2. Learning is a change in behavior as a
result of experience or practice. It is
acquisition of knowledge or skill in
something through study, teaching,
instruction or experiences. It is a process
by which behavior is changed shaped or
controlled. Learning is both a process
and product the process of learning is a
never ending process.
3. The duration of change is long term rather
than short term.
The locus of the change is the content and
structure of knowledge in memory or the
The cause of the change is the learners
experience in the environment rather than
fatigue , motivation, drugs ,physical
condition or physiological intervention
4. The complete learning cycle includes active
testing, concrete experiences, reflective
observation and abstract hypothesis. It is the
process in which an individual or group uses,
adapts and reproduces structure or appropriate
A process that consists of several mental
process it results in changed behavior . this is
the activities carried out by students to achieve
educational objectives. They are carried out by
individuals also in social or cultural context.
5. i)perception(the way we take in information).
ii)Processing(how we deal with information).
This two axis divide the cycle into four
Converging: Process relate to bringing a
number of perspective to Finding a single
answer-usually right or wrong
Diverging: Process are about generating a
number of accounts of different experiences
(This is the creative/acting process)
6. Assimilating: Process describes (roughly)the
taking in of new knowledge
Accomodity: Process describes
(again/roughly)the related of the new knowledge
to our prior experiences and beliefs
Example:- Some people best perceive
information using concrete experiences and
emotions like feeling, touching, hearing and
seeing while others best perceive information
abstractly(using mental or visual
7. Enquiry based learning is a form of active
learning that starts by posing questions,
problems of scenarios .It is contrasts with
traditional education.It relies on the teacher
presenting facts and his knowledge about the
subject,Inquiry based learning is often assisted
by a facilitator rather than a lecturer. Inquiries
will identify and research issues and question
to develop knowledge or solution. It includes
problem based learning .The inquiry based
instruction is principally very closely related to
the development and practice of thinking and
problem solving skills.
8. CONFIRMATION INQUIRY
The task will be given to the students where the results are already
known by the students. This method is great to reinforce concepts taught
and to introduce students into learning to follow procedures, collect and
record data correctly to confirm and deepen understanding.
The teacher provides the initial growth questions and an outline of the
procedure, students are to formulate explanations of their finding
through evaluating and analyzing the data that they collect.
The teacher provides the guidance .The students are responsible for
designing and following their own procedures to test that questions and
then communicate their results and finding.
Students formulate their own findings and follow through with a
developed procedure and communicate their findings and results . this
type of inquiry is often seen on scientific fair contexts where students
drive their own investigative questions
An important aspect of inquiry based learning is the use of learning as
evidence suggest that only utilizing lower level inquiry.It is not enough to
develop critical and scientific thinking to full potential open learning has
no prescribed target or result that people have to achieve.
9. Inquiry science is simply instruction that inquiry subject matter in simply
instruction, students to follow but inquiry is not limited to these, it is not
just about solving problems but to develop skills also.
Some educators believe that there is only one true method of inquiry,
which would be described as open inquiry, open inquiry may be the most
authentic form of inquiry but there are many skills and conceptual
understandings can be synthesize to develop for higher level of thinking
Inquiry learning requires a lot of time ,effort and expertise.
It develops high order thinking skills according to blooms taxonomy the
ability to analyze and evaluate information
Teachers should be encouraged for divergent thinking and allowing
students the freedom to ask their own qualities and to learn the effective
strategies for discovering the answers.
Scaffolding students is also benefitted on inquiry learning.
Inquiry based learning can be done in many ways.
Individual and group projects.
10. Teacher works as a facilitator on IBL.
Place the need and ideas of the student in
Do not wait for the perfect question, pose
multiple ended open choice questions.
Work towards common goal of understanding
Encourage students to demonstrate learning.
It should be cautioned that inquiry based
learning takes a lot of planning before
11. Brain based learning/education is an engagement of strategies
based on principles derived from an understanding of the brain.
It is the comprehensive approach to instruction based on how
current research in neuroscience suggest our brain learns
naturally. This theory is based on what we currently know about
the actual structure and function of the human brain at varying
stages of development.
This type of education provides a biologically driven framework
for teaching and learning and helps explain recurring learning
It is a meta concept that includes an techniques, currently these
techniques stress allowing teachers to connect learning to
students real life experiences and situations.
Brain based learning is also the application of a meaningful group
of principles that represents our understanding of how our brain
works on the context of education
12. Creating questions of their own.
Obtaining supporting evidence to answer the questions.
Explaining the evidence collected.
Connecting the explanation to the knowledge obtained
from the investigative process.
Creating an argument and justification for the explanation.
So it involves (developing questions, making
observations, doing research to find out what information
already recorder, developing methods for experimentation,
developing instruments for data collection , collecting,
analyzing and interpreting data, out lining possible
explanation and creating predictions for future study.
13. Brain based learning also encompasses
such educational concepts
Co operative learning
Problem based learning
14. The brain perceives whole and part simultaneously.
The brain is a parallel processor which can perform activities at once.
Information is stored in multiple areas of the brain and is retrieved
through multiple memory and neural pathway.
Learning engages the whole body, all learning is mind body
movements,food attention cycles, chemicals module learning.
Human’s search for meaning is innate.
Search for meaning comes from patterning.
Emotions are critical to patterning and drive out attention ,meaning and
Meaning is more important than information.
Learning involves focused attention and peripheral perception.
The brain is social , it develops better in concert with other brains.
Complex learning is enhanced by challenging and inhibited by stress.
Every brain is uniquely organized.
Learning is developmental.
15. Need of rich stimulating environment.
Develop social interactions, co-operation and social skills.
Indoor and outdoor activities should be linked.
Displays in the classroom should be changed regularly to
stimulate the brain development.
Provide multiple resources. The goal of the facility is multiple
Active and passive places should be provided for students to
develop their interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence.
Flexibility is a principle that has been recognized long before
A personal space of learners like lockers, desk or home base is
provided to allow him/her to express his/her unique identity.
Optimizing learning through different media