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Algae classification

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Algae classification

  1. 1. Dr. P. Suganya Assistant Professor Department of Biotechnology Sri Kaliswari College (Autonomous) Sivakasi ALGAE CLASSIFICATION
  2. 2.  Linnaeus in 1753 was first to introduced the term algae (Latin- seaweeds) meaning, the Hepaticeae.  The algae (singular: alga) many of which are are unicellular.  Algae are ubiquitous, most of algae lives in aquatic environment but many also thrive a terrestrial and a subterranean alga.  Algae contains chlorophyll and are photosynthetic.  algae are of great general interest to all biologist because single algal cells are complete organism capable of photosynthesis and the synthesis of a multitude of other compounds which constitutes the cell.  The branch that deals with the study of algae are known as as phycology.  Algae chlorophyll bearing thalloid. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3.  Algae are present everywhere in distribution.  They occur in great abundance in oceans, seas, ponds, fresh water, steams and Salt Lake.  Many are found in soil of dam, rocks, stones, and bark of tree and on other animals and plants surface.  Small aquatic forms make a large of the free floating microscopic life in water, called plankton.  Phytoplankton is made up of plants i.e. algal forms.  Zooplankton is composed of animal organisms.  Some Species of algae grow on the snow and ice of polar region and mountain peaks.  Some, algae grow in hot springes at temperature has high as 55°C.  Some are Endophytice. They are not free living but live in other organisms such algae are widespread in protozoa, molluscus, sponges and corals. OCCURRENCE
  4. 4.  Morphology  Algae have a wide range of size and shapes.  Algae that occur as unicellular and they are spherical, rod-shaped, club-shaped, or spindle shaped.  Many are multicellular and have understandable form, shape and various complexity.  Algal cells are eukaryotic.  In most of the algal species cell wall is very rigid and thin.  Cell wall of diatoms are contain silica which makes them thick and rigid.  The motile algae have flexible cell membrane called Periplasts. eg. Spirulina.  Algae contains a discrete nucleus.  Chlorophyll and other pigments are found in membrane bound organelles known as Chloroplast.  Within the plastid matrix or stroma are found flattened membranes vesicles called Thylakoid. CHARACTERISTICS
  5. 5.  Algal pigments There are three kinds of photosynthetic pigments are present in algae:  chlorophyll  carotenoid  biloproteins or phycobilins
  6. 6. Chlorophyll  There are five chlorophylls: A, B, C, D and  Chlorophyll A is present in all algae.  Chlorophyll B – Euglenophycophyta, Cholorophycophyta.  Chlorophyll C– Xanthophycophyta, Bacillariophycophyta, Chrysophycophyta, Cryptophycophyta.  Chlorophyll D – Rhodophycophyta  Chlorophyll E – Xanthophycophyta.
  7. 7. Carotenoids  There are two kinds of carotenoids:  Carotenes – linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon.  Xanthophyll – oxygenated derivatives.  Biloproteins or phycobilins  It is water soluble pigments.  Present in Rhodophycophyta.  Two types of phycobilins – Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin
  8. 8.  The are three main groups of algae being:  Green algae  Red algae  Brown algae.  They are classified on the basis of following characteristics:  Primary photosynthetic pigments.  Storage product.  Cell wall composition.  Type and location of flagella. CLASSIFICATION OF ALAGE
  9. 9.  Habitat – Freshwater, Marine and terrestrial.  Photosynthetic pigments- Chlorophyll A and B carotenoid.  Cell wall components- Cellulose.  Storage food- Starch (stored inside the plastids).  Flagella- Two flagella per cell.  Asexual reproduction- reproduce vegetatively by fermentation or by formation of mitospores.  Sexual reproduction- reproduction is of Isogamous, Anisogamous, Oogamous.  Example- Chlamydomonas, Volvox, ulothrix, chara, ulva (sea lettuce). Example- Chlamydomonas, Volvox, ulothrix, chara, ulva (sea lettuce). GREEN ALGAE – CHLOROPHYCEAE
  10. 10.  Habitat- Marine and freshwater.  Photosynthetic pigment- Chlorophyll A and D, carotenoids and phycobilins. Commonly called red alage because of presence of red pigment – phycoerythrin.  Cell wall components- Cellulose  Stored food- Floridian starch (alpha -1,4 glucon) stored in cytosol.  Flagella- Absent.  Asexual reproduction- By fragmentation or by non-motile mitospores.  Sexual reproduction- Oogamous and gametes are non- motile.  Example – Polysiphoria, Gracilaria and Gelidium. RED ALGAE – RHODOPHYCEAE
  11. 11.  Habitat- marine and freshwater.  Photosynthetic pigment- chlorophyll A and C, carotenoids and phycobilins.  Shades of brown depends on xanthophyll pigment, fucoxanthin, present.  Cell wall components- cellulose and alginic acid.  Cellulose is covered by a gelatinous coating of Algin.  Stored food- Laminarin, mannitol  Flagella- 2, unequal, lateral.  Asexual reproduction- by fragmentation or by motile zoospores.  Sexual reproduction- is isogamous, anisogamous, Oogamous.  Example – Ectocarpus, Laminaria, fucus. BROWN ALGAE – PHAEOPHYCEAE
  12. 12.  Algae as primary producers- algae provides the base or beginning of most aquatic animals or organisms because of their photosynthetic activities so it is also known as primary producers of organic matter.  Commercial products from algae- many products are derived from algal cell wall for economic value. Three of these are: Agar Alginic Acid, and Carrageenan, are produced from the walls of algae.  Carrageenan is produced from the walls of several red algae. Species of Chondrus, Gigartina are mostly used.  Agar is well known as a solidifying agent in the preparation of microbiological media. It is obtained from red algae. Species of Gelidium and Gracilaria are extensively used.  Alginic acid and its salts are obtained from the wall for brown algae. Species of brown algae producing this compound include- Macrocystis, Laminaria, Fucus.  Algae as food- many species of algae are (mostly red and brown algae) are used as food in the far east.  Red algae one of the most important is Porphyra: it is used as food in Japan where it is called  Other red algae such as Chondrus, Nemalion are locally collected and prepared. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF ALGAE
  13. 13.  https://www.biologydiscussion.com/algae/algae-definition- characteristics-and-structure-with diagram/46727 REFERENCES

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