4. A) Account of Fa-hien
• Fa-hein was a Chinese pilgrim who visted India during
Chandrgupta II era. He stayed in India for 13 years.
• He visited and observed many places like Mathura, Kannauj,
Kapilavastu, Kushinagar, Vaishali, Pataliputra, Kashi etc.
• According to him:
a) Magadha was a prosperous country with large towns and
b) Pataliputra was a developed city
c) Though people has wealth, they lived simple lives and
d) Images of Hindu Gods were seen on coins, sculptures etc.
e) Punishments were mild and were in the form of fines.
5. B) Work of Kalidasa
• Kalidasa: Greatest poet and playwright, India
has ever produced.
• His work includes:
• He spoke about Love, Nature, Beauty and it
also gave information about Government and
Society seen in Gupta period.
8. A) Allahabad Pillar inscription
• The inscriptions of Allahabad Pillar are called as
• It praises Samudragupta: one of the most strongest
• It was composed by poet named Harishena in Sanskrit.
• It describes the kingdom.
• Samudragupta first defeated Northern rulers and then
headed for defeating Southern rulers. He allowed the
southern rulers to rule but took tributes from them.
• Many tribes surrendered their kingdoms to
• After these victories he performed Ashvamedha Yajna
and issued gold coins depicting sacrificial horse.
• It also describes that Samudragupta loved Music.
There were some coins seen where he is shown playing
11. B) Deogarh Vishnu Temple
• Deogarh is famous for its Vishnu Temple also called as
• Deogarh is about 125kms from Jhansi, UP. It was constructed
in 6th century.
• It is one of the earliest Hindu temples.
• It was made of stone and bricks.
• Entrance has paintings, decoration, images from Ramayana,
Lord Krishna etc.
• It also shows Hanuman carrying a hill containing the herbs
that cured Laxmana who was wounded by the son of Ravana
• Vishnu (Sheshashayi) is shown asleep on a coil of the giant
serpent called as Sheshnaga.
• It had a huge Shikhara (tower)
12. C) Nalanda University
• It was most renowned university of ancient India.
• Nalanda is located in Bihar.
• Hiuen Tsang also had mentioned about the grandness of
• It has many buildings enclosed by walls.
• There were 3 huge libraries and provided all facilities free to
• Students from various parts of India and others countries like
China, Japan, Tibet etc. studied here.
• Subjects taught included: Medicine, Yoga, Mathematics,
Science. Astronomy etc.
• Admission procedure was very tough.
• It was destroyed by Muslim ruler: Khilji
• Today it is in ruined state.
13. Reign of Gupta Period
• Samudragupta was the son of Chandragupta-I.
• Allahabad Pillar Inscriptions describes him well.
• He too expanded Gupta empire.
• He is also known as ‘Napoleon of India’ due to his
• He won many wars and was a powerful ruler.
• He first defeated Northern rulers like Mathura, Padmavati,
Ahicchetra (Bareilly), Western UP & Eastern India.
• He made 12 South Indian rulers like Odhisha, Andhra &
Tamil accept his power . He allowed them to rule and in
return got tributes from these Kings.
• Many rulers of Bengal, Assam, Nepal, MP and Rajasthan
surrender to Samudragupta.
• Many neighbouring rulers offered their daughters to marry
• He was a good administrator, musician, poet and scholar.
He was also known as Kaviraja. He respected all religions.
16. Chandragupta-II Vikramaditya
• Vikramaditya was son of Samudragupta.
• He inherited the military power from his father and
extended the Gupta empire.
• He defeated Sakas of Gujarat & Kathiawar hence was also
called as Sakari- i.e. Conqueror of Sakas. For this he
married a Naga princess named Kubernaga. And gave the
hand of his daughter to the Vakataka prince named
Rudrasena-II. These alliance had strengthened his
position against Sakas.
• With this victory he got a sea entry for trade with Europe.
• Fa-hien has described about Vikramaditya and his fine
administrative skills in detail.
• Also, an inscription on an Iron Pillar near Qutub Minar,
Delhi describes his victories in Bengal & Afghanistan.
• Even he loved art & literature.
• He issued gold coins.
17. Developments in the field of Science
•Aryabhatta was a great astronomer and
• He has written two books: Aryabhattiya &
• Aryabhattiya: deals with Algebra,
Geometry, Arithmetic & Trigonometry.
• Surya Siddhanta: explains scientifically
the causes of solar and lunar eclipses.
18. • He explained the value of p (pi) 3.1416
• He discovered a formula to find the area
of a triangle.
• He was the first Indian astronomer to
declare that earth is spherical in shape
and proved that earth revolves around
the sun and rotates around its own axis.
• After this great astronomer’s name
India’s first satellite- ARYABHATTA
was sent into space.
19. Gupta Administration
• Rajan title was dropped and titles like
Maharajadhiraja, Parambhattaraka and
Paramadaivata (level of God).
• Allahabad Inscription refers Samudragupta as
‘God Dwelling on Earth.’
• King were believed to have powers of Lord Vishnu
(protector & preserver). Goddess Laxmi was seen
20. Gupta Administration
B) Ministers and Other Officers
• King was helped by ministers and other imperial
• Mantri- was the head of civil administration
• Senapati- General/Head of army.
• Chief of palace Guards
• Sandhivigrahika- minister of foreign affairs
• Chief Censor – examined secret reports
21. Gupta Administration
C) Provincial Administration
• Kingdom was dived into Bhuktis or Desas.
• Governors were the heads of these provinces.
• Governors were usually princes of royal blood.
• As governors the princes were called as Uparika
Maharaja or Pradeshikas.
22. Gupta Administration
D) District Administration
• Bhuktis was further divided into disctricts called
• Vishayapatis or Ayuktas were the heads of these
• Prathamkayashta- wrote letters and documents
• Pusthapal- keeper of records
• Nagarshresthi- Chief Banker
23. Gupta Administration
E) Municipal Administration
• Municipal Board had four members:
1. Nagarasresthi (Guild President)
2. Sarthavaha (Chief Merchant)
3. Prathamakulika (Chief Artisan)
4. Prathamakayastha (Chief Scribe- who wrote
letters and documents)
24. Gupta Administration
F) Local/Village Administration
• Gramika were the heads of villages.
• He kept the control of law and peace
• No land transactions and other affairs weren’t
done without their consent.
25. Gupta Administration
Administration of Law & Justice.
• The cases were divided into two types:
a) Civil (cases related to property)
b) Criminal Affairs (cases related to theft, assault)
• There were three levels of courts:
a) Provincial level
b) District level
c) Village/Local level
• Final decision related to justice was with the King
• Governors of Provinces were given freedom to
take many decisions.