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Projected Aids - AV Aids

Projected Aids- Educational Media, Communication and Educational Technology, B.Sc Nursing

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Projected Aids - AV Aids

  1. 1. Presented by Mrs. Suja Santosh Professor RVS College of Nursing, Sulur, Coimbatore
  2. 2. Projected Visual Aids are pictures shown upon a screen by the use of a certain type of machine
  3. 3. • Provides enjoyment in learning • Stimulates rapid learning • Increases retention • Compels attention • Enlarges /reduces actual size of objects • Bring distant, past & present into classroom
  4. 4. • Small sized transparent pictorial/ diagrammatic slides arranged in a proper sequence for presentation on a large screen.
  5. 5. • Slide is a still transparency of 70mm, 35mm or 60mm size which is optically enlarged & projected on a screen as a real image
  6. 6. • Ideal Size - 2×2 inches • Usually used to present Specific findings of pathological laboratory test, photographs/ pictures of life experiences or pictures of patients with rare clinical presentation
  7. 7. • Photographic slides black & white in colour Colour Ideal Size - 2×2 inches to 3×4 inches • Handmade slides hand made using an acetate sheet, cello phane, etched glass, plain glass or a lumarith (type of plastic glass)
  8. 8. • Marker slides - clean glass piece - draw pictures/diagrams using fine tip marker pen - Hold glass with cardboard/wooden frame
  9. 9. • Etched Glass Slides - clean glass piece - rinse it with kerosene - draw the diagram with crayon glass marking pencil
  10. 10. • Assist lesson & development • Facilitate teacher-student participation • Easy to make
  11. 11. • Time consuming • Seen only with help of slide projector • Expensive materials needed for making
  12. 12. • Used to project slides on a wall/screen • Helps to show magnified images • Coloured slides looks attractive
  13. 13. • Source of light (Projection lamp) • Reflector (Concave mirror) • Condensing lens • Slide carrier • Objective lens
  14. 14. • Attract attention • Arouse interest • Variety of learning information • Easy to transport • Easy to revise & update • Easily handled, stored & rearranged • Can be combined with taped narration or can be controlled for time during a discussion • Used in a group or individual
  15. 15. • Not suitable for all educational material • Transparent slides cannot be put to excessive use • Not to use for longer duration • Preparation requires a lot of predevelopmental work like collecting/taking snapshots of pictures • Requires imaginative and creative skills
  16. 16. • Projects transparencies with brilliant screen images suitable for use in a lighted room • Teacher can write/draw diagrams on transparency while he teaches
  17. 17. • To develop concepts & sequences in a subject matter area • To make marginal notes on transparencies for the teachers use that and carry without exposing • To test student performances while other classmates observe • To show relationships by means of transparent overlays in contrasting colours • To give the illusion of motion in the transparency
  18. 18. • Popular instructional medium. • Simple & easy to prepare • easy to operate with the OHP which is lightweight • A 10×10 inches sheet with printed, written or drawn material is placed on the platform of the projector & large image is projected on the screen • Projector is used from rear to the front of the room with the teacher standing or sitting beside the projector, facing the student
  19. 19. • Writing on cellophane sheets with the help of OHP pen • Coloured pens • Xeroxing from any printed material • besides single transparency can be used on a roll
  20. 20. • 6 lines per transparency • 6 words per line • 6mm smallest letter size • 6cm margin (3+3 on each side)
  21. 21. • One idea on each transparencies • Include relative figures & diagrams • Simple and easy to read • Avoid too much information in a transparency • Use simple letter style in writing • Do not use all capital letters • Do not overcrowd with written content
  22. 22. • Use diagrams in proportion to lettering • Emphasize key message • Use colour to attract attention • Put captions on top • Do not overuse colours in texts of a transparency • Be sure illustrations enhances better understanding
  23. 23. • Aluminium coated board • Glass board • Flat white screen • Screen should be mounted properly & at proper angle
  24. 24. • Place OHP on a stable table • Objective lens of OHP face the screen behind the teacher • Put the cord plug into power socket • Switch on the blower first, then bulb • Place transparency on the glass top
  25. 25. • Move the objective lens & mirror up and down to focus image on screen • Explain materials written on transparency from behind OHP • Don’t cover the screen • Make points short & simple • Remove what is not needed
  26. 26. • Focus & position image before presentation • Keep screen in full view above participants head • Stand to the side of screen • Darken the room appropriately • Turn off projector when not in use • Talk to audience, not to screen • Switch off the bulb of OHP when not in use to save electricity, but fan must keep running to keep the OHP cool • Do not move the OHP while in use, it may increase of losing the lamp
  27. 27. • Teacher can face the class • Maintain eye contact & observe reactions of students • Gain student’s attention • Can be used in day light • Graphics & writings can shown clearly & colourfully • Economical method • Can be used repeatedly • Easily available • Easy to operate & handle
  28. 28. • Electricity required • Requires careful handling, as OHP bulb was very sensitive to power fluctuations & jerking movements • Transparency preparation is time consuming and Requires good handwriting abilities
  29. 29. Present images/printed matter/ small opaque objects on screen eg: Book pages, Coins, Object, Postcards or any other flat material which is non transparency
  30. 30. A device which displays opaque materials by shining a bright lamp onto the object A system of mirrors, prisms & imaging lens is used to focus an image of the material on screen
  31. 31. • Works on the principle of horizontal straight line projection with a lamp; plane mirror placed at 45 degree angle over the projector reflects the light so that it passes through the projection lens forming a magnified image on the screen • Large size projector requires a darkroom with a fixed place because it is not easy to move due to its heavy weight & size
  32. 32. • Handled carefully • Protected from breakage • Kept clean • Keep away from moisture • Preferably kept in a cool room • Switched off when not in use
  33. 33. • Stimulates attention • Arouses interest • Flat specimens like stamp, coin, leaves, etc can be projected • Used for enlarging drawings, pictures & maps • Does not require any written or typed materials, handwritten materials can be used • Used for large group • Better Retention • Used to review topic • Used to test knowledge & ability • Convenient to use
  34. 34. • Costly equipment • Requires careful handling • Electricity required • Very large and heavy object • Cannot be moved easily • Needs a dark room for projection
  35. 35. • Continuous strip of film consisting of individual frames or pictures arranged in a sequence usually with a specific title. • A sequence of transparent still pictures with individual frames on a 35mm / 8mm film • Tape recorder narration can be synchronized with a film strip • Each strip contain between 12 and 18 or more pictures
  36. 36. • present a process in a logical consistency & continuity with still pictures; whole filmstrip makes a complete presentation • Used to stimulate emotions • Build attitudes & point out problems • Along with still pictures, verbal/audiotape explanation to demonstrate common nursing procedures such as bed bath, back care, crutch walking, intravenous cannulation, Nasogastric tube insertion
  37. 37. • Discussion film strips continuous strip of film consisting of individual frames arranged in a sequence usually with explanatory titles • Sound slide film Instead of explanatory titles or spoken discussion, the recorded explanation is audible and is synchronized with the pictures
  38. 38. • select the filmstrip carefully to meet the needs of the topic to be taught • Preview before actual presentation • a rapport must be established between filmstrip & discussion topic • Specific details & important points must be focused using a pointer • A part of the film strip may be shown again if the content needs to be stressed on or needs more specific study
  39. 39. • Compact, convenient to handle & carry • Can be easily stored • Can be supplemented with a recorded audiotape or verbal explanation • Provides a logical sequence in teaching • Economical visual material • Useful for group /individual study
  40. 40. • Preparing the slides is a difficult job & requires a lot of effort • Need a dark room • Require electricity • Sequence cannot be changed • If the filmstrip is not supplemented with an audiotape, the verbal explanation needed
  41. 41. Video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat surfaces.
  42. 42. LCD –Liquid Crystal Display, technology used to project images
  43. 43. • Invented by the New York inventor, Gene Dolgoff in 1984 • Used in meetings, training sessions, classroom education, visual entertainment etc • Appeal to all sensory organs & impact is always greater than simple speech
  44. 44. Based on size and portability, LCD Projectors classified as • Ultralight portable projector • Conference room projectors • Fixed installation projectors
  45. 45. 1. Projection surface Projecting Surface should be neutral colour & best suited for natural colour tones
  46. 46. 2. Setting up the system • Place Projector 5-15 feet away from the projection screen • Place projector permanently on fixed ceiling/ on stable surface • Computer/laptop cable should be connected at the back of the LCD projector on a video port • The power cable of projector should be connected to 3-way electrical port • Lens cap of projector should be removed
  47. 47. 2. Setting up the system • Projector should be switched on by pressing the power button on the top of projector which will lead to a flash of light followed by the projection of image • Computer/laptop should be ON • Click the option of computer to display content on the projection screen • Using focus of projector clear the content projected on the screen
  48. 48. Projection must be adjusted by manipulating the projector by moving front or back
  49. 49. 3. Shutting down the projector • Press the Power button; a message may appear to check whether to turn off the projector. Again press the power button , projector will turn off • Before unplug the projector from electrical port, wait for 2 minutes to off the projector fan • Also ensure the flashing light is off before the projector unplug
  50. 50. 4. Warning lights • Addition to power button light, 2 additional warning light buttons, which are lamp warning light and temperature warning light • Blinking of lamp warning light notifies the need of the lamp to be changed • Blinking of orange colour temperature status light notifies the need to change the air filter and the red colour temperature status light notifies the increased temperature of the projector & need to turn off the lamp & allow the running fan to cool the warm lamp
  51. 51. 5. Additional Audio & video devices • Projector has other additional ports to connect VCR, DVD and cameras which can further improve the utility of the LCD projector in education
  52. 52. • Use horizontal/landscape format for slides • Limit the information of each slide to a single topic/idea • Use action words & short phrases than sentences • Pictures, drawings & illustrations make presentation interesting • Keep Slides simple & clear without overburden • Keep slides with relevant pictures • Maintain consistency in use of colour • Avoid use of multiple colours & graphics
  53. 53. • Use dark coloured text on light background or Vice versa • Use white or yellow text on black background • Use bullets instead of numbers is always good • Use numbers to show sequence /rank of content • Do not overcrowd the slide with text • Use 6×6 rule that is 6 lines of text & 6 words per line
  54. 54. • Ensure text on slide is readable • Minimum 36 points for slide title & 24 points for body text • Style of written test – Arial font • Use Upper & lower case text, more legible (avoid all Caps) • Use contrasting colours to highlight specific points • Significant points present in bold, italic & large size font
  55. 55. • Do not use multiple animation & transition effects on single slide (minimum 1 0r 2) • Try developing pleasing & clear visuals • Limit the no of slides to the number of minutes the presenter has in hand
  56. 56. Visually attractive Arose interest Slide show & video are clubbed together & customized in single presentation Easy to carry out back & front movement of slides for reviewing & recapitalizing
  57. 57. • Expensive gadget • Need technical skill of computer & power point presentation & using LCD projector • Can’t use in power failure/technological failure at the time of presentation
  58. 58. • Widely used medium for sharing & disseminating information between large groups Combination of audio & visual technology
  59. 59. • Telecommunication medium for transmitting & receiving moving images that can be monochrome (black * white) or coloured with accompanying sound
  60. 60. • Interactive /passive • Use to display prerecorded program to supplement additional learning • Used for teaching social, cultural, political, religious affairs • Used for behavioural modification through showing specific therapeutic programmes • Educational entertainment
  61. 61. • Arouse interest • Cost effective • Easily available • Uniformity in learning • Provide real experience • large proportion of population may cover • Multiple sensory stimulating media • quicker & long lasting impression • brings permanent change in behaviour • Reinforce knowledge by repeated watching • Mass educational media
  62. 62. • One way process (doubts cannot be clarified) • Not student centric approach • Customized school schedule according to telecast schedule • Students who have no access of TV in home, remain deprived of the educational programmes
  63. 63. • Electromechanical educational medium which constitute an electronic machine, prerecorded video cassettes & TV screen for display
  64. 64. • Develop motor, intellectual, cognitive & interpersonal & affective skills • Brings visual & auditory stimulus • Leads to permanent memory impact & learning • Simple classroom content delivery to Facilitate distance education
  65. 65. • Easy to access & use for educational purpose • multiple use & repetition of same content several times • Used in day light • Recording & playing needs no skill& technique • Combine motion pictures & tape recorder
  66. 66. • Older playback equipment • Power supply is mandatory • Recorded content cannot be edited in basic equipments • Good quality video recording is a time-consuming & difficult task
  67. 67. • Electromechanical device capable of recording and storing still or movable images
  68. 68. • Making presentations more illustrative by adding images • Real clinical practice images where obtained and projected with the help of LCD/ film projectors/slide projectors • Rarer clinical issues of patient images can be obtained, used to educate others
  69. 69. • Assist students in special education & autistic application • Help to obtain micro and macro view of objects • Recording student progress • Analyse physical education activities through photography • Record sequence of events • Encourage effort through immediate recognition of achievement
  70. 70. • Capture advanced nursing procedures • Capture images at various time periods to study about the process (eg: bedsore wound healing) • Used to capture rare surgical procedure for presentation/publication
  71. 71. • Electronic amplification system made up of tape recorder, amplifier and loud speaker to distribute the sound to a large group eg: loud speaker
  72. 72. • Used in auditoriums/ examination halls
  73. 73. • Small public address system 50-200 watts of power used in small venue • Large public address system Used in large venue used for making announcements during emergencies to evacuate occupants from buildings
  74. 74. • Instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eyes
  75. 75. • Used for teaching anatomy, physiology, microbiology, pathology etc • Used in diagnostic labs to carry tests ranging from the simple blood test to complex histo- pathological or genetic test
  76. 76. • Used to show live slides of disease diagnostic tests • Used to collaborate theory & practical • Produce & develop findings • Used for visualization of objects or living things such as tissue samples, micro objects, which cannot be seen by naked eyes
  77. 77. • Transmission Electron microscope
  78. 78. • Scanning electron microscope
  79. 79. • Scanning Probe microscope
  80. 80. • A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetical or logical operations
  81. 81. • More effective learning aid • Facilitate Active learning • Improving the recall ability • Innovative instructional stimuli • Enhance interactive learning • Used in distance education • Helps in computer assisted learning • Helps to update knowledge through online resources
  82. 82. • Help to work fast & accurate • Reliable • Save time • Help in doing repetitive work • Ideas can understand quickly & easy in presentation • Using scanner / camera images or photographs can transfer to computer • Used for voice recognition • Store huge amount of information (include text, sound, videos, pictures, films etc) • Takes very little space • Portable (lap top, notebook) • Highly interactive & enable communication from one place to another • User friendly & easy to operate
  83. 83. • Expensive tool in educational setting • Health & safety is crucial to the effective operation of computer • Associated with physical problems such as musculoskeletal problems, eye strain , electromagnetic radiation risk etc