added to the garbha graha, which was surmounted with a tower (sikhara)--center of the universe (axis mundi). • Many varieties: wood, brick, terracotta, and variety of stone (e.g., schist, chlorite, marble) • Temples required to be heavily ornamented (things lacking in ornament were considered imperfect or incomplete. • Motifs: narrative reliefs, animal motifs, floral and vegetation motifs. Brahma-God of Creator Vishnu-God of Preserver (has many incarnations such as Rama and Krishna) Shiva-God of Destroyer (also the protector of animals) Devi-goddess (e.g., Laksmi (“Good Fortune”) and Parvati); symbolizing beauty, benevolent, and wealth as well as power and wrath
  6. 6. 10 scientific reasons behind the rituals in Hinduism according to the ancient texts 1. The Location and Structure of the Temple •Temples are found deliberately at a place where the positive energy - magnetic and electric wave conveyances of north/south post push. •The idol of God is set in the core center of the temple, known as “Garbhagriha” or “Moolasthanam”- place where earth’s magnetic waves are discovered to be most extreme.
  7. 7. BHUTHANADHA TEMPLE, BADAMI TEMPLE , KARNATAKA
  8. 8. •Temples, contains pure vibrations of magnetic and electric fields with positive energy. •the floor at the centre of the temple were good conductors of these positive vibrations allowing them to pass through our feet to the body 2. Removing Your Footwear before Entering Temple
  9. 9. ACTIVATION OF Five Senses Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell •produce a sound, it creates a unity in the Left and Right parts of our brains. •sharp and enduring sound which lasts for minimum of 7 seconds in echo mode. • The duration of echo is good enough to activate all the seven healing centres in our body. 3. Ringing the Temple Bell When You Enter the Temple – Hearing Sense Activated •This results in emptying our brain from all negative thoughts. This bell sound is also absorbed by the idol and vibrated within the Garbhagudi for a certain period of time.
  10. 10. ACTIVATION OF Five Senses Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell •The inner sanctity is usually dark and the immediate seeing of light after praying activates the sight sense. • lighting camphor is for the idol to absorb the heat and vibrate within the Garbhagudi for certain period. 4. Lighting Camphor In Front Of Idol – Sight Sense Activated
  11. 11. ACTIVATION OF Five Senses Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell •hands over the camphor to make your hands warm and then you touch your eyes with your warm hands- touch sense is active. 5. Put Your Hands over the Camphor Flames and Then Touch Eyes – Touch Sense Activated •rose petals, jasmine, marigold based on different factors, amongst them fragrance is most important. •The fragrance of the flower, camphor and instance sticks all together have the strong essence to keep your smell sense active and pleasant giving calmness to the mind. 6. Offering Flowers to God At The Temple – Smell Sense Activated
  12. 12. ACTIVATION OF Five Senses Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell 7. Drinking Theertham – Taste Sense Activated •drink theertham ideally from a silver or a copper vessel. The water used for theertham usually would contain Thulasi leaves dipped in water and must be stored at least for eight hours in the copper vessel. •balance all the three doshas in your body, (vata, kapha and pitta) • By drinking this Thulasi water you activate the taste sense. •The other benefits of drinking Thulasi water from a copper or silver vessel also includes cure for sore throats, Fever etc.
  13. 13. ACTIVATION OF Five Senses Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell 8. Doing Pradakshina around the Garbhagriha/Moolasthanam •walk around the idol inside the Garbhagirha, the inner most chamber of temple in clockwise direction for nine times. •The idol inside the Garbhagriha absorbs all the energy from the bell sound, camphor heat and vibrates the positive energy within the Garbhagriha •absorb all these positive vibrations once your five senses are activated. • This vibration inside the Garbhagriha is considerably less and hence it is advised to visit the temple very often and follow the same rituals again.
  14. 14. ACTIVATION OF Five Senses Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell 9. Applying Tilak/Kumkum Given By the Temple Priest •On the forehead, between the two eyebrows, is a spot that is considered as a major nerve point in human body since ancient times. •The Tilak is believed to prevent the loss of “energy”, the red ‘kumkum’ between the eyebrows - retain energy in the human body and control the various levels of concentration. •Agnya-chakra are automatically pressed. This also facilitates the blood supply to the face muscles.
  15. 15. ACTIVATION OF Five Senses Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, And Smell 10. Why Offer Coconut And Banana To God When You Visit Indian Temples? •Coconut and Banana are the only two fruits in this world which are considered to be “Sacred fruits”. •All other fruits are tainted fruits (partially eaten fruits •In the case of coconut and banana, the shell or the sleeves is not used for anything. •This is the reason why Coconut and Banana has an important place in all religious activities.
  16. 16. •One who is able to withdraw his senses from sense objects, as the tortoise draws its limbs within the shell, is firmly fixed in perfect consciousness. •it is the vahana of Shiva - the god of skies &destruction. Shiva with Nandi is one of the oldest forms of Hindu representation - dating before 3000 BC. •Animal that connects the rural •Symbolise strength, firmness and guardian for the god who is fierce yet a saviour
  17. 17. Vastu-purusa mandala • A myth explains the symbolic diagram (mandala): the gods in seeking to impose order on chaos, forced the primeval man, Purusa, into a square grid, the vastu-purusa mandala, whose basic unit is the square pada • Hindu temple is the dwelling of the gods. It is based on the grid systems of 64 (8x8) and 81 (9x9) squares. • Square is the prefect shape for the ground plan. • Priests perform ritual of consecrations which connect between sexual rites and fertility in Hindu architecture.
  18. 18. Vastu-purusa mandala
  19. 19. SANCTUMMAHAMANDAPAMDWAJASTHAMBARAJAGOPURAM
  20. 20. 1. Garbhagriha 2. Mandapa. 3. Antarala. 4. Mahamandapa. 5. Enclosing wall 6. Pradhikshana path. Artha Mandapa.
  21. 21. •Shikara has the repetition of architectural motifs, converted into an element of decoration. These architectural motifs have much deeper meaning.Symbolically it means to reach or get closer to the GOD •There are two style of temple architecture were followed. •Dravidian style in south •Indo Aryan in north. North Indian Nagara Style South Indian Dravida Style Combined Style 1. In one concept it was the derivation from the peaked or domed huts. 2. Temple developed form stupa-elongated form of the dome. 3. Temple is referred as ratha or car.so the sikhara
  22. 22. Elements of Hindu temple • The sanctuary as whole is known as the • Vimana that consists of two parts. • The upper part of the Vimana is called as the Sikhara • the lower portion inside the Vimana is called as the Garbhagriha (cella or inner chamber).
  23. 23. Elements of Hindu temple ‘Sikhara’ meaning the tower or the spire. • It is the pyramidal or tapering portion of the temple which represents the mythological ‘Meru’ or the highest mountain peak. • The shape and the size of the tower vary from region to region. ‘Garbhagriha’ meaning the womb chamber. • It is nucleus and the innermost chamber of the temple where the image or idol of the deity is placed. • The chamber is mostly square in plan and is entered by a doorway on its eastern side. • The visitors are not allowed inside the
  24. 24. Elements of Hindu temple • Pradakshina patha’ meaning the ambulatory passageway for circumambulation. • It consists of enclosed corridor carried around the outside of garbhagriha. • The devotees walk around the deity in clockwise direction as a worship ritual and symbol of respect to the temple god or goddess. • ‘Mandapa’, is the pillared hall in front of the garbhagriha, for the assembly of the devotees. • It is used by the devotees to sit, pray, chant, meditate and watch the priests performing the rituals.
  25. 25. Elements of Hindu temple • It is also known as ‘Natamandira’ meaning temple hall of dancing, where in olden days ritual of music and dance was performed. • In some of the earlier temples the mandapa was an isolated and separate structure from the sanctuary like in Mahabalipuram • . ‘Antarala’ meaning the vestibule or the intermediate chamber. • It unites the main sanctuary and the pillared hall of the temple. • ‘Ardhamandapa’ meaning the front porch or the main entrance of the temple leading to the mandapa.
  26. 26. CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE •No structural innovativeness •Based on centre of gravity •Mass supporting mass •Repetition • No mortar- dry order •Method of quarrying- •groove drawn •hole driven •wooden peg inserted •on pouring water wood expands •stone breaks free •facing was hammer dressed •offsite fabrication was always carried out •assembling at site after preparation of each block at quarry •To enable this accurate measurements are needed •Sometimes models are prepared initially •Main aim was mass rather than line for a temple
  27. 27. GUPTA PERIOD ARCHITECTURE - 320 – 650 AD 4th BC- 6th BC The Gupta Empire was one of the first people to use stone to build instead of wood. Their architecture was dedicated to building stone temples for the various gods. Their architecture marked the beginning in the creation of stone structures. They built the first free standing structural temples. They made structures called Stupas, this form of architecture made its way to china, where it was altered slightly and renamed the Pagoda. They invented manuals which described how to build the temples. •Sophisticated urban culture, people of prime. Lot of literature, scultpure, texts, art etc •Best knows old poets from this period Kalidas,Kama Sutra came from this period •Establishment of Sanskrit culture, high culture of city elites AND Bhramanical Architecture. Rituals were imbibed in the Temple Architecture. Scientific reasoning was given for all. And were reserved for upper class. Revival of Arya concepts as a new civic culture. •Revival of kingship legitimized but Brahmins as the custodians of order •Projection of Arya/Vedic age as a lost golden age; modernization of old Vedic gods and rituals •Incorporation of Buddha and Buddhist ideas, into the new Hinduism. •The birth of the Hindu temple. •Rise of Shiva and Vishnu, puja introduced.
  28. 28. The Gupta style was influenced by Kusana, Mathura, and Gandhara and borrowed the common features of T-shaped doorways, decorated door jambs, sculpted panels with high-relief figures, and laurel-wreath and acanthus motifs. Constructed using sandstone, granite, and brick, Gupta-era temples added to this architectural heritage with horseshoe gavakshas arches and distinctive curved shikhara towers which are frequently topped with a ribbed disk ornamentation known as an amalaka,t he crown. These elaborate buildings are further decorated with a mass of ornate mouldings and sculptures set in niches. In Gupta architecture, the square was considered the most perfect form and temples were designed to be appreciated from all sides so that each carries decorative architectural features. Most temples also adopt a square plan with the single cubicle garbhagriha in the centre. This is normally entered by a short columned porch set over a single, highly decorated doorway with a projecting lintel. Columns can support a pot-and-foliage capital, and roofs were generally flat, as in surviving examples at Tigawa and Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh. Other typical Gupta decorative features include triangle motifs inside doorways and lion's heads at the ends of stone beams. GUPTA ARCHITECTURE – TEMPLES AND THEIR FEATURES
  29. 29. Evolution of Temple Architecture in India during Gupta Period: During the Gupta period, a firm foundation of temple architecture was laid when  the basic elements of the Indian temple consisting of a square sanctum and pillared porch emerged.                                                                                                                                                                           The evolved Gupta temple also had a covered processional path for circumambulation (Pradakshana Path) that formed a part of the worship-ritual.
  30. 30. Earlier temples of the period had a monolithic flat slab roof. Later temples in brick and stone developed a Shikhara The gradual evolution of the Gupta style is traceable through development of the plan and the ornamentation on the pillars and doorframe. the later introducing new decorative motifs like goblins, couples, flying angels, door-keepers and a figure relief in the centre of the lintel emblematic of the deity consecrated in the temple Sculptures of deities, their consorts, celestial beings, couples, directional deities, composite animals and decorative motifs formed the mass of images that adorned the walls of the temples and their interiors.
  31. 31. The deities consecrated in the sanctum were carved strictly according to religious canons and installed by performing a special consecration ceremony. Temple sculptures were not necessarily religious. Many drew on secular subject matters and decorative motifs. The scenes of everyday life consist of military processions, royal court scenes, musicians, dancers, acrobats and amorous couples. TYPES OF GUPTA ARCHITECTURE: 1. TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE 2. ROCK-CUT TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE
  32. 32. Temple of Bhitargaon: •This temple is the earliest and the most remarkable example of brick building and bears resemblance to the Buddhist temple of Bodhgaya. •The temple at Bhitaragaon stands at the centre of a fairly high plinth. •It is a tower-like edifice, rising in diminishing stages to a height of 70 feet. •The projected porch on the east side is approached by steps. •The outer ornamentation of terracotta sculpture is certainly the most striking feature of the Bhitaragaon temple. •The walls rise in bold moldings, their upper portions being decorated with a row of rectangular panels alternating with ornamental pilasters. •Like many Brahmanical structures, it was not a temple for worshippers but a repository or a shrine for an image. •This is the oldest remaining Hindu shrine with a roof and a high Sikhara in which there is a series of arches
  33. 33. Parvathi Temple at Nachana Kuthara: •This is a west facing temple, contrary to most of other Hindu temples which face east. •The sanctum doorway is surrounded by finely carved guardians with Ganga and Yamuna, river goddesses. •North and south walls are provided with pierced stone windows so that the light can enter the sanctum.
  34. 34. Shiva temple at Bhumara: •It resembles in type and plan to the Bhitaragaon temple. •This shrine consists of a square masonary cella ( garbagriha) of about 35 feet side with a flat slab-roof and a carved doorway having representations of river-goddesses on the jambs and a fine bust of Shiva, with flying figures on the lintel. •Around the garba griha are the scattered remains of a larger chamber which surrounded it, providing a roofed pradaksina patha, and of amandapam attached to and preceding this enclosure. •These remains consist of a great variety of columns which are not monolithic, of richly carved lintels that supported the roofing slabs, of Chaitya-window niches from the cornice. •Some of the gana figures have raksasa faces on their Bellies.
  35. 35. Dasavathara Vishnu Temple at Deogarh: •The most important feature of the temple is Sikhara instead of the conventional flat roof •Another most important feature of this temple is the arrangement of its portico. •In the centre of the over-door slab is a plaque of Vishnu on the great naga •To the right and the left at the top and outside the main zone of the frame are reliefs of the river goddess Ganga and Jamuna. •Dvarpalas or door guardians and female divinities are carved on the overlapping frames of the door.
  36. 36. GUPTA IRON PILLAR 4th c. • Shaft • Lion abacus ; Bell capital • Supports a statue of god Vishnu with a halo • 43’ high • At present it is the iron pillar at Delhi • Erected by Kumaragupta,Original site near Mathura • Erected 415 BC • Later shifted to a mosque site • 23’ 8” high, made of pure malleable iron • 6 tons weight • First it bore the image of Garuda • Moldings on top • Can be divided into three parts o Uppermost- square abacus o Below melon capital o Campani form capital The iron pillar is 7.21 metres tall, with 93 cm buried below the present floor level, and has a diameter of 41 cm
  37. 37. The pillar, made up of nearly seven tones of 98 per cent wrought iron of pure quality, is 7.21m (23 feet 8 inches) high, with 93 cm buried below the present floor level, and has a diameter of 41cm (16 inches) According to the inscription on it, the pillar was erected at its original venue by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–414 C.E.
  38. 38. EARLY CHALUKYAN PERIOD-5th – 8th c. AD (550 – 750 AD, 973 – 1190 AD) The birth of the Chalukyan Dynasty was in the 5th c. with its capitals at Aihole, Badami, Pattadakkal Constituted the center of influence for medieval Indian art The contributions of the Pallavas and Orissa along with Northern influences were absorbed Aihole illustrates 2 distinct variants in the development of dressed stone Hindu architecture LATER CHALUKYAN PERIOD-9th – 12th c. AD •The Pallavas and the Chalukyas were rival dynasties battling the control of south India •There was hence a style that combined Dravidian and Nagara Styles •Hence the Structures of this period have Pallavan influence. Most of the later chalukyan temples were build by Dravidian labourers •The only difference being it is of dressed rather than rock cut
  39. 39. EARLY CHALUKYAN PERIOD-5th – 8th c. AD (550 – 750 AD, 973 – 1190 AD) MEGUTI TEMPLE HUTCHIMALLI TEMPLERAVANA PHADI CAVE TEMPLE •The only dated monument in Aihole, the Meguti Temple was built atop a small hill in 634 AD. •Now partly in ruins, possibly never completed, this temple provides an important evidence of the early development of the Dravidian style of Architecture •HUCHIMALLI TEMPLE- Pronaos (only columns no walls on the sides)was introduced •Finer masonry- stone blocks used •Delicate ornamentation •Fractal method of derivation of vimana
  40. 40. RIVER KRISHNA
  41. 41. Lad Khan Temple at Aihole: EARLY CHALUKYAN PERIOD-5th – 8th c. AD (550 – 750 AD, 973 – 1190 AD) - LADH KHAN TEMPLE – AIHOLE – 450 AD                                                   •Dedicated to Shiva •Temple consists of a shrine (garba griha) with mandapa in front of it •rectangular building with a flat roof of stone slabs •stone-grills on two sides to admit light •The eastern end opens in the pillared porch. The wall is in reality a Pre style of massive  stone posts between which the latticed slabs have been placed like screens. •The main shrine houses a Shiva Linga with a Nandi and outer walls having many carved  images along with floral motifs. •The mukha mandapa situated in front of the sanctum and consists of a set of twelve  carved pillars. •Lad Khan temple is the earliest example of the massive bracket-like capital continued  throughout the Hindu Renaissance period.
  42. 42. •Ladkhan Temple is one of the oldest temples in the complex probably built in 450 AD. • It was initially used as a panchayat hall where Pulakesi I performed horse sacrifices. •Later it was turned into a temple – first Surya Temple and then Shivalaya.  •Since it is early construction, the pillars are relatively carving free.  •The most beautiful part of the temple is the lattice windows with intricate carvings  taking inspiration from northern temples. • The carving could have been a later addition to the temple once the appropriate skills  had developed. •The central square with flat roof houses the Nandi.  •The Nandi is surprisingly completely intact.  •Over the central square there is a broken shikhar which again could be a later addition. • The temple got its name either from a general or a mendicant who lived here.
  43. 43. Plan – 50’ square •3 sides walled, two sides of which have perforated stone grilles •4th side on east-open pillared porch projecting outwards •Entered through a 12 pillared portico in an expansion of  the 9 square plan •Interior consists of a 16 pillared hall like a pillared pavilion •2 square groups of columns, one within the other thus  providing a double aisle. Roofing: •Roofed with huge slabs of stone laid almost flat •Inclined to permit run off •Carried on pillars and corbels in imitation of a wood frame  structure •Stone battens between the roofing stones helped to make it  water tight •Primitive roofing technique which gave way to successive  layers of horizontal corbelling A ENTRY
  44. 44. Ornamentation: •The holy shrine was introduced at the end for the  deity. •Plain square shaft pillars existed •Bracket capital, neck and wave mouldings •Handsome jali whose perforations compose  geometrical motifs and relief structures •Kudu friezes in upper part of the temple base and  around sides of roof – celestial city •On the roof a little square aedicule has the reliefs of  the 3 divinities-Vishnu, Surya, Devi •Roof-Joints-covered all along by another stone •Disproportionate structures •Wasteful materials used unnecessarily
  45. 45. •The Durga Temple is the most unique temple you have ever seen. • It almost resembles a mini fort. And therefore probably it is named Durg or a fortress rather than dedicated to Goddess Durga.  •The sign says that it has apsidal plan but non-apsidal curvilinear shikhar.  •the temple is a delight to look at and is emblematic of Aihole town. • A colonnaded corridor runs around the temple that allows parikrama or  circumambulation.  •The pillars have some great carvings.  •The garbha griha or the sanctum sanctorum is topped with a broken shikhar.  •The temple was built in the 8th century during the times of the later king Vikramaditya  II.  •The exquisite and detailed carving clearly shows that in 2 centuries since they started  temple construction, the Chalukyan Architecture had reached its peak.
  46. 46. •This is the brahmanical version of the  Buddhist Chaitya hall adapted to suit the  service of the former belief. •The durga temple which mostly follows  this model was probably erected during  the sixth century.  •The temple includes mukha  mandapa,sabha mandapa and  garbhagriha. •It has an apsidal ended structure  measuring 60’ by 36’. •It is an improvement over the  Ladhkhan Temple •Derived from the Budhist Chaitya halls-6th Century •The temple derives its name from  Durgadagudi meaning 'temple near the fort'. •Dedicated to Vishnu, 60 ’ 36 ’ 24’ pteroma
  47. 47. Gabagriha - ardha-mandpa - sabha-mandapa - mukhamandapa
  48. 48. Papanath temple – Pattadakal •90’ x 30’ in dimension. The Papanath temple erected before the end of the 17th   century reveals in  •experience in architectural design. •This plan lacks correct placement of the main parts and a logical inter relationship  between them. •The sikhara at the eastern end of the building is too short and under sized  •For the LENGHT, low building and the antrala is too big. •It looks like square assembly hall than a vestibule  more like a mandapa than an  ante chamber to the sanctuary.
  49. 49. •Temple has on plan a sanctum (garbhagriha ) surrounded by a  circumambulatory path (pradakshinapatha)  •With devakoshtha pavilions in its three walls, an ardha-mandpa, a sabha- mandapa and an entrance porch (mukhamandapa) •There is no Nandi-mandapa but an ornate image of Nandi is housed in the  eastern half of the sabha-mandapa. •The temple is built on a plinth of five mouldings, embellished with animal  motifs, floral designs and kudus. • The wall surfaces are relieved with niches (devakoshthas) housing Saiva and  Vaishnava deities and depicting episodes from the Ramayana. • These niches are topped by various designs of chaitya-arch motifs and interspersed with perforated windows. • The amalaka and kalasa are, however, missing.
  50. 50. •Dedicated to Lord Vishnu •Built as the chief temple after the capital was founded •Later on converted into Shiva’s temple •Clearly shows the evolution of the temple •90’ long. Tower on the eastern end- too small and stunted •Illogical arrangement of the plan as evolution of the temple took place.  Uncertainty of positioning the elements. •Antarala or Vestibule is wrongly positioned •Too large, takes the shape of a square court with 4 pillars. •Instead of a connecting chamber it becomes another hall. •Disproportion in plan has created disproportion in elevation.
  51. 51. •Both the plan and the elevation does not harmonize. •The interior still bears the influence of rock cut architecture . •The  string  courses  surrounding  the  building  resemble  strong  braces  holding  the  structure  together. the decoration of the outer surface consisting of repetitions of  elements. •Of bas relief shrines  in a triangular pattern on the canopies, shows little under  standing of architectural ornamentation.
  52. 52. VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE – PATTADAKAL 740 AD •This temple, in worship, known as ‘Shri Lokeswara- was built by Lokamahadevi,  the Queen of Vikaramaditya II in A.D.740 to commemorate her husband’s victory  over the Pallavas of Kanchipuram. • It closely resembles the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram on plan and elevation and represents a fully developed and perfected stage of the Dravidian architecture.
  53. 53. •This temple has on plan a square sanctum (garbhagriha) with a circumambulatory path (pradakshinapatha), an antarala with two small shrines for • with entrance porches •Separate Nandi-mandapa in front. •The complex is enclosed by high prakara walls. •Against the inner faces of these walls there were small shrines (originally 32) dedicated to the subsidiary deities of which only a few are extant now. •The enclosure has been provided with ornate entrance gates ((pratolis) on both east and west. The temple is built on a high plinth of five fully evolved mouldings. • All these projections of the sanctum walls carry niches housing images of Saiva and Vaishnava deities •The superstructure over the sanctum is a Dravida-vimana in three storeys •It is square in plan and repeats in its elevation many elements of the parapet and walls beneath. •It has a beautifully shaped square roof (shikhara) with a round finial kalasa above.
  54. 54. •The whole of the interior of this temple is embellished with elegant carvings and aesthetically modeled sculptures. •Episodes from the Ramayana (e.g. abduction of Sita) Mahabharata (e.g. Bhishma lying in a bed of arrows), Bhagavata (e.g. Krishna lifting the Govardhan mountain) and Kiratarjuniya (e.g. Arjuna receiving the Pasupatastra from Siva) are depicted on the pillars of the sabha- mandapa and the pilasters here have the sculptures of amorous couples and Rati and Manmatha. • Flora, fauna and geometrical patterns adorn various parts of the temple. • Doorjambs (dwara-shakhas) with their delicate carvings, pillars and pilasters with various types of capitals and carvings on their faces • lintels relieved with animals, birds and architectural motifs, ceilings depicting divine beings and the majestically standing dwarapalas - attest to the heights reached by the Chalukyan sculptures. The Nandi-mandapa situated to the east of the temple, is a square pavilion open on all the four sides.
  55. 55. Virupaksha Temple
  56. 56. Virupaksha Temple
  57. 57. The Kailash (, Kailasa, Kailasha, Kailasanatha) temple is the unmatched structure in the world situated in Ellora. This is designed to recall Mount Kailash, the abode of Bhagwan Shiv – stands tall, enclosed within a big man made crater, surrounded by rock. It is world’s oldest single rock carved, multi- storeyed temple complex. West archaeologists were awestruck and compared to notice that it is double the size of Parthenon in Athens. After being closely monitored, several experts also found that initially the temple was entirely covered with white plaster to increasingly resemble the snow covered Mount Kailash. Kailasanatha Temple
  58. 58. The influence of other temple styles cannot be neglected, for, this temple resembles closely with the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakkal, an early Chalukyan temple. Kailasa was excavated under Krishna I (A.D. 756-783) the Rashtrakuta monarch-It was originally known as Krishneswara, after the great king, conceived on a mighty scale, announcing to the entire world, the ingenuity, character and architectural genius.
  59. 59. The most prominent feature of the court is two huge monolithic elephants and pillars on each side. The pillars, square in shape rise to a height of 45 feet and is crowned by a huge trisula. The pillars are decorated with sculptural as well as moulding decorations.
  60. 60. images of Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati. This may be the symbolical representation of unison of these three rivers at Prayaga, the most sacred spot of the Brahmanical faith. A lay worshipper is purified here by offering his prayers at this spot, just before proceeding further into the temple.
  61. 61. •The temple shows traces of Pallava style. •the Chalukya king Vikramaditya II (r. 733–744 CE) took some Pallava artists back to his kingdom after defeating the Pallavas. •The entrance to the temple courtyard features a low gopuram. •Most of the deities at the left of the entrance are Shaivaite(followers of Lord Shiva) while on the right hand side the deities are Vaishnavaites (followers of Lord Vishnu). • A two-storeyed gateway opens to reveal a U-shaped courtyard- 82 m x 46 m at the base. •The courtyard is edged by a columned arcade three stories high. • The arcades are punctuated by huge sculpted panels, and alcoves containing enormous sculptures of a variety of deities. • Originally flying bridges of stone connected these galleries to central temple structures, but these have fallen.
  62. 62. •The rear wall of its excavated courtyard has length of 276 feet (84 m), breadth of 154 feet (47 m) and height of 100 ft (33 m) high. •The temple is built carving a big rock of 164 feet (50 m) deep, 109 feet (33 m) wide, and 98 feet (30 m) high. •Within the courtyard, there is a central shrine dedicated to Shiva, and an image of his mount Nandi(the sacred bull). • The central shrine housing the lingam features a flat-roofed mandapa supported by 16 pillars, and a Dravidian shikhara. •The shrine – complete with pillars, windows, inner and outer rooms, gathering halls, and an enormous stone lingam at its heart – is carved with niches, plasters, windows as well as images of deities, mithunas (erotic male and female figures) and other figures.
  63. 63. •The Nandi mandapa and main Shiva temple are each about 7 metres high, and built on two storeys. • The base of the temple has been carved to suggest that elephants are holding the structure aloft. A rock bridge connects the Nandi Mandapa to the porch of the temple. •There are five detached shrines in the temple premises; three of these are dedicated to the river goddesses: Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati.[1] •There are two Dhwajasthambha (pillars with flagstaff) in the courtyard. A notable sculpture is that of the Ravana attempting to lift Mount Kailasa •The carving was done from top to down digging a single basalt cliff rock. •Work happened only 16 hours a day. • The reflection of sun rays from mirrors were used as there was no electricity in ancient period.
  64. 64. Based on Archaeological Survey of India, ASI’s information, stunning Architectural feats. •The rear wall of its excavated courtyard has length of 276 feet (84 m), breadth of 154 feet (47 m) and height of 100 ft (33 m) high. •The temple is built carving a big rock of 164 feet (50 m) deep, 109 feet (33 m) wide, and 98 feet (30 m) high. •Largest cantilevered rock ceiling in the world. •Located at 99-km from Sambhaji Nagar (aurangabad), Maharashtra. The entire complex of Ajanta encompasses 29 rock-cut rooms. •It is assumed by some experts that the entire complex and temple structure might be created between 200 BC and AD 650 only using rudimentary hand tools. •Four are Chaityas (temples) and Most others are Viharas (living quarters). •The carving was done from top to down digging a single basalt cliff rock. •Work happened only 16 hours a day. The reflection of sun rays from mirrors were used as there was no electricity in ancient period. However, there are so many inner parts of the structure where even sun rays cannot reach even using multi-layered mirror arrangement so delicately carving intricate designs in such places is done using yogic eyes. •During Satyug, average height of people were 32 feet and their lifespan was lakhs of years with wishful death for Yogis. It is highly possible that the major carving of digging deep the entire mountain were done by these pious and strong people.

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