2. • Though the terms government, political system and political regime
are used interchangeably yet there are differences.
• Government refers to institutional process through which
and usually binding decisions are made and implemented.
• The core functions of government are law making (legislation), law
implementation (execution) and law interpretation (adjudication)
which are performed by its three organs namely legislature,
executive and judiciary.
• A political regime or political system, however, is to be analysed in a
broader perspective in the sense that they encompass not only the
organs of the government and that political institutions of the state,
but also the structures, processes and values through which these
interact with the civil society.
• Regime- entire political economic system. regimes can be changed
only by military intervention from without, or by some kind of
revolutionary upheaval from within.
• It follows that different political regimes have tended to prioritise
different sets of criteria. Among the parametres, most commonly
used to classify the nature of political regimes, are the following:
• Who rules?: Does the process of political participation involve
only elite, or does it involve the people as a whole?
• How is compliance achieved?: Is the political regime obeyed as a
result of the use of coercion, or through consensus, bargaining
• Is the political power of the regime centralised or fragmented? :
What kind of mechanisms are needed to ensure separation of
powers and checks and balances exist within the political regime’?
• How is government power acquired and transferred?: Is regime
open and competitive, or is it monolithic or closed?
• What is the relationship between the state and the individual?:
• what is the nature of distribution of rights and responsibilities
between government and the citizens?
4. • What is the nature of political economy?: Is the political
economy geared to the market or to State's regulation and
• Within what limits and scope the political regime operates?:
Whether it is a limited or unlimited Government and what is the
proper extent of democratic rule?
• How stable is a political regime? Has a particular regime
survived over a considerable period of time, and it shown the
capacity to respond to new demands and challenges
5. PURPOSE OF THE CLASSIFICATION
• The process of classification of political regimes serves three
• First, classification of a political regime is an enabling exercise as
far as the understanding of politics and government is concerned.
• Second, the process of classification facilitates a meaningful
evaluation of a particular political regime which leads to a better
• Third, apart from involving the normative issues, the process
helps in tackling the questions at the concrete level like which
type of political system is better than other?
6. • Government in its broadest sense represents any mechanism
through which ordered rule is maintained, its central feature
being its ability to make collective decisions and implement
• A political regime, or system, however, involve not only the
mechanisms of government and institutions and instructions of
the state, but also the structures and processes through which
these interact with the society.
• Classification of political regimes enable us in the
understanding and evaluation of politics and government.
• It also helps us in analysing the problems of a particular regime.
• The inter-war period saw the alteration in the nature of
classifying the regimes.
• Broadly speaking, two kinds of regimes, democratic and
authoritarian can be universally accepted
7. • Democratic regimes have undergone a process of evolution
beginning with the Greek city States to the modern nation-states
• Post Second World War period saw the emergence of 'three
worlds' classification of political regimes.
• The first world liberal capitalist, 'Second World' communist and
'Third World' 'new' democratic regimes were found to have
material and ideological differences.
• the developed states, the democratic regimes are polyarchal in
the sense that they operate through institution and political
processes of modern representative democracy which force the
rulers to take into account the interests, aspirations and rights
of the citizens.
8. • In the developing states of Asia. Africa and Latin America, the
democratic regimes have been under considerable constraints
due to ethnic diversities and socio-economic backwardness.
Role of religion like Confucianism and lslam has provided a
uniqueness to the political regimes of some developing states.
• Authoritarian regimes are anti-democratic in the sense that
such regimes limit democracy, liberty and law. Such regimes
insist on unqualified obedience, conformity and coercion.
• Authoritarianism can be distinguished from totalitarian in the
sense that the former does not seek to obliterate the distinction
between the state and civil society.
• Authoritarian regimes during the post-second World War
period, whether in the developinig or developed countries, have
bee11 primarily established with either the covert or overt role of
9. Democratic Political System-
• a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible
eligible members of a state, typically through elected
• Abraham Lincoln defined Democracy as the government of the
people, by the people and for the people.
• Some of the characteristics may be identified in a brief manner as
as given below:
• 1. Regular and periodic elections: Democracy gives room for
for periodic elections so as to elect new leaders.
• 2. Fundamental human rights: Democracy guarantees and
respects the human right as stated in the constitution.
10. Party system: Democracy allows different political party system
compete for power during election.
Freedom of the press: Under democratic system of
all the media houses are free to express their opinions and
feelings through writing or any means.
Rule of law: there is equality before the law; no one is above the
law under democratic system of government.
11. • These democratic regimes represent political institutions and
practices which include universal suffrage.
• Elections of representatives for a specified period makes them
directly responsible to people.
• These regimes also provide equal opportunities to the citizens to
compete for public office.
• The political parties and the political leaders enjoy the rights to
compete publicly for support.
• Free and fair elections are the basis of the formation of
• A competitive party system is supplemented by the pressure
12. • These pressure groups influence the conduct of the government
by mobilising the people.
• The democratic regimes reflect a high level of tolerance of
opposition that is sufficient to check the arbitrary inclination of
• The existence of alternative sources of information
independent of the control of the government and of one
another is helpful in this regard.
• Institutionally guaranteed and protected civil and political
rights are further strengthened by the presence of the new social
• It all results into a vigorous and democratically conscious civil
13. • The democratic regimes accept the presence of political
cleavages due to diversity in the civil society.
• As such political conflicts are seen as an inevitable aspect of
• Political thought and practice, enshrined in these democratic
regimes accept conflict as a normal and not aberrant’ feature.
• Modern democratic regimes are distinguished by the existence,
legality and legitimacy of a variety of autonomous organisations
and associations which are relatively independent in relation to
government and to one another.
• These democratic regimes derive their underpinnigs from the
western liberal individualistic tradition of political thought thus
besides guaranteeing the individual rights they also support free
competitive market society.
• The cultural and ideological orientation of these regimes
likewise is also derived from western liberalism.
14. • The 'majority’ democratic regimes are organised along
parliamentary lines in accordance with the Westminster model.
• Such democratic regimes are to be found in United Kingdom,
New Zealand, Australia, Canada and Israel.
• Some of the significant features these regimes share are
majority party government, a lack of separation of powers
between the executive and the legislature, a simple plurality or
first past the post electoral system, unitary or quasi-federal
government, legislative supremacy, etc.
• The pluralist democratic regimes based on the US model
represent the separation of power and checks and balance.
• The provisions of the Constitution allow institutional
15. • The states like Netherlands, Belgium, Austria and Switzerland
which are divided by deep religious, ideological, regional,
linguistic and cultural diversities have adopted such regimes
which are also called the consociational democratic regimes.
• These regimes promote the value of bargainining and power
sharing which call ensure consensus. The colnmon features
these regimes share are coallition Government.
• a separation of power between the legislature and executive, an
effective bicameral system, a multiparty system, Proportional
representation. federalism or devolution of political power, a
Bill of rights, etc
16. Direct Democracy
• A form of Democracy where the citizens themselves form a part of the
• The citizen directly participate in the decision-making for formulating
17. Indirect Democracy (Representative)
• A representative form of government in which the citizens elect
• These representatives are empowered by the vote of the citizens to
to make decision on their behalf
• It is suitable for large scale and modern democracies of today.
• E.g.- India, USA, UK
Features- Periodic, free and fair election
• Freedom to form and join political parties of ones own choice.
• Universal Adult Suffrage
• Rule of law
• Independent judiciary
• A form of government with an elected head of the State having a
• It is based on the Idea that sovereignty rests with the people and
not in some individual.
• E.g.- India, US, PRC etc.
• A form of government with emperor or empress usually hereditary
• Power is usually inherited or passed down from family members.
19. Advantages of Democracy:
1. It protects the interest of citizens.
• representatives who are elected by the citizens are expected
discharge there duties towards public interest. Because they are
responsible to the public. They have to face public opinion during
2. It prevents monopoly of authority.
• Due to the fact that the government is bound by an election term
term where parties compete to regain authority, democracy
prevents monopoly of the ruling authority.
• And, the elected ruling party would make sure their policies will
work for the people, as they will not be able to remain in power
after their term with bad records—they will not be re-elected.
20. 3. It promotes equality
• Generally, democracy is based on the rule of equality, which means that
that all people are equal as far as the law is concerned.
• Every person has the right to experience and enjoy equal political,
social and economic rights, and the state is not allowed to discriminate
21. • 5. It brings a feeling of obligation towards the citizens.
The ruling authorities owe their success to elections by the
citizens, so they would feel grateful to and socially responsible for
for them. This can serve as their motivating factor to work for the
the citizens, for they have the right of choosing their government.
• 6. It imparts political education to the people.
One argument in favor of democracy is that it can serve as a
training school for citizens—they are driven to take part in state
• During elections, political parties propose their programs and
policies in support of their candidates through public meetings,
demonstrations, television, radio, posters and speeches by their
leaders to win public favor.
• All of these can impart political consciousness among the people.
22. 8. It allows a little chance of revolution.
• Since this system is based upon public will, there will be little to
no chance of public revolt.
• Elected representatives conduct state affairs with public support,
23. List of Disadvantages of Democracy
• 1. It might allow misuse of public funds and time.
Democratic governments can lead to wasted time and resources,
considering that it takes a huge amount of time on formulating
laws and requires a lot of money to be spent during elections.
• It is also highly possible that the country will be ruled by
incompetent and irresponsible leaders who will just spend public
public funds for their own tours and recreation.
• 2. It instigates corruption.
Those who are elected to power might resort to unethical means
for personal interests and engage in corrupt practices.
• During their tenure in office, they might take advantage of
authority for personal gains, putting the interests of the masses at
at the backseat.
24. • 3. It risks the wrong choice of public servants.
Truth be told, not all individuals under a democratic government
government are aware of the political and social circumstances in
in their country.
• In a voting system, majority wins, and there is no distinction
between the votes cast by the literate and the illiterate.
• People may favor a candidate based on other factors other than
pure and required capability. Caste, class, religion.
• Taking these things into consideration, the elected official may
not always be the perfect person for the seat, leading to erroneous
25. • 4. It allows not exercising the right to vote.
Sadly, in some democratic countries, people fail to exercise their
right to vote. Perhaps, they are reluctant to do it or are just less
aware about the impact of their votes. Or, perhaps they do not see
see it as a privilege and take the process less seriously.
• 5. It may put more emphasis on quantity, rather than quality.
Another disadvantage of democracy is in terms of providing
services—it tends to put more emphasis on quantity, rather than
• Also, considering that the system might be governed by
irresponsible and incompetent leaders, equality might be in
question for only the rich and famous might be prioritized more
than the poor.
26. • 6. It can take long to make decisions.
Because it takes long to make decisions, it will also take long to
• Unlike in a monarchy/authoritarian where one person is making
making decisions that are implemented quickly, democracy
requires majority voting in implementation, thus it is relatively
less prompt in taking actions.
• 7. It may involve immoral practices during elections.
To lure the masses, election campaigns might involve immoral
practices, where candidates would use muscle power to draw the
the majority of votes, even trying to tarnish their opponents’
• Money and power may be abused to influence the people to
disregard opposing parties.
28. Authoritarian Regime
legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority. An authority
viewed as legitimate often has the right and justification to exercise
Authority is foundational right to exercise power
• Democratic and Authoritative regimes may be distinguished both in
terms of their objectives as well as means to achieve them.
• Authoritarian regimes decide what is good for individuals. Without
• The ruling elite impose their values on society irrespective of its
• Authoritarian refers to a form of government which insists on
unqualified obedience, conformity and coercion. It is in essence
negation of democracy.
• When power is based on consent, respected willingly, and recognised
by wider masses, it is legitimate and binding. This is called authority.
29. • Authority involves legitimate exercise of power, and in that
sense it arises 'from below’.
• Democratic regimes upold this type of authority and are
• However, when a regime exercises authority regardless of
popular consent and with the help of force, it can be called
• As such authoritarianism is a belief in, or practice 'of,
government 'from above’
• The practice of government 'from above' is also associated with
the monarchial absolutism, traditional dictatorships, most
single party regimes, and most forms of military regimes.
• They all are authoritarian in the sense that they are concerned
with the repression of opposition and political liberty.
30. Features of Authoritarian Regimes
• The following, according to Amos Perlmutter, are some of the
important characteristics of the authoritarian regimes.
• 1) The military is highly significant and influential in such states.
• 2) The level of popular participation is very low.
• 3) Rights especially political rights are either non-existent or
• 4) There is normally absence of any ideology to mobilise the
• 5) While trying to subordinate societal and interest groups,
authoritarian regimes do not undertake restructuring of the
31. The Characteristics of Authoritarian Regimes
• In the authoritarian regimes the techniques of decision by public
public discussion and voting are largely or wholly displaced by the
• The authoritarian regimes exercise sufficient power to dispense
with any constitutional limitations.
• Those in power in an authoritarian regime claim to derive their
authority not necessarily and always from the consent of the
governed but from some special quality that they claim to possess.
• Based on force, authoritarian regimes are likely to use violence
against the citizens who do not receive any importance in the
• Power is controlled, change of government or even of leaders, is
33. • Such changes take place either by means of coup (a sudden,
violent, and illegal seizure of power from a government.
Overthrow, Takeover) d'état or as a result of revolutions.
• Coup has been a normal feature as far as the authoritarian
regimes, in Africa are concerned.
• Authoritarian regimes are likely to employ force also in their
relations with other countries.
• Since institutions of such regimes are not based on the
participation of the people, and are not accountable to people,
the moderating influence of public opinion is not effective.
• As such the authoritarian regimes do not help the cause of
34. Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by
strong central power and limited political freedoms.
• Under an authoritarian regime, individual freedoms are
subordinate to the state, and there is no constitutional
• Authoritarian regimes can be autocratic, with power concentrated
concentrated in one person, or can be a committee, with power
shared among officials and government institutions.
• Authoritarian regimes are distinguished from the totalitarian
Totalitarianism is an extreme version of authoritarianism.
• Authoritarianism primarily differs from totalitarianism in that
social and economic institutions exist that are not under
35. • Totalitarian regimes depict modern dictatorship in terms of a model
government by complete centralization and uniform regimentation
of all aspects of political, social and intellectual life and in these
respects transcending by far the earlier manifestations of absolute or
autocratic or despotic or tyrannical regimes and their capacity to
control and mobilise the masses.
• In this sense totalitarianism is truly a phenomen of twentieth
• The term has been applied to the three radical dictatorial regimes of
the inter-war period:
• The totalitarian regimes can be classified as the communist
totalitarian regimes like erstwhile communist china, Soviet
and other Eastern European countries and the Balkans (except
Greece), Cuba, Vietnam, Mongolia, Ethiopia, Angola and
Mozambique, Nicaragua, etc.
• and the non-communist totalitarian regimes like Nazi
Germany and Fascist Italy, Baathist Iraq,
36. • It follows that though totalitarian regimes are authoritarian - all
authoritarian regimes are not necessarily totalitarian.
• No doubt the authoritarian regimes are concerned with the
repression of opposition and political liberty.
• However, unlike the totalitarian regimes, these regimes do not
aim to achieve far more radical goal of obliterating the
distinction between the state and civil society.
• Authoritarian regimes tend to tolerate a significant range of
economic, religious and other freedoms.
38. • Totalitarian and authoritarian regimes share many common
• In both authoritarian and totalitarian regimes political power is
concentrated and the command structure is not subject to the
limitations and rules of responsibility that we find in democratic
regimes, the political leadership manipulates and controls
consent, very little or no attention is paid to the individual
rights—usage of various methods to subordinate and control
interests and interests association, utilisation of force (police
and other paramilitary force) to ensure the control of public
39. • Despite the above similarities some differences should also be
understood between the totalitarian and authoritarian regimes.
• Firstly, in totalitarian regimes the leadership develops new
institutions to bring societal forces under their control like
economy, the family, churches, universities and schools, and
other cultural associations.
• In authoritarian regimes, though controls and restrictions are
also imposed, they hardly attempt to reshape and restructure
the society and the individual actors.
40. • Secondly, the totalitarian governments tend to be highly
ideological in the goals they set forth, while authoritarian regimes
regimes do not develop the same all-encompassing official
• With the use of ideology and the party, the totalitarian regime
strives to organise consent and to develop a broad consensus.
• A positive communication network is built with people at large.
• Authoritative states do not attempt to build a consensus.
• The emphasis is laid on obedience.
41. • Absolute Monarchy: is that form of government where the
government has full powers to rule over the country without being
being bound by any laws above his own authority and with no
• Saudi Arabia
42. • military regimes
• A military dictatorship, also known as a military junta, is a
dictatorship wherein the military exerts complete or substantial
control over political authority, and a dictator is often a high
ranked military officer.
• A military dictatorship is different from civilian dictatorship for a
a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the
institutions through which they organize their rule and the ways
in which they leave power.
• Often viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or
myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its
position as "neutral" arbiters on the basis of their membership
within the armed forces.
• For example, many juntas adopt titles such as "Committee of
National Restoration", or "National Liberation Committee".
• Military leaders often rule as a junta, selecting one of themselves
43. • These military regimes have been mostly under the control of a regime
comprising of the officers of the three wings of armed forces like in
Argentina during 1978- 1983 or in present day Myanmar. Sudan
• However, there are other forms of regimes where a military backed
personalised dictatorship is established.
• In such cases a single individual acquires pre-eminence within the regime,
often being bolstered by a cult of personality drawing on charismatic
• The military regimes headed by Colonel Papadopoulas in Greece, General
Pinochet in Chile, General Abacha in Nigeria, General Zia-UI-Haq in
Pakistan, Ft. Lt. Jerry Rawlings in Ghana, Sergeant Samuel Doe in Liberia
are among the pertinent examples.
• Still other forms of such regime is one where the civil regime survives
primarily due to the backing of armed forces.
• In such cases military often prefers to rule behind the scenes and exercise
power covertly through a civilianised leadership.
• Zaire under Mobutu, in the sixties can be cited as an example and
• so is the case of Egypt which experienced transition from military regimes
to authoritarian civil rule under Nasser arid Anwar Sadat, both military
figures, in the 1960's and 1970's
44. • Especially in the developing countries military intervention
takes place in special circumstances like breakdown of political
process, counter-revolution, military aid, breakdown in
• Military rule can be either direct or indirect through military
control, arbitration and veto.
• Indirect military control ranging from arbitration to army veto
is prevalent in some pseudo-democratic countries where despite
the constitution, regular elections, democratic power structures,
and other democratic processes, the military dictator controls
and influences the decision-making process.
• In this category of political regimes can be mentioned countries
like Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Uruguay, Guatemala,
• Dictatorship are always authoritarian.
• It is a form of government where an absolutist or autocratic ruler
ruler assumes sole power. It may be in times of emergency or
• Often dictatorship may result from seizure of power in a coup
through means of arms.
• But sometimes a person getting to the top through the ladder of
democratic elections may also turn a dictator.
• Dictatorship erodes all constitutional restrains.
• It is generally a government where the leader holds an
extraordinary amount of personal power, especially the power to
to make laws without effective check by an elected legislative
47. • In modern time dictatorship is associated with brutality and
• Association between the dictator and military is very common,
as many dictators assume through military coups.
• Eg.- Augusto Pinochet of Chile,
• Fidel Castro of Cuba, Idi Amin of Uganda, Pol Pot of Columbia.
48. Single-Party Authoritarian Regime
• Single party authoritarian regimes is a in which one political party
party has the right to form the government, usually based on the
• All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a
limited and controlled participation in elections.
• In such regimes the single political party is the only one of the
organisations the regime establishes or allows in order to
maintain its rule and gain supports.
• Single parties are just support agencies to the government.
• They provide only limited channels of popular participation; they
they are manipulated by the power-holders to provide a
countervailing force against other groups or potential centres of
power; after a period of flow, usually associated with a mobilising
49. • Single party authoritarian regimes whether military or civilian
exist in Syria, Iraq (before the US military attack leading to
Gulf War II in April 2003), Tunisia, Tanzania, Egypt, Kenya and
Mexico, where there is a rule of dominant party.
• Such regimes have failed to institutionalise themselves in
contrast to single parties in totalitarian regimes
51. List of the Advantages of Authoritarian Government
It has the capacity to produce consistent results nationwide.
• Authoritarian leaders work hard to create solutions that benefit
everyone in their working group because any success that happens
happens is credited to them.
• There are no leadership voids that take place because this leader
can move the government structures to where they need to be.
• The directions that are given by the person in charge can then be
be implemented to create measurable results over time.
• An authoritarian government can thrive when it has the chance to
to provide task assignments, create certain deadlines, and provide
52. It saves time during the decision-making process.
• Authoritarian governments work from a centralized system where
where there is one person or a legislative group responsible for the
the decisions that get made.
• Because there are fewer steps involved in the process of creating
laws or distributing resources, there are faster movement and
implementation of ideas available using this structure.
• These leaders do not need to consult with other people to make
their decisions, which is exceptionally useful in moments when
emergency situations arise.
53. Dictatorship establishes a strong and stable government.
• As there is no opposition, no criticism, all energies are directed to
to the achievement of the arms of the state, which can be
achieved very quickly.
• The reason is that dictatorship does not believe in consultation
discussion or debates.
• Since the leaded or ruling party has absolute powers, they can take
take quick and prompt actions.
• They adopt such policy, which to them appears to be most
• Besides, such people are appointed to do the jobs as are efficient
and competent. In this way aims of the state are achieved in short
short possible time.
• We have the example of the USSR and Germany.
54. It works to reduce economic equality throughout society.
In an authoritarian government, the only households which tend
tend to see their wealth grow from their employment or actions
are those who hold high-level government positions.
• Many governments using this structure will work to restrict the
net worth for most parties even when private ownership exists.
• That outcome occurs because the goal is to make sure that all
parties receives similar access to everything they need in life.
Instead of experiencing the growing inequality of the top 1% of
income earners as you do in the United States today, you would
see consistent levels of taxation and opportunity at all levels,
progressing higher based on income.
55. It stops the threat of a business obtaining a monopoly.
• The goal of an authoritarian government is to create a public,
• It is not unusual for this structure to work with a mixed economy
economy to ensure that there are still private ownership
• What you will see with this advantage is the imposition of pricing
pricing restrictions on specific commodities and services.
• Instead of declaring that specific goods and services be sold at a
dictated price, this government structure allows subsidies to
reduce the cost to consumers while providing an income resource
resource for producers.
• Since taxpayers help to fund these programs, the costs are simply
simply directed through different budget lines to create results.
56. It provides an increase in productivity.
Authoritarian governments can help to push manufacturing and
agricultural activities to new levels thanks to this unique
It works to create a clear process for everyone to follow from the
centralized mechanisms of the governing process.
• Leaders can provide specific rules that quickly filter to their
subordinates, declaring how to complete specific tasks according
according to the internal best practices developed.
• Then the government requires through legislation that all parties
parties follow these rules under the threat of fines or worse, which
which then boosts productivity until the fear of reprisal wears off.
57. List of the Disadvantages of Authoritarian Government
• Authoritarian governments want to stay in power indefinitely, and
and they can use any means in order to maintain their purpose.
58. Authoritarian governments invite rebellion in society.
• This dictatorial style creates rebellion when it comes from the
government because there is little that the general population can
can do to stop the changes from happening.
• It is not unusual for the legislation passed by this centralized
government structure to tell people how to live, what to think, and
and how to work.
• An authoritarian government can then decide that any failures in
in the implementation of policy are the fault of the average
person, holding everyone else responsible for the outcomes
• This form of governing is quick to take credit when things go
great, but it is fast to shift the blame if something goes wrong.
59. Authoritarian governments often rule emotionally instead
• There is a time and place for emotion in government, just as there
there is a need to be logical with decision-making skills as well.
• Humans are almost incapable of making any decision without the
the presence of emotion.
• The problem with an authoritarian government is that there are
high levels of insecurity put on display by the leadership core.
• When the leadership of an authoritarian government starts
making decisions based on their gut instinct instead of the facts
which are around them, then it becomes easier to initiate
unwanted conflicts with others.
• If those circumstances are allowed to fester, this disadvantage
could eventually lead to war.
60. Authoritarian governments can impair societal morale.
• The average person tends to work more productively and with
higher quality when they understand that their contributions
make a positive impact.
• An authoritarian government can be a beneficial resource to have
have if the efforts of the leadership communicate the importance
importance of what a person does to earn a living.
• If the opposite occurs, then it can cause the rest of society to turn
turn against that person.
Authoritarian governments often rule without feedback.
When there is a significant decision to be made in a community,
most governments rely on a system of public feedback to
determine if the choice is one worth making.
• Authoritarians don’t like to receive feedback, nor do they want to
to offer it.
61. Authoritarian governments rely on the experience of their
The authoritarian government is highly dependent upon the
knowledge and expertise of its leader or group to make things happen
happen on a nationwide scale.
• This means the leader(s) are indispensable to the future that those in
charge want to provide for the rest of society.
• If something should happen to that individual or group which changes
changes their access levels in the government, then it will not function
function as efficiently as it would otherwise.
• It is very easy for an authoritarian government to develop tunnel vision
vision when a country begins to fall behind the standards that the rest
rest of the world can achieve.
• If there is not enough experience in the hands of the leader to offset
that issue, then society can see a steep decline in their way of life
because they are listening to their leadership instead of the global data
62. Authoritarian governments try to create equality in
For a society to be truly equal, each person must have the same
opportunity to achieve success by having a starting point that is
the same as every other individual.
• When an authoritarian government attempts to create more
equality, it will typically favor the groups who support their
presence before any other.
• If you find yourself in a minority demographic, then your rights
might be sacrificed for the “good of the many.”
• Even though the purpose might have good intentions here at
times, one cannot be defined as successful if they treat others as