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Agile Methods 101 Bar Camp 2007

Overview of the agile methods. Ths presentation addresses the questions - what is an agile method, and when should you use one. Presented at the Agile BarCamp, Wellington, New Zealand 7 December 2007

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Agile Methods 101 Bar Camp 2007

  1. 1. Agile Methods 101 Diane Strode
  2. 2. Primary source <ul><li>The agile methods : an analytical comparison of five agile methods and an investigation of their target environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Master of Information Sciences (Information Systems) Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand </li></ul><ul><li>Available: http://adt.caul.edu.au/ </li></ul>
  3. 3. Proposed Agile Method First Published Journal Article Book 1 Dynamic Systems Development Method DSDM 1995 1997 2 Crystal methods Crystal 1998 2002 3 RUP (configured) dX 1998 4 Extreme Programming XP 1999 2000 5 Adaptive Software Development ASD 2000 6 Scrum Scrum 1999 2002 7 Pragmatic Programming PP 2000 8 Internet Speed Development ISD 1999 9 Agile Modeling AM 2002 10 Feature Driven Development FDD 2002 11 Open Source Software Development OSS 2002 12 Lean Development LD 2002 2003
  4. 4. Purpose <ul><li>DSDM - a framework for RAD development </li></ul><ul><li>Scrum – a method for project management of iterative development </li></ul><ul><li>XP – a method for software development in high change environments using small teams and standard software engineering techniques to satisfy customer needs and maintain effective teams </li></ul><ul><li>ASD - a framework for managing software development projects that are under intense time pressure and have rapidly changing requirements. Based on complex adaptive systems theory. Uses RAD techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal methods - for designing a methodology to suit a specific project </li></ul>
  5. 5. DSDM, XP, Scrum, ASD, Crystal Methods – common factors <ul><li>Published between 1995 – 2002 in the USA and UK </li></ul><ul><li>Methods address business problems and provide technical solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Practitioner based </li></ul><ul><li>Project manager and developer perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental development </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative development with 1 month iterations optimal </li></ul><ul><li>Projects undergoing constant change </li></ul>
  6. 6. DSDM, XP, Scrum, ASD, Crystal Methods – common factors <ul><li>Active user involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork and empowered teams </li></ul><ul><li>Communication between all stakeholders is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Small teams of 3-10 programmers is optimal </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent meetings, daily is optimal </li></ul><ul><li>Working software is the main product of development </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling techniques are not mandated </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise documentation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Agile Method Combinations <ul><li>Proposed by others </li></ul><ul><li>XP and Scrum </li></ul><ul><li>XP and Crystal methods </li></ul><ul><li>XP and ASD </li></ul><ul><li>XP and RUP </li></ul><ul><li>XP and DSDM </li></ul><ul><li>RUP and Scrum </li></ul>
  8. 8. Agile Method Combinations <ul><li>Proposed from my research </li></ul><ul><li>DSDM – a framework – use with techniques from any other agile method (XP or Scrum) </li></ul><ul><li>XP and Scrum – XP provides software development techniques/Scrum provides management practices </li></ul><ul><li>XP and Crystal - XP acts as the base method which is tailored for each project using Crystal principles </li></ul><ul><li>Scrum, ASD and Crystal can use any software engineering techniques as long as those techniques achieve the goals of the methodology </li></ul>
  9. 9. When should you use an agile method? <ul><li>Research study </li></ul><ul><li>Nine projects, different organisations, different types of organisation, questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Calculated agile method usage </li></ul><ul><li>Looked at correlation between agile method usage and factors in the development environment </li></ul>
  10. 10. Factors investigated <ul><li>Organisation factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social interaction is trustful, collaborative, competent… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet application domains … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>automated testing, object-oriented technology… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time pressure, requirements stability… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRACK customers, experienced developers… </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Target environment for agile methods <ul><li>  Statistically significant correlation between usage and factor for the following factors (about 32 factors were investigated) </li></ul><ul><li>1. The organisation values feedback and learning. Social interaction in the organisation is trustful, collaborative, and competent </li></ul><ul><li>2. The organisation values teamwork, is flexible and participative, and encourages social interaction. The project manager acts as a facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>3. The organisation enables empowerment of people </li></ul><ul><li>4. The management style is that of leadership and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>5. The organisation is results oriented </li></ul><ul><li>6. Leadership in the organisation is entrepreneurial, innovative, and risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>7. The organisation is based on loyalty and mutual trust and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>8. Projects undergoing constant change  </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Is this generalisable, or cause and effect? </li></ul><ul><li>- No – </li></ul><ul><li>sample too small, as usual, further studies needed! </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that you may have fewer problems using an agile method if these factors are present in your organisation or project </li></ul>